Monday, August 27, 2018

Judges 19

This strange story so like Sodom, is more horrible in awkward English than I expected. What is the הזק stem doing here? The man was resolute / encouraged / resolved ? with his courtesan?

Behold the woman.

One does not compare religions by abstraction or theoretical model. One looks at the appalling record of humanity held up in our faces as an example of what not to do.

The reminder in verse 1 that there was no king perhaps puts this story into the pro-monarchic camp. Both camps are well represented in Scripture. Is the writer of Judges indicating that without a monarch, there is no example for the people to follow? Is the anti-monarchic writer indicating that with a monarch, the example is uniformly a bad one. The next chapter we read a few months ago. The comment about 'there being no king' in chapter 21 closes the story.

Aside: Why courtesan rather than concubine? Good question. I don't know when I made this decision. (I did not turn on full change logging in my database. Too much overhead for a single PC.) And it turns out that I have only used concubine once! in Qohelet 2:8. And I wonder if I should eliminate it here since the word is שׁד breast. JB has here chest on chest of it. NIV has harem with a note that the meaning of the Hebrew is uncertain. (Not sure I believe in this meaning thing.)

I think people hope no one really reads this text. I can't see where JB got this phrase from unless it was just embarrassing to them so they invented a euphemism. NIV is probably not right. Breast and breasts is the literal rendering. Courtesan is my gloss for a relatively common stem, פלגשׁ. I could stay within my rules and change it to concubine, a perfectly acceptable word with a well-defined family relationship, a woman taken to produce children with a different legal status than a wife (i.e. not a harem).

My first shot at this phrase was choir and orchestra. Just look at the comment I made in my data at the time: May 6, 2010. "No one agrees on  שִׁדָּה וְשִׁדּוֹת so I chose my own phrase of what I take as delight. Last night's Shostakovich was proof - the first slow movement from the piano quintet."  KJV has musical instruments, and that of all sorts. Music has a fuller relationship to the word of God than these meanderings might allow.

Maybe I should use concubine and courtesan depending on the cultural background of the book. Tribal vs court life?

Judges 19 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְהִי֙ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔ם וּמֶ֖לֶךְ אֵ֣ין בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיְהִ֣י ׀ אִ֣ישׁ לֵוִ֗י גָּ֚ר בְּיַרְכְּתֵ֣י הַר־אֶפְרַ֔יִם וַיִּֽקַּֽח־לוֹ֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה פִילֶ֔גֶשׁ מִבֵּ֥ית לֶ֖חֶם יְהוּדָֽה
1 And it happened in those days, (and there was no king in Israel),
that there was a man, a Levite, residing by the flanks of mount Ephraim, and he took for himself a wife, a courtesan from Bethlehem of Judah.
3e 4C 15
וַתִּזְנֶ֤ה עָלָיו֙ פִּֽילַגְשׁ֔וֹ וַתֵּ֤לֶךְ מֵֽאִתּוֹ֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֔יהָ אֶל־בֵּ֥ית לֶ֖חֶם יְהוּדָ֑ה
וַתְּהִי־שָׁ֕ם יָמִ֖ים אַרְבָּעָ֥ה חֳדָשִֽׁים
2 And his courtesan played the harlot on him, and she went from him to the house of her father, to Bethlehem of Judah.
And she was there for days, four months.
3e 4C 26
וַיָּ֨קָם אִישָׁ֜הּ וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ אַחֲרֶ֗יהָ לְדַבֵּ֤ר עַל־לִבָּהּ֙ לַהֲשִׁיבָ֔הּ וְנַעֲר֥וֹ עִמּ֖וֹ וְצֶ֣מֶד חֲמֹרִ֑ים
וַתְּבִיאֵ֙הוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֔יהָ וַיִּרְאֵ֙הוּ֙ אֲבִ֣י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֔ה וַיִּשְׂמַ֖ח לִקְרָאתֽוֹ
3 And her man arose, and he went after her to speak to her heart, to restore her. And his lad with him, with a pair of asses.
And she had him come to the house of her father, and the father of the lass saw him and he was glad to encounter him.
3e 4C 34
וַיֶּחֱזַק־בּ֤וֹ חֹֽתְנוֹ֙ אֲבִ֣י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֔ה וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב אִתּ֖וֹ שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֑ים
וַיֹּאכְלוּ֙ וַיִּשְׁתּ֔וּ וַיָּלִ֖ינוּ שָֽׁם
4 And his father-in-law encouraged him, the father of the lass, and he settled with him three days,
and they ate and they imbibed and they lodged there.
3e 4C 23
וַֽיְהִי֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הָרְבִיעִ֔י וַיַּשְׁכִּ֥ימוּ בַבֹּ֖קֶר וַיָּ֣קָם לָלֶ֑כֶת
וַיֹּאמֶר֩ אֲבִ֨י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֜ה אֶל־חֲתָנ֗וֹ סְעָ֧ד לִבְּךָ֛ פַּת־לֶ֖חֶם וְאַחַ֥ר תֵּלֵֽכוּ
5 And it was on the fourth day and they rose early in the morning, and he arose to go.
But the father of the lass said to his son-in-law, Find sustenance for your heart, a fragment of bread, and afterwards you will go.
3c 4B 20
וַיֵּשְׁב֗וּ וַיֹּאכְל֧וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֛ם יַחְדָּ֖ו וַיִּשְׁתּ֑וּ
וַיֹּ֜אמֶר אֲבִ֤י הַֽנַּעֲרָה֙ אֶל־הָאִ֔ישׁ הֽוֹאֶל־נָ֥א וְלִ֖ין וְיִטַ֥ב לִבֶּֽךָ
6 And they sat and they ate, the two of them as one, and they imbibed.
And the father of the lass said to the man, Be humoured, if you will, and stick around. And let your heart be merry.
3c 4C 14
וַיָּ֥קָם הָאִ֖ישׁ לָלֶ֑כֶת
וַיִּפְצַר־בּוֹ֙ חֹתְנ֔וֹ וַיָּ֖שָׁב וַיָּ֥לֶן שָֽׁם
7 And the man arose to go,
and his father-in-law urged him, and he turned and lodged there.
3e 4A 8
וַיַּשְׁכֵּ֨ם בַּבֹּ֜קֶר בַּיּ֣וֹם הַחֲמִישִׁי֮ לָלֶכֶת֒ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ אֲבִ֣י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֗ה סְעָד־נָא֙ לְבָ֣בְךָ֔ וְהִֽתְמַהְמְה֖וּ עַד־נְט֣וֹת הַיּ֑וֹם
וַיֹּאכְל֖וּ שְׁנֵיהֶֽם
8 And he rose up early in the morning on the fifth day to go, but the father of the lass said, Find sustenance, if you will, for your heart, and they lingered until the day declined,
and they ate, the two of them.
3e 4B 40
וַיָּ֤קָם הָאִישׁ֙ לָלֶ֔כֶת ה֥וּא וּפִילַגְשׁ֖וֹ וְנַעֲר֑וֹ
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֣וֹ חֹתְנ֣וֹ אֲבִ֣י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֡ה הִנֵּ֣ה נָא֩ רָפָ֨ה הַיּ֜וֹם לַעֲרֹ֗ב לִֽינוּ־נָ֞א הִנֵּ֨ה חֲנ֤וֹת הַיּוֹם֙ לִ֥ין פֹּה֙ וְיִיטַ֣ב לְבָבֶ֔ךָ וְהִשְׁכַּמְתֶּ֤ם מָחָר֙ לְדַרְכְּכֶ֔ם וְהָלַכְתָּ֖ לְאֹהָלֶֽךָ
9 And the man arose to go, he and his courtesan, and his lad.
And his father-in-law said to him, the father of the lass, Behold, if you will, day slackens to the evening. Lodge, if you will. Behold, the day hovers. Lodge here, and let your heart be merry, and rise early tomorrow to journey to go to your tent.
3e 4C 17
וְלֹֽא־אָבָ֤ה הָאִישׁ֙ לָל֔וּן וַיָּ֣קָם וַיֵּ֗לֶךְ וַיָּבֹא֙ עַד־נֹ֣כַח יְב֔וּס הִ֖יא יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וְעִמּ֗וֹ צֶ֤מֶד חֲמוֹרִים֙ חֲבוּשִׁ֔ים וּפִילַגְשׁ֖וֹ עִמּֽוֹ
10 And the man not did consent to lodge, and he arose and he walked away, and came to be opposite Yebus. (This is Jerusalem).
And with him was a pair of asses saddled. And his courtesan was with him.
3e 4C 26
הֵ֣ם עִם־יְב֔וּס וְהַיּ֖וֹם רַ֣ד מְאֹ֑ד
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַנַּ֜עַר אֶל־אֲדֹנָ֗יו לְכָה־נָּ֛א וְנָס֛וּרָה אֶל־עִֽיר־הַיְבוּסִ֥י הַזֹּ֖את וְנָלִ֥ין בָּֽהּ
11 B They were beside Yebus, and the day was wrapped excessively.
And the lad said to his master, Come, please, and let us turn aside to this city of the Jebusite, and lodge in it.
3d 4B 10
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ אֲדֹנָ֔יו לֹ֤א נָסוּר֙ אֶל־עִ֣יר נָכְרִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹֽא־מִבְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל הֵ֑נָּה
וְעָבַ֖רְנוּ עַד־גִּבְעָֽה
12 And his master said to him, We will not turn aside to a foreign city who are not from the children of Israel,
but we will pass through to Gibeah.
3d 4C 25
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְנַעֲר֔וֹ לְךָ֥ וְנִקְרְבָ֖ה בְּאַחַ֣ד הַמְּקֹמ֑וֹת
וְלַ֥נּוּ בַגִּבְעָ֖ה א֥וֹ בָרָמָֽה
13 And he said to his lad, Come, let us draw near to one of the places.
And we will lodge in Gibeah or in Ramah.
3e 4B 19
וַיַּעַבְר֖וּ וַיֵּלֵ֑כוּ
וַתָּבֹ֤א לָהֶם֙ הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ אֵ֥צֶל הַגִּבְעָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְבִנְיָמִֽן
14 And they passed by and they went.
And the sun set on them next to Gibeah, that is of Benjamin.
3e 4C 8
וַיָּסֻ֣רוּ שָׁ֔ם לָב֖וֹא לָל֣וּן בַּגִּבְעָ֑ה
וַיָּבֹ֗א וַיֵּ֙שֶׁב֙ בִּרְח֣וֹב הָעִ֔יר וְאֵ֥ין אִ֛ישׁ מְאַסֵּֽף־אוֹתָ֥ם הַבַּ֖יְתָה לָלֽוּן
15 And they turned aside there to enter to lodge in Gibeah,
and he came and sat in the plaza of the city, and there was no-one to billet them in a house to lodge.
3d 4B 12
וְהִנֵּ֣ה ׀ אִ֣ישׁ זָקֵ֗ן בָּ֣א מִֽן־מַעֲשֵׂ֤הוּ מִן־הַשָּׂדֶה֙ בָּעֶ֔רֶב וְהָאִישׁ֙ מֵהַ֣ר אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְהוּא־גָ֖ר בַּגִּבְעָ֑ה
וְאַנְשֵׁ֥י הַמָּק֖וֹם בְּנֵ֥י יְמִינִֽי
16 And behold, an old man came from his task, from the field in the evening, and the man was from mount Ephraim, and he was a guest in Gibeah,
and the men of the place were Benjaminites.
3e 4C 32
וַיִּשָּׂ֣א עֵינָ֗יו וַיַּ֛רְא אֶת־הָאִ֥ישׁ הָאֹרֵ֖חַ בִּרְחֹ֣ב הָעִ֑יר
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הָאִ֧ישׁ הַזָּקֵ֛ן אָ֥נָה תֵלֵ֖ךְ וּמֵאַ֥יִן תָּבֽוֹא
17 And he lifted up his eyes, and he saw the wayfarer in the plaza of the city,
and the old man said, Where are you going, and where have you come from?
3c 4B 18
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֗יו עֹבְרִ֨ים אֲנַ֜חְנוּ מִבֵּֽית־לֶ֣חֶם יְהוּדָה֮ עַד־יַרְכְּתֵ֣י הַר־אֶפְרַיִם֒ מִשָּׁ֣ם אָנֹ֔כִי וָאֵלֵ֕ךְ עַד־בֵּ֥ית לֶ֖חֶם יְהוּדָ֑ה
וְאֶת־בֵּ֤ית יְהוָה֙ אֲנִ֣י הֹלֵ֔ךְ וְאֵ֣ין אִ֔ישׁ מְאַסֵּ֥ף אוֹתִ֖י הַבָּֽיְתָה
18 And he said to him, We are passing through from Bethlehem of Judah to the flanks of mount Ephraim. From there I am. And I went to Bethlehem of Judah and to the house of Yahweh I am going.
And there was no-one to billet me in a house.
3e 4C 39
וְגַם־תֶּ֤בֶן גַּם־מִסְפּוֹא֙ יֵ֣שׁ לַחֲמוֹרֵ֔ינוּ וְ֠גַם לֶ֣חֶם וָיַ֤יִן יֶשׁ־לִי֙ וְלַֽאֲמָתֶ֔ךָ וְלַנַּ֖עַר עִם־עֲבָדֶ֑יךָ
אֵ֥ין מַחְס֖וֹר כָּל־דָּבָֽר
19 And there is both straw and also silage for our asses, and also bread and wine there is for me, and for your maidservant, and for the lad with your servants.
There is no lack of any thing.
3e 4C 36
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הָאִ֤ישׁ הַזָּקֵן֙ שָׁל֣וֹם לָ֔ךְ רַ֥ק כָּל־מַחְסוֹרְךָ֖ עָלָ֑י
רַ֥ק בָּרְח֖וֹב אַל־תָּלַֽן
20 And old the man said, Peace to you, but all your deprivation be against me.
Only in the plaza, do not lodge.
3e 4C 18
וַיְבִיאֵ֣הוּ לְבֵית֔וֹ וַיָּ֖בָול לַחֲמוֹרִ֑ים
וַֽיִּרְחֲצוּ֙ רַגְלֵיהֶ֔ם וַיֹּאכְל֖וּ וַיִּשְׁתּֽוּ
21 And he brought him to his own house, and gave fodder to the asses.
And they washed their feet, and they ate and they imbibed.
3e 4B 15
הֵמָּה֮ מֵיטִיבִ֣ים אֶת־לִבָּם֒ וְהִנֵּה֩ אַנְשֵׁ֨י הָעִ֜יר אַנְשֵׁ֣י בְנֵֽי־בְלִיַּ֗עַל נָסַ֙בּוּ֙ אֶת־הַבַּ֔יִת מִֽתְדַּפְּקִ֖ים עַל־הַדָּ֑לֶת
וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ אֶל־הָ֠אִישׁ בַּ֣עַל הַבַּ֤יִת הַזָּקֵן֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הוֹצֵ֗א אֶת־הָאִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥א אֶל־בֵּיתְךָ֖ וְנֵדָעֶֽנּוּ
22 They made their heart merry and behold, those of the city, the incurables of the children of worthlessness, surrounded the house, knocking on the gateway.
And they said to the old man, the owner of the house, saying, Bring out the man that came to your house that we may know him.
3d 4C 37
וַיֵּצֵ֣א אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם הָאִישׁ֙ בַּ֣עַל הַבַּ֔יִת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אַל־אַחַ֖י אַל־תָּרֵ֣עוּ נָ֑א
אַ֠חֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֞א הָאִ֤ישׁ הַזֶּה֙ אַל־בֵּיתִ֔י אַֽל־תַּעֲשׂ֖וּ אֶת־הַנְּבָלָ֥ה הַזֹּֽאת
23 And the man came out to them, the owner of the house, and he said to them, No, my kin. Do no evil, please.
After all, this man has entered my house. You will not do this senselessness.
3e 4C 27
הִנֵּה֩ בִתִּ֨י הַבְּתוּלָ֜ה וּפִֽילַגְשֵׁ֗הוּ אוֹצִֽיאָה־נָּ֤א אוֹתָם֙ וְעַנּ֣וּ אוֹתָ֔ם וַעֲשׂ֣וּ לָהֶ֔ם הַטּ֖וֹב בְּעֵינֵיכֶ֑ם
וְלָאִ֤ישׁ הַזֶּה֙ לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֔וּ דְּבַ֖ר הַנְּבָלָ֥ה הַזֹּֽאת
24 Behold my maiden daughter and his courtesan. Let me bring them out please, and afflict them, and do to them what is good in your sight.
But to this man, you will not do this senseless thing.
3e 4C 34
וְלֹֽא־אָב֤וּ הָאֲנָשִׁים֙ לִשְׁמֹ֣עַֽ ל֔וֹ וַיַּחֲזֵ֤ק הָאִישׁ֙ בְּפִ֣ילַגְשׁ֔וֹ וַיֹּצֵ֥א אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם הַח֑וּץ
וַיֵּדְע֣וּ א֠וֹתָהּ וַיִּֽתְעַלְּלוּ־בָ֤הּ כָּל־הַלַּ֙יְלָה֙ עַד־הַבֹּ֔קֶר וַֽיְשַׁלְּח֖וּהָ כַּעֲל֥וֹת הַשָּֽׁחַר
25 But the men would not consent to hear him, and the man was resolute with his courtesan, and brought out to them outside.
And they knew her, and were wanton with her all the night long till the morning, and they sent her away as the dawn ascended.
3e 4C 29
וַתָּבֹ֥א הָאִשָּׁ֖ה לִפְנ֣וֹת הַבֹּ֑קֶר
וַתִּפֹּ֞ל פֶּ֧תַח בֵּית־הָאִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אֲדוֹנֶ֥יהָ שָּׁ֖ם עַד־הָאֽוֹר
26 And the woman came before the morning,
and fell at the door of the house of the man where her master was, until it was light.
3c 4B 11
וַיָּ֨קָם אֲדֹנֶ֜יהָ בַּבֹּ֗קֶר וַיִּפְתַּח֙ דַּלְת֣וֹת הַבַּ֔יִת וַיֵּצֵ֖א לָלֶ֣כֶת לְדַרְכּ֑וֹ
וְהִנֵּ֧ה הָאִשָּׁ֣ה פִֽילַגְשׁ֗וֹ נֹפֶ֙לֶת֙ פֶּ֣תַח הַבַּ֔יִת וְיָדֶ֖יהָ עַל־הַסַּֽף
27 And her master arose in the morning, and opened the gateways of the house, and came out to go his way,
and behold the woman, his courtesan, fallen at the door of the house, and her hands were on the threshold.
3c 4B 27
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֵלֶ֛יהָ ק֥וּמִי וְנֵלֵ֖כָה וְאֵ֣ין עֹנֶ֑ה
וַיִּקָּחֶ֙הָ֙ עַֽל־הַחֲמ֔וֹר וַיָּ֣קָם הָאִ֔ישׁ וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ לִמְקֹמֽוֹ
28 And he said to her, Arise and we will go. And there was no answer.
And he took her on the ass, and the man arose, and he went to his place.
3c 4B 16
וַיָּבֹ֣א אֶל־בֵּית֗וֹ וַיִּקַּ֤ח אֶת־הַֽמַּאֲכֶ֙לֶת֙ וַיַּחֲזֵ֣ק בְּפִֽילַגְשׁ֔וֹ וַֽיְנַתְּחֶ֙הָ֙ לַעֲצָמֶ֔יהָ לִשְׁנֵ֥ים עָשָׂ֖ר נְתָחִ֑ים
וַֽיְשַׁלְּחֶ֔הָ בְּכֹ֖ל גְּב֥וּל יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
29 And he entered his house, and he took the knife, and he was resolute with his courtesan, and he cut her to her bones in twelve pieces,
and he sent her into every border of Israel.
3e 4C 39
וְהָיָ֣ה כָל־הָרֹאֶ֗ה וְאָמַר֙ לֹֽא־נִהְיְתָ֤ה וְלֹֽא־נִרְאֲתָה֙ כָּזֹ֔את לְמִיּ֞וֹם עֲל֤וֹת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם עַ֖ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה
שִֽׂימוּ־לָכֶ֥ם עָלֶ֖יהָ עֻ֥צוּ וְדַבֵּֽרוּ
30 And that is all that was seen. And he said, Never has been and never was seen such as this since the day the children of Israel came up from the land of Egypt to this day.
Set it in place for yourselves. Take counsel, and speak.
3e 4C 41
Note the differing spellings of heart, לב in verse 6 לבב in verses 8 and 9, לב in 22.

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