Wednesday, October 17, 2018

Deuteronomy 23

Bastard occurs twice in the KJV, Here in verse 3 (2 English) and in Zechariah 9 verse 6 where I rendered it as stranger. Mamzer ממזר appears to be derived from זור stranger, estrange. NIV avoids the word in both places, choosing a circumlocution. JB explains that it 'means' a child born of mixed parentage. זור is frequent (89 occurrences) ממזר only these 2 times. From my coach
There is no certainty as to the origin of the word ממזר, but the general agreement is that it's a fusion of two words, one of which is indeed zar – מום–זר (defect-foreign), מעם–זר (from a foreign nation), ממעי–זר (from foreign innards).
I have allowed the estranged, the maimed, the bastard, the Ammonite, and the Moabite, into my congregation. I am also in that congregation, whatever it is. And those I have allowed in are part of my body. Therefore I and the Chief of that congregation to whom I am subject, both of us are standing in contradiction to this piece of instruction. This instruction is therefore temporal, a product of grudges that are past. In that congregation, the maimed are made whole, the bastard is given reliable family, and all, home-born, strangers and estranged alike, learn hospitality. Even the holy prostitute finds completeness. So in the end, there is no contradiction. But there surely is cost. (It is also to be noted that verse 4 disqualifies king David from the congregation of Yahweh. There are not just 'contradictions' in the Bible, there are living tensions and we have to see them or we will degenerate into parochial nonsense.)

In verses 3 and 4 and in verse 9, there is a possessive pronoun distant from the noun it qualifies (לו, and twice להם), which could be rendered his or theirs . But in verse 9 a possessive English construction for the Hebrew is impossible due to the placement of the Atnah. I have never seen a verse in over 22,000 verses where splitting a phrase over the mid point of the verse would be required in translation. So I have left in the rather awkward for it, for them. No relief over time for the grudge. Maybe this is one of Ezekiel's laws that are not good (20:25).

Deuteronomy 23 Fn Min Max Syll
לֹא־יִקַּ֥ח אִ֖ישׁ אֶת־אֵ֣שֶׁת אָבִ֑יו
וְלֹ֥א יְגַלֶּ֖ה כְּנַ֥ף אָבִֽיו
1 A man will not take the wife of his father,
and he will not uncover the hem of his father.
3e 4B 8
9
לֹֽא־יָבֹ֧א פְצֽוּעַ־דַּכָּ֛א וּכְר֥וּת שָׁפְכָ֖ה בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהוָֽה 2 One with a wound inflicted of castration or penis cut off will not enter the congregation of Yahweh. 3c 3g 14
לֹא־יָבֹ֥א מַמְזֵ֖ר בִּקְהַ֣ל יְהוָ֑ה
גַּ֚ם דּ֣וֹר עֲשִׂירִ֔י לֹא־יָ֥בֹא ל֖וֹ בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהוָֽה
3 A stranger will not enter the congregation of Yahweh.
Even tenth generation will not enter for it, the congregation of Yahweh.
3e 4C 8
12
לֹֽא־יָבֹ֧א עַמּוֹנִ֛י וּמוֹאָבִ֖י בִּקְהַ֣ל יְהוָ֑ה
גַּ֚ם דּ֣וֹר עֲשִׂירִ֔י לֹא־יָבֹ֥א לָהֶ֛ם בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהוָ֖ה עַד־עוֹלָֽם
4 Ammonite or Moabite will not enter the congregation of Yahweh.
Even tenth generation will not enter for them, the congregation of Yahweh, for evermore.
3c 4C 13
16
עַל־דְּבַ֞ר אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹא־קִדְּמ֤וּ אֶתְכֶם֙ בַּלֶּ֣חֶם וּבַמַּ֔יִם בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶ֣ם מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם
וַאֲשֶׁר֩ שָׂכַ֨ר עָלֶ֜יךָ אֶת־בִּלְעָ֣ם בֶּן־בְּע֗וֹר מִפְּת֛וֹר אֲרַ֥ם נַהֲרַ֖יִם לְקַֽלְלֶֽךָּ
5 Over the matter that they did not precede you with bread and water in the journey when you came out from Egypt,
and that he hired against you Balaam, child of Beor, an interpreter of the Aramaeans of two rivers, to slight you.
3d 4C 26
25
וְלֹֽא־אָבָ֞ה יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ לִשְׁמֹ֣עַ אֶל־בִּלְעָ֔ם וַיַּהֲפֹךְ֩ יְהוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֧יךָ לְּךָ֛ אֶת־הַקְּלָלָ֖ה לִבְרָכָ֑ה
כִּ֥י אֲהֵֽבְךָ֖ יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ
6 But Yahweh your God did not consent to hear Balaam, and Yahweh your God changed for you the denial to blessing.
For Yahweh your God loves you.
3c 4C 34
10
לֹא־תִדְרֹ֥שׁ שְׁלֹמָ֖ם וְטֹבָתָ֑ם
כָּל־יָמֶ֖יךָ לְעוֹלָֽם
7 You will not search out their peace or their good,
all your days forever.
3e 4A 10
7
לֹֽא־תְתַעֵ֣ב אֲדֹמִ֔י כִּ֥י אָחִ֖יךָ ה֑וּא
לֹא־תְתַעֵ֣ב מִצְרִ֔י כִּי־גֵ֖ר הָיִ֥יתָ בְאַרְצֽוֹ
8 You will not abhor an Edomite for it is your kin.
You will not abhor an Egyptian for a guest you were in its land.
3e 4B 12
14
בָּנִ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּלְד֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם דּ֣וֹר שְׁלִישִׁ֑י
יָבֹ֥א לָהֶ֖ם בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהוָֽה
9 Children who are born to them, third generation,
will enter for them, the congregation of Yahweh.
3d 4B 13
8
כִּֽי־תֵצֵ֥א מַחֲנֶ֖ה עַל־אֹיְבֶ֑יךָ
וְנִ֨שְׁמַרְתָּ֔ מִכֹּ֖ל דָּבָ֥ר רָֽע
10 When an army has gone forth against your enemies,
then you will keep from every word of evil.
3e 4A 9
9
כִּֽי־יִהְיֶ֤ה בְךָ֙ אִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־יִהְיֶ֥ה טָה֖וֹר מִקְּרֵה־לָ֑יְלָה
וְיָצָא֙ אֶל־מִח֣וּץ לַֽמַּחֲנֶ֔ה לֹ֥א יָבֹ֖א אֶל־תּ֥וֹךְ הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
11 When there is among you a man who is not clean from an event by night,
then he will go forth outside the camp. He will not come into the midst of the camp.
3d 4C 17
19
וְהָיָ֥ה לִפְנֽוֹת־עֶ֖רֶב יִרְחַ֣ץ בַּמָּ֑יִם
וּכְבֹ֣א הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ יָבֹ֖א אֶל־תּ֥וֹךְ הַֽמַּחֲנֶה
12 And it will be, in the face of evening, he will wash in water,
and when the sun has set, he will come into the midst of the camp.
3e 4B 12
13
וְיָד֙ תִּהְיֶ֣ה לְךָ֔ מִח֖וּץ לַֽמַּחֲנֶ֑ה
וְיָצָ֥אתָ שָׁ֖מָּה חֽוּץ
13 And protection there will be for you outside the camp,
where you will go forth outside.
3e 4B 12
7
וְיָתֵ֛ד תִּהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֖ עַל־אֲזֵנֶ֑ךָ
וְהָיָה֙ בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ֣ ח֔וּץ וְחָפַרְתָּ֣ה בָ֔הּ וְשַׁבְתָּ֖ וְכִסִּ֥יתָ אֶת־צֵאָתֶֽךָ
14 And a peg you will have with a spade.
And it will be when you sit outside, you will dig deep with it, and will turn back and cover what comes out from you.
3d 4B 12
25
כִּי֩ יְהוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ מִתְהַלֵּ֣ךְ ׀ בְּקֶ֣רֶב מַחֲנֶ֗ךָ לְהַצִּֽילְךָ֙ וְלָתֵ֤ת אֹיְבֶ֙יךָ֙ לְפָנֶ֔יךָ וְהָיָ֥ה מַחֲנֶ֖יךָ קָד֑וֹשׁ
וְלֹֽא־יִרְאֶ֤ה בְךָ֙ עֶרְוַ֣ת דָּבָ֔ר וְשָׁ֖ב מֵאַחֲרֶֽיךָ
15 For Yahweh your God walks within your camp to deliver you, that he may give your enemies before you, so your camp will be holy,
and he will not see among you something exposed, and turn from following you.
3e 4C 40
17
לֹא־תַסְגִּ֥יר עֶ֖בֶד אֶל־אֲדֹנָ֑יו
אֲשֶׁר־יִנָּצֵ֥ל אֵלֶ֖יךָ מֵעִ֥ם אֲדֹנָֽיו
16 You will not imprison a servant to its master,
who was emancipated to you from its master.
3e 4A 9
13
עִמְּךָ֞ יֵשֵׁ֣ב בְּקִרְבְּךָ֗ בַּמָּק֧וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֛ר בְּאַחַ֥ד שְׁעָרֶ֖יךָ בַּטּ֣וֹב ל֑וֹ
לֹ֖א תּוֹנֶֽנּוּ
17 With you it will settle. Among you in the place where it will choose in one of your gates, as is its good.
You will not suppress it.
3c 4B 25
4
לֹא־תִהְיֶ֥ה קְדֵשָׁ֖ה מִבְּנ֣וֹת יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וְלֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֥ה קָדֵ֖שׁ מִבְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵל
18 No holy prostitute will be from the daughters of Israel,
and no holy prostitute will be from the sons of Israel.
3e 4B 11
11
לֹא־תָבִיא֩ אֶתְנַ֨ן זוֹנָ֜ה וּמְחִ֣יר כֶּ֗לֶב בֵּ֛ית יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לְכָל־נֶ֑דֶר
כִּ֧י תוֹעֲבַ֛ת יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶֽם
19 You will not bring the fee of harlotry or the price of a dog into the house of Yahweh your God, for any vow.
For an abomination to Yahweh your God they are, even the both of them.
3c 4B 21
14
לֹא־תַשִּׁ֣יךְ לְאָחִ֔יךָ נֶ֥שֶׁךְ כֶּ֖סֶף נֶ֣שֶׁךְ אֹ֑כֶל
נֶ֕שֶׁךְ כָּל־דָּבָ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִשָּֽׁךְ
20 You will not take interest for your kin, interest of silver, interest of food,
interest of every thing that earns interest.
3e 4B 14
9
לַנָּכְרִ֣י תַשִּׁ֔יךְ וּלְאָחִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תַשִּׁ֑יךְ
לְמַ֨עַן יְבָרֶכְךָ֜ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ בְּכֹל֙ מִשְׁלַ֣ח יָדֶ֔ךָ עַל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה בָא־שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ
21 For a foreigner you may take interest.
But to your kin you will not take interest, so that Yahweh your God will bless you in all that you put your hand to do over the land that you are going toward to possess it.
3e 4B 12
34
כִּֽי־תִדֹּ֥ר נֶ֙דֶר֙ לַיהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לֹ֥א תְאַחֵ֖ר לְשַׁלְּמ֑וֹ
כִּֽי־דָּרֹ֨שׁ יִדְרְשֶׁ֜נּוּ יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ מֵֽעִמָּ֔ךְ וְהָיָ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא
22 When you vow a vow to Yahweh your God, do not delay to pay it,
for Yahweh your God will search it out from you, and it will be in you as sin.
3e 4C 17
21
וְכִ֥י תֶחְדַּ֖ל לִנְדֹּ֑ר
לֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא
23 But when you refrain from a vow,
it will not be in you as sin.
3e 4A 6
6
מוֹצָ֥א שְׂפָתֶ֖יךָ תִּשְׁמֹ֣ר וְעָשִׂ֑יתָ
כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר נָדַ֜רְתָּ לַיהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ נְדָבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתָּ בְּפִֽיךָ
24 What emerges from your lips you will keep and you will do,
as if you vowed to Yahweh your God, a freewill offering that you spoke with your mouth.
3e 4C 12
23
כִּ֤י תָבֹא֙ בְּכֶ֣רֶם רֵעֶ֔ךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ֧ עֲנָבִ֛ים כְּנַפְשְׁךָ֖ שָׂבְעֶ֑ךָ
וְאֶֽל־כֶּלְיְךָ֖ לֹ֥א תִתֵּֽן
25 C When you come into a vineyard of your associate, then you may eat grapes for your self for your satisfaction,
but into your vessel, you will not permit any.
3c 4C 23
8
כִּ֤י תָבֹא֙ בְּקָמַ֣ת רֵעֶ֔ךָ וְקָטַפְתָּ֥ מְלִילֹ֖ת בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ
וְחֶרְמֵשׁ֙ לֹ֣א תָנִ֔יף עַ֖ל קָמַ֥ת רֵעֶֽךָ
26 C When you come into the risen corn of your associate, then you may pluck off snippets into your hand,
but you will not brandish a machete against the risen corn of your associate.
3e 4C 20
12

Tuesday, October 16, 2018

Judges 9

Another long chapter. Verse 49 is strongly suggestive of the gender inclusive nature of the word אישׁ. Others have made this point before, but here it is explicit in the language usage itself.

The millstone (a gloss I have used elsewhere for רחים) of verse 53 is רחב rider or chariot.

Judges 9 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיֵּ֨לֶךְ אֲבִימֶ֤לֶךְ בֶּן־יְרֻבַּ֙עַל֙ שְׁכֶ֔מָה אֶל־אֲחֵ֖י אִמּ֑וֹ
וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם וְאֶל־כָּל־מִשְׁפַּ֛חַת בֵּית־אֲבִ֥י אִמּ֖וֹ לֵאמֹֽר
1 And Abimelek, child of Jerubbaal, went towards Shechem to the kin of his mother,
and he spoke to them, and to all the families of the house of the father of his mother, saying,
3d 4C 20
19
דַּבְּרוּ־נָ֞א בְּאָזְנֵ֨י כָל־בַּעֲלֵ֣י שְׁכֶם֮ מַה־טּ֣וֹב לָכֶם֒ הַמְשֹׁ֨ל בָּכֶ֜ם שִׁבְעִ֣ים אִ֗ישׁ כֹּ֚ל בְּנֵ֣י יְרֻבַּ֔עַל אִם־מְשֹׁ֥ל בָּכֶ֖ם אִ֣ישׁ אֶחָ֑ד
וּזְכַרְתֶּ֕ם כִּֽי־עַצְמֵכֶ֥ם וּבְשַׂרְכֶ֖ם אָנִֽי
2 Speak please in the ears of all the superiors of Shechem, How much better for you to be governed by seventy persons, all the children of Jerubbaal, than that one person govern among you?
And remember that your bone and your flesh am I.
3e 4C 37
12
וַיְדַבְּר֨וּ אֲחֵֽי־אִמּ֜וֹ עָלָ֗יו בְּאָזְנֵי֙ כָּל־בַּעֲלֵ֣י שְׁכֶ֔ם אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה
וַיֵּ֤ט לִבָּם֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י אֲבִימֶ֔לֶךְ כִּ֥י אָמְר֖וּ אָחִ֥ינוּ הֽוּא
3 And the kin of his mother spoke about him, in the ears of all the superiors of Shechem, all these words.
And their heart bent after Abimelek, for they said, Our kin he is.
3e 4C 25
18
וַיִּתְּנוּ־לוֹ֙ שִׁבְעִ֣ים כֶּ֔סֶף מִבֵּ֖יתּ בַ֣עַל בְּרִ֑ית
וַיִּשְׂכֹּ֨ר בָּהֶ֜ם אֲבִימֶ֗לֶךְ אֲנָשִׁ֤ים רֵיקִים֙ וּפֹ֣חֲזִ֔ים וַיֵּלְכ֖וּ אַחֲרָֽיו
4 And they gave to him seventy pieces of silver from the house of Baal of a covenant,
and with them Abimelek contracted empty-headed and reckless men, and they went following him.
3e 4C 13
24
וַיָּבֹ֤א בֵית־אָבִיו֙ עָפְרָ֔תָה וַֽיַּהֲרֹ֞ג אֶת־אֶחָ֧יו בְּנֵֽי־יְרֻבַּ֛עַל שִׁבְּעִ֥ים אִ֖ישׁ עַל־אֶ֣בֶן אֶחָ֑ת
וַיִּוָּתֵ֞ר יוֹתָ֧ם בֶּן־יְרֻבַּ֛עַל הַקָּטֹ֖ן כִּ֥י נֶחְבָּֽא
5 And he entered the house of his father at Her-Dust, and he slew his kin, the children of Jerubbaal, seventy persons on one stone,
but Jotham child of Jerubbaal, the youngest, was left, for he camouflaged himself.
3c 4C 30
17
וַיֵּאָ֨סְפ֜וּ כָּל־בַּעֲלֵ֤י שְׁכֶם֙ וְכָל־בֵּ֣ית מִלּ֔וֹא וַיֵּ֣לְכ֔וּ וַיַּמְלִ֥יכוּ אֶת־אֲבִימֶ֖לֶךְ לְמֶ֑לֶךְ
עִם־אֵל֥וֹן מֻצָּ֖ב אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּשְׁכֶֽם
6 And all the superiors of Shechem gathered and all the house of Millo, and they went and they made Abimelek to reign as king,
by the oak monument that was in Shechem.
3e 4C 30
9
וַיַּגִּ֣דוּ לְיוֹתָ֗ם וַיֵּ֙לֶךְ֙ וַֽיַּעֲמֹד֙ בְּרֹ֣אשׁ הַר־גְּרִזִ֔ים וַיִּשָּׂ֥א קוֹל֖וֹ וַיִּקְרָ֑א
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָהֶ֗ם שִׁמְע֤וּ אֵלַי֙ בַּעֲלֵ֣י שְׁכֶ֔ם וְיִשְׁמַ֥ע אֲלֵיכֶ֖ם אֱלֹהִֽים
7 And they told Jotham. And he went and stood at the top of the hill of Gerizim, and he lifted up his voice, and he called,
and said to them, Hear me, superiors of Shechem, and may God hear you.
3e 4C 28
23
הָל֤וֹךְ הָֽלְכוּ֙ הָעֵצִ֔ים לִמְשֹׁ֥חַ עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם מֶ֑לֶךְ
וַיֹּאמְר֥וּ לַזַּ֖יִת מָלְכָ֥ה עָלֵֽינוּ
8 Walking, the trees walked to anoint over them a king,
and they said to the olive tree, Reign over us.
3e 4C 15
11
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהֶם֙ הַזַּ֔יִת הֶחֳדַ֙לְתִּי֙ אֶת־דִּשְׁנִ֔י אֲשֶׁר־בִּ֛י יְכַבְּד֥וּ אֱלֹהִ֖ים וַאֲנָשִׁ֑ים
וְהָ֣לַכְתִּ֔י לָנ֖וּעַ עַל־הָעֵצִֽים
9 And to them said the olive tree, Should I set aside my sleekness, how by me they glorify God and persons,
and go and totter over the trees?
3d 4C 28
11
וַיֹּאמְר֥וּ הָעֵצִ֖ים לַתְּאֵנָ֑ה
לְכִי־אַ֖תְּ מָלְכִ֥י עָלֵֽינוּ
10 And the trees said to the fig tree,
Come. You be king over us.
3e 4A 9
8
וַתֹּ֤אמֶר לָהֶם֙ הַתְּאֵנָ֔ה הֶחֳדַ֙לְתִּי֙ אֶת־מָתְקִ֔י וְאֶת־תְּנוּבָתִ֖י הַטּוֹבָ֑ה
וְהָ֣לַכְתִּ֔י לָנ֖וּעַ עַל־הָעֵצִֽים
11 And to them said the fig tree, Should I set aside my sweetness and and my good profit,
and go and totter over the trees?
3e 4C 24
11
וַיֹּאמְר֥וּ הָעֵצִ֖ים לַגָּ֑פֶן
לְכִי־אַ֖תְּ מָלְכִ֥י עָלֵֽינוּ
12 And the trees said to the vine,
Come. You be king over us.
3e 4A 9
8
וַתֹּ֤אמֶר לָהֶם֙ הַגֶּ֔פֶן הֶחֳדַ֙לְתִּי֙ אֶת־תִּ֣ירוֹשִׁ֔י הַֽמְשַׂמֵּ֥חַ אֱלֹהִ֖ים וַאֲנָשִׁ֑ים
וְהָ֣לַכְתִּ֔י לָנ֖וּעַ עַל־הָעֵצִֽים
13 And to them said the vine, Should I set aside my new wine that gladdens God and persons,
and go and totter over the trees?
3e 4C 27
11
וַיֹּאמְר֥וּ כָל־הָעֵצִ֖ים אֶל־הָאָטָ֑ד
לֵ֥ךְ אַתָּ֖ה מְלָךְ־עָלֵֽינוּ
14 And all the trees said to the brierpatch,
Come. You be king over us.
3e 4A 11
8
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הָאָטָד֮ אֶל־הָעֵצִים֒ אִ֡ם בֶּאֱמֶ֣ת אַתֶּם֩ מֹשְׁחִ֨ים אֹתִ֤י לְמֶ֙לֶךְ֙ עֲלֵיכֶ֔ם בֹּ֖אוּ חֲס֣וּ בְצִלִּ֑י
וְאִם־אַ֕יִן תֵּ֤צֵא אֵשׁ֙ מִן־הָ֣אָטָ֔ד וְתֹאכַ֖ל אֶת־אַרְזֵ֥י הַלְּבָנֽוֹן
15 And the brierpatch said to the trees, If in truth you anoint me to be king over you, enter, take refuge in my shadow.
But if there is nothing, let fire go forth from the brierpatch, and devour the cedars of Lebanon.
3e 4C 32
19
וְעַתָּ֗ה אִם־בֶּאֱמֶ֤ת וּבְתָמִים֙ עֲשִׂיתֶ֔ם וַתַּמְלִ֖יכוּ אֶת־אֲבִימֶ֑לֶךְ
וְאִם־טוֹבָ֤ה עֲשִׂיתֶם֙ עִם־יְרֻבַּ֣עַל וְעִם־בֵּית֔וֹ וְאִם־כִּגְמ֥וּל יָדָ֖יו עֲשִׂ֥יתֶם לֽוֹ
16 So now, if in truth and completeness you have dealt, and have made Abimelek king,
and if you have dealt well with Jerubbaal and with his house, and if for the recompense of his hands you have dealt him,
3e 4C 22
26
אֲשֶׁר־נִלְחַ֥ם אָבִ֖י עֲלֵיכֶ֑ם
וַיַּשְׁלֵ֤ךְ אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ֙ מִנֶּ֔גֶד וַיַּצֵּ֥ל אֶתְכֶ֖ם מִיַּ֥ד מִדְיָֽן
17 (How my father warred over you,
and he cast his very self in front of, and delivered you from the hand of Midian),
3e 4C 9
18
וְאַתֶּ֞ם קַמְתֶּ֨ם עַל־בֵּ֤ית אָבִי֙ הַיּ֔וֹם וַתַּהַרְג֧וּ אֶת־בָּנָ֛יו שִׁבְעִ֥ים אִ֖ישׁ עַל־אֶ֣בֶן אֶחָ֑ת
וַתַּמְלִ֜יכוּ אֶת־אֲבִימֶ֤לֶךְ בֶּן־אֲמָתוֹ֙ עַל־בַּעֲלֵ֣י שְׁכֶ֔ם כִּ֥י אֲחִיכֶ֖ם הֽוּא
18 But you, you have arisen over the house of my father today, and you have slain his children, seventy persons on one stone,
and have made Abimelek king, child of his maidservant, over the superiors of Shechem, for your kin he is.
3c 4C 26
24
וְאִם־בֶּאֱמֶ֨ת וּבְתָמִ֧ים עֲשִׂיתֶ֛ם עִם־יְרֻבַּ֥עַל וְעִם־בֵּית֖וֹ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה
שִׂמְחוּ֙ בַּאֲבִימֶ֔לֶךְ וְיִשְׂמַ֥ח גַּם־ה֖וּא בָּכֶֽם
19 So if in truth and completeness you have dealt with Jerubbaal and with his house this day,
be glad in Abimelek and let him be glad also among you.
3c 4B 24
14
וְאִם־אַ֕יִן תֵּ֤צֵא אֵשׁ֙ מֵאֲבִימֶ֔לֶךְ וְתֹאכַ֛ל אֶת־בַּעֲלֵ֥י שְׁכֶ֖ם וְאֶת־בֵּ֣ית מִלּ֑וֹא
וְתֵצֵ֨א אֵ֜שׁ מִבַּעֲלֵ֤י שְׁכֶם֙ וּמִבֵּ֣ית מִלּ֔וֹא וְתֹאכַ֖ל אֶת־אֲבִימֶֽלֶךְ
20 But if there is nothing, let fire go forth from Abimelek, and let it devour the superiors of Shechem and the house of Millo,
and let fire go forth from the superiors of Shechem and from the house of Millo, and let it devour Abimelek.
3d 4C 25
23
וַיָּ֣נָס יוֹתָ֔ם וַיִּבְרַ֖ח וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ בְּאֵ֑רָה
וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב שָׁ֔ם מִפְּנֵ֖י אֲבִימֶ֥לֶךְ אָחִֽיו
21 And Jotham withdrew and ran away, and went to Beer,
and settled there away from the face of Abimelek, his brother.
3e 4B 14
12
וַיָּ֧שַׂר אֲבִימֶ֛לֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל שָׁלֹ֥שׁ שָׁנִֽים 22 And Abimelek had influence over Israel three years. 3c 3g 15
וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח אֱלֹהִים֙ ר֣וּחַ רָעָ֔ה בֵּ֣ין אֲבִימֶ֔לֶךְ וּבֵ֖ין בַּעֲלֵ֣י שְׁכֶ֑ם
וַיִּבְגְּד֥וּ בַעֲלֵי־שְׁכֶ֖ם בַּאֲבִימֶֽלֶךְ
23 And God sent a spirit of evil between Abimelek and the superiors of Shechem,
and the superiors of Shechem acted treacherously with Abimelek,
3e 4C 22
14
לָב֕וֹא חֲמַ֖ס שִׁבְעִ֣ים בְּנֵֽי־יְרֻבָּ֑עַל
וְדָמָ֗ם לָשׂ֞וּם עַל־אֲבִימֶ֤לֶךְ אֲחִיהֶם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָרַ֣ג אוֹתָ֔ם וְעַל֙ בַּעֲלֵ֣י שְׁכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־חִזְּק֥וּ אֶת־יָדָ֖יו לַהֲרֹ֥ג אֶת־אֶחָֽיו
24 That violence might come for the seventy children of Jerubbaal,
and to set their blood against Abimelek, their kin, that he had slain them, and concerning the superiors of Shechem, who made his hands resolute to slay his kin.
3e 4C 12
39
וַיָּשִׂ֣ימוּ לוֹ֩ בַעֲלֵ֨י שְׁכֶ֜ם מְאָרְבִ֗ים עַ֚ל רָאשֵׁ֣י הֶהָרִ֔ים וַיִּגְזְל֗וּ אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲבֹ֥ר עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם בַּדָּ֑רֶךְ
וַיֻּגַּ֖ד לַאֲבִימֶֽלֶךְ
25 And for him the superiors of Shechem set ambushes on the tops of the hills, and they robbed all that passed through by them in the way.
And it was told to Abimelek.
3d 4C 36
8
וַיָּבֹ֞א גַּ֤עַל בֶּן־עֶ֙בֶד֙ וְאֶחָ֔יו וַיַּעַבְר֖וּ בִּשְׁכֶ֑ם
וַיִּבְטְחוּ־ב֖וֹ בַּעֲלֵ֥י שְׁכֶֽם
26 And Gaal, child of Ebed, came and his kin, and they crossed over into Shechem.
And the superiors of Shechem trusted him.
3e 4C 17
9
וַיֵּצְא֨וּ הַשָּׂדֶ֜ה וַֽיִּבְצְר֤וּ אֶת־כַּרְמֵיהֶם֙ וַֽיִּדְרְכ֔וּ וַֽיַּעֲשׂ֖וּ הִלּוּלִ֑ים
וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית אֱ‍ֽלֹֽהֵיהֶ֔ם וַיֹּֽאכְלוּ֙ וַיִּשְׁתּ֔וּ וַֽיְקַלְל֖וּ אֶת־אֲבִימֶֽלֶךְ
27 And they went forth to the field, and gathered grapes from their vineyards, and they trod, and they played the fool,
and they entered the house of their God, and they ate and they imbibed, and they slighted Abimelek.
3e 4C 25
21
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ גַּ֣עַל בֶּן־עֶ֗בֶד מִֽי־אֲבִימֶ֤לֶךְ וּמִֽי־שְׁכֶם֙ כִּ֣י נַעַבְדֶ֔נּוּ הֲלֹ֥א בֶן־יְרֻבַּ֖עַל וּזְבֻ֣ל פְּקִיד֑וֹ
עִבְד֗וּ אֶת־אַנְשֵׁ֤י חֲמוֹר֙ אֲבִ֣י שְׁכֶ֔ם וּמַדּ֖וּעַ נַעַבְדֶ֥נּוּ אֲנָֽחְנוּ
28 And Gaal, child of Ebed said, Who is Abimelek and what is Shechem that we should serve him? Is not he a child of Jerubbaal, and Zebul, his officer?
Let them serve the men of Hamor, the father of Shechem. Why then should we serve him ourselves?
3e 4C 33
22
וּמִ֨י יִתֵּ֜ן אֶת־הָעָ֤ם הַזֶּה֙ בְּיָדִ֔י וְאָסִ֖ירָה אֶת־אֲבִימֶ֑לֶךְ
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לַאֲבִימֶ֔לֶךְ רַבֶּ֥ה צְבָאֲךָ֖ וָצֵֽאָה
29 And who will give this people into my hand, and I will put aside Abimelek.
And he said to Abimelek, Increase your host and come out.
3e 4C 21
17
וַיִּשְׁמַ֗ע זְבֻל֙ שַׂר־הָעִ֔יר אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֖י גַּ֣עַל בֶּן־עָ֑בֶד
וַיִּ֖חַר אַפּֽוֹ
30 And Zebul the chief of the city heard the words of Gaal, child of Ebed,
and his anger burned.
3e 4B 16
5
וַיִּשְׁלַ֧ח מַלְאָכִ֛ים אֶל־אֲבִימֶ֖לֶךְ בְּתָרְמָ֣ה לֵאמֹ֑ר
הִנֵּה֩ גַ֨עַל בֶּן־עֶ֤בֶד וְאֶחָיו֙ בָּאִ֣ים שְׁכֶ֔מָה וְהִנָּ֛ם צָרִ֥ים אֶת־הָעִ֖יר עָלֶֽיךָ
31 And he sent messengers to Abimelek through deceit, saying,
Behold, Gaal, child of Ebed, and his kin are coming towards Shechem, and behold, they are fortifying the city against you.
3c 4C 16
26
וְעַתָּה֙ ק֣וּם לַ֔יְלָה אַתָּ֖ה וְהָעָ֣ם אֲשֶׁר־אִתָּ֑ךְ
וֶאֱרֹ֖ב בַּשָּׂדֶֽה
32 So now, arise by night, you and the people who are with you,
and lie in wait in the field.
3e 4B 15
6
וְהָיָ֤ה בַבֹּ֙קֶר֙ כִּזְרֹ֣חַ הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ תַּשְׁכִּ֖ים וּפָשַׁטְתָּ֣ עַל־הָעִ֑יר
וְהִנֵּה־ה֞וּא וְהָעָ֤ם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ֙ יֹצְאִ֣ים אֵלֶ֔יךָ וְעָשִׂ֣יתָ לּ֔וֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר תִּמְצָ֥א יָדֶֽךָ
33 And it will happen in the morning, as the sun is rising, you will rise up early and pillage the city.
And behold, he and the people that are with him will come out to you, and you will do to him as your hand will find out.
3e 4C 21
29
וַיָּ֧קָם אֲבִימֶ֛לֶךְ וְכָל־הָעָ֥ם אֲשֶׁר־עִמּ֖וֹ לָ֑יְלָה
וַיֶּאֶרְב֣וּ עַל־שְׁכֶ֔ם אַרְבָּעָ֖ה רָאשִֽׁים
34 And Abimelek arose and all the people that were with him by night,
and they lay in wait against Shechem, four gangs.
3c 4B 17
12
וַיֵּצֵא֙ גַּ֣עַל בֶּן־עֶ֔בֶד וַיַּעֲמֹ֕ד פֶּ֖תַח שַׁ֣עַר הָעִ֑יר
וַיָּ֧קָם אֲבִימֶ֛לֶךְ וְהָעָ֥ם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֖וֹ מִן־הַמַּאְרָֽב
35 And Gaal, child of Ebed, came out, and he stood at the door of the gate of the city,
and Abimelek arose, and the people that were with him, from the ambush.
3c 4B 18
18
וַיַּרְא־גַּעַל֮ אֶת־הָעָם֒ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶל־זְבֻ֔ל הִנֵּה־עָ֣ם יוֹרֵ֔ד מֵרָאשֵׁ֖י הֶהָרִ֑ים
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ זְבֻ֔ל אֵ֣ת צֵ֧ל הֶהָרִ֛ים אַתָּ֥ה רֹאֶ֖ה כָּאֲנָשִֽׁים
36 And Gaal saw the people, and said to Zebul, Behold, people are descending from the tops of the hills.
And Zebul said to him, The shadow of the hills you are seeing, as if men.
3c 4C 24
20
וַיֹּ֨סֶף ע֣וֹד גַּעַל֮ לְדַבֵּר֒ וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הִנֵּה־עָם֙ יֽוֹרְדִ֔ים מֵעִ֖ם טַבּ֣וּר הָאָ֑רֶץ
וְרֹאשׁ־אֶחָ֣ד בָּ֔א מִדֶּ֖רֶךְ אֵל֥וֹן מְעוֹנְנִֽים
37 And again further Gaal spoke, and he said, Behold, people are descending from the midpoint of the land,
and the head of another comes from the way of the oak of the fortunetellers.
3e 4B 24
13
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלָ֜יו זְבֻ֗ל אַיֵּ֨ה אֵפ֥וֹא פִ֙יךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֹּאמַ֔ר מִ֥י אֲבִימֶ֖לֶךְ כִּ֣י נַעַבְדֶ֑נּוּ
הֲלֹ֨א זֶ֤ה הָעָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָאַ֣סְתָּה בּ֔וֹ צֵא־נָ֥א עַתָּ֖ה וְהִלָּ֥חֶם בּֽוֹ
38 And Zebul said to him, Where is your mouth that said, Who is Abimelek that we should serve him?
Is not this the people that you have refused? Go forth, if you will, now, and fight with him.
3e 4C 27
20
וַיֵּ֣צֵא גַ֔עַל לִפְנֵ֖י בַּעֲלֵ֣י שְׁכֶ֑ם
וַיִּלָּ֖חֶם בַּאֲבִימֶֽלֶךְ
39 And Gaal came out before the superiors of Shechem,
and fought with Abimelek.
3e 4B 12
9
וַיִּרְדְּפֵ֣הוּ אֲבִימֶ֔לֶךְ וַיָּ֖נָס מִפָּנָ֑יו
וַֽיִּפְּל֛וּ חֲלָלִ֥ים רַבִּ֖ים עַד־פֶּ֥תַח הַשָּֽׁעַר
40 And Abimelek pursued him and he withdrew before him.
And many fell profaned, even to the door of the gate.
3d 4B 15
14
וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב אֲבִימֶ֖לֶךְ בָּארוּמָ֑ה
וַיְגָ֧רֶשׁ זְבֻ֛ל אֶת־גַּ֥עַל וְאֶת־אֶחָ֖יו מִשֶּׁ֥בֶת בִּשְׁכֶֽם
41 And Abimelek settled at Arumah.
And Zebul expelled Gaal and his kin from settling in Shechem.
3c 4A 10
17
וַֽיְהִי֙ מִֽמָּחֳרָ֔ת וַיֵּצֵ֥א הָעָ֖ם הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה
וַיַּגִּ֖דוּ לַאֲבִימֶֽלֶךְ
42 And it happened afterwards that the people came out into the field.
And they told Abimelek.
3e 4A 14
9
וַיִּקַּ֣ח אֶת־הָעָ֗ם וַֽיֶּחֱצֵם֙ לִשְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה רָאשִׁ֔ים וַיֶּאֱרֹ֖ב בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה
וַיַּ֗רְא וְהִנֵּ֤ה הָעָם֙ יֹצֵ֣א מִן־הָעִ֔יר וַיָּ֥קָם עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם וַיַּכֵּֽם
43 And he took the people and he distributed them into three gangs, and they lay in wait in the field.
And he saw and behold, the people went out from the city, and he arose against them and struck them.
3e 4C 22
21
וַאֲבִימֶ֗לֶךְ וְהָרָאשִׁים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִמּ֔וֹ פָּשְׁט֕וּ וַיַּ֣עַמְד֔וּ פֶּ֖תַח שַׁ֣עַר הָעִ֑יר
וּשְׁנֵ֣י הָֽרָאשִׁ֗ים פָּֽשְׁט֛וּ עַֽל־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּשָּׂדֶ֖ה וַיַּכּֽוּם
44 And Abimelek and the gangs that were with him pillaged. And they stood at the door of the gate of the city.
And the two gangs pillaged over all that were in the field, and they struck them.
3d 4B 25
17
וַאֲבִימֶ֜לֶךְ נִלְחָ֣ם בָּעִ֗יר כֹּ֚ל הַיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא וַיִּלְכֹּד֙ אֶת־הָעִ֔יר וְאֶת־הָעָ֥ם אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֖הּ הָרָ֑ג
וַיִּתֹּץ֙ אֶת־הָעִ֔יר וַיִּזְרָעֶ֖הָ מֶֽלַח
45 And Abimelek warred with the city all that day, and he conquered the city, and the people that were in it, he slew.
And he broke down the city and sowed it with salt.
3e 4C 29
13
וַֽיִּשְׁמְע֔וּ כָּֽל־בַּעֲלֵ֖י מִֽגְדַּל־שְׁכֶ֑ם
וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ אֶל־צְרִ֔יחַ בֵּ֖ית אֵ֥ל בְּרִֽית
46 And all the superiors of the tower of Shechem heard,
and they came to the rookery of the house of a covenant God.
3e 4B 12
11
וַיֻּגַּ֖ד לַאֲבִימֶ֑לֶךְ
כִּ֣י הִֽתְקַבְּצ֔וּ כָּֽל־בַּעֲלֵ֖י מִֽגְדַּל־שְׁכֶֽם
47 And it was told to Abimelek,
that all the superiors of the tower of Shechem had collected themselves.
3e 4B 8
12
וַיַּ֨עַל אֲבִימֶ֜לֶךְ הַר־צַלְמ֗וֹן הוּא֮ וְכָל־הָעָ֣ם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ֒ וַיִּקַּח֩ אֲבִימֶ֨לֶךְ אֶת־הַקַּרְדֻּמּ֜וֹת בְּיָד֗וֹ וַיִּכְרֹת֙ שׂוֹכַ֣ת עֵצִ֔ים וַיִּ֨שָּׂאֶ֔הָ וַיָּ֖שֶׂם עַל־שִׁכְמ֑וֹ
וַיֹּ֜אמֶר אֶל־הָעָ֣ם אֲשֶׁר־עִמּ֗וֹ מָ֤ה רְאִיתֶם֙ עָשִׂ֔יתִי מַהֲר֖וּ עֲשׂ֥וּ כָמֽוֹנִי
48 And Abimelek went up the hill of Salmon, he and all the people that were with him. And Abimelek took a wedge into his hand and cut from the entwining trees, and he lifted it up and put it on his backside.
And he said to the people that were with him, Did you see what I have done? Be swift and do as I have.
3e 4C 52
25
וַיִּכְרְת֨וּ גַם־כָּל־הָעָ֜ם אִ֣ישׁ שׂוֹכֹ֗ה וַיֵּ֨לְכ֜וּ אַחֲרֵ֤י אֲבִימֶ֙לֶךְ֙ וַיָּשִׂ֣ימוּ עַֽל־הַצְּרִ֔יחַ וַיַּצִּ֧יתוּ עֲלֵיהֶ֛ם אֶֽת־הַצְּרִ֖יחַ בָּאֵ֑שׁ
וַיָּמֻ֜תוּ גַּ֣ם כָּל־אַנְשֵׁ֧י מִֽגְדַּל־שְׁכֶ֛ם כְּאֶ֖לֶף אִ֥ישׁ וְאִשָּֽׁה
49 And all the people cut also, each an entwined branch, and they went after Abimelek to put it in the rookery. and they charred them in the rookery with fire.
And they died, even all the persons of the tower of Shechem, about a thousand, man and woman.
3c 4C 42
19
וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ אֲבִימֶ֖לֶךְ אֶל־תֵּבֵ֑ץ
וַיִּ֥חַן בְּתֵבֵ֖ץ וַֽיִּלְכְּדָֽהּ
50 And Abimelek went to Tebets,
and encamped against Tebets and conquered it.
3e 4A 10
10
וּמִגְדַּל־עֹז֮ הָיָ֣ה בְתוֹךְ־הָעִיר֒ וַיָּנֻ֨סוּ שָׁ֜מָּה כָּל־הָאֲנָשִׁ֣ים וְהַנָּשִׁ֗ים וְכֹל֙ בַּעֲלֵ֣י הָעִ֔יר וַֽיִּסְגְּר֖וּ בַּעֲדָ֑ם
וַֽיַּעֲל֖וּ עַל־גַּ֥ג הַמִּגְדָּֽל
51 And a strong tower was in the midst of the city, and there all the men and the women withdrew and all the superiors of the city, and they locked it behind them,
and they came up onto the roof of the tower.
3e 4B 39
9
וַיָּבֹ֤א אֲבִימֶ֙לֶךְ֙ עַד־הַמִּגְדָּ֔ל וַיִּלָּ֖חֶם בּ֑וֹ
וַיִּגַּ֛שׁ עַד־פֶּ֥תַח הַמִּגְדָּ֖ל לְשָׂרְפ֥וֹ בָאֵֽשׁ
52 And Abimelek came even to the tower and fought against it.
And he made overture even to the door of the tower, to incinerate it with fire.
3d 4C 16
14
וַתַּשְׁלֵ֞ךְ אִשָּׁ֥ה אַחַ֛ת פֶּ֥לַח רֶ֖כֶב עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ אֲבִימֶ֑לֶךְ
וַתָּ֖רִץ אֶת־גֻּלְגָּלְתּֽוֹ
53 And one woman cast a slice of a rider-stone on the head of Abimelek,
and damaged his skull.
3d 4B 17
7
וַיִּקְרָ֨א מְהֵרָ֜ה אֶל־הַנַּ֣עַר ׀ נֹשֵׂ֣א כֵלָ֗יו וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ שְׁלֹ֤ף חַרְבְּךָ֙ וּמ֣וֹתְתֵ֔נִי פֶּן־יֹ֥אמְרוּ לִ֖י אִשָּׁ֣ה הֲרָגָ֑תְהוּ
וַיִּדְקְרֵ֥הוּ נַעֲר֖וֹ וַיָּמֹֽת
54 And he called swiftly to the lad, his cargo bearer, saying to him, Draw your sword and put me to death, lest they say of me, A woman slew him.
And his lad thrust him through and he died.
3e 4C 37
11
וַיִּרְא֥וּ אִֽישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כִּ֣י מֵ֣ת אֲבִימֶ֑לֶךְ
וַיֵּלְכ֖וּ אִ֥ישׁ לִמְקֹמֽוֹ
55 And the men of Israel saw that Abimelek was dead,
and they went each to his place.
3e 4B 13
7
וַיָּ֣שֶׁב אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֵ֖ת רָעַ֣ת אֲבִימֶ֑לֶךְ
אֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשָׂה֙ לְאָבִ֔יו לַהֲרֹ֖ג אֶת־שִׁבְעִ֥ים אֶחָֽיו
56 And God returned the evil of Abimelek,
that he had done to his father, to slay his seventy brothers.
3e 4C 13
15
וְאֵ֗ת כָּל־רָעַת֙ אַנְשֵׁ֣י שְׁכֶ֔ם הֵשִׁ֥יב אֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּרֹאשָׁ֑ם
וַתָּבֹ֣א אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם קִֽלֲלַ֖ת יוֹתָ֥ם בֶּן־יְרֻבָּֽעַל
57 And all the evil of the men of Shechem, God returned on their heads.
And the slight of Jotham child of Jerubbaal came to them.
3e 4B 17
16

Monday, October 15, 2018

Joshua 19

I wonder about my choices of gloss in different contexts. E.g. in this chapters courts would be equivalent to villages, both are the same stem in Hebrew, i.e. indistinguishable חצר (this stem is also grass). What if I wanted to adjust one to the other. It would be a challenge but it should be feasible for me to do a global change for these phrases in Joshua and even restrict it to certain phrasings. It affects perhaps a half dozen chapters. At the moment my distribution is court (166), grass (19), village (19). Switching the Joshua refrain would move 19 of the 166. I think it depends on what the context of the book might require.

Thinking about context, I don't think of Israel as being a grassy place. One might doubt it was any more grassy then as it is now. The north was more temperate and green than the south when I was there in 2010.  (See also Ben-Yoseph, Jacob. “THE CLIMATE IN ERETZ ISAEL DURING BIBLICAL TIMES.” Hebrew Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, 1985, pp. 225–239. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27908940. He points out the many references to water, snow, and dew as well as grass, springs, and wells, and the meandering Jordan river. And notes (p.233): "All evidence indicates that, agriculturally, the present is identical with the past." and p.235, Towns depended on "hinterlands". Now there's a gloss.) But whatever village might mean according to our modern (or seventeenth century) thoughts, perhaps the slightly more foreign courts is just fine for now for ancient settlements whose customs are equally foreign to us.

A glance at BDB or HALOT tells me I could spend quite a while on this. The both say that this type of settlement was without walls. I don't see a distinction in word forms used. The Hebrew-Latin concordance for חצר lists these glosses: locus septus, area, impluvium, atrium, villa, parvus vicus, without distinction of varieties. All word forms are under the same heading. In English these are local bands, area, mosaic, court, town, small village.

There is an issue of tense for these descriptions of borders. In the time of the narrative, is the border in the past, or in the present? This affects all chapters describing borders (15-19). JB, NIV are both phrased as if the author is in a future time and is describing a past state of affairs. KJV is inconsistent in its point of view. It is possible that the translator was even writing from the point of view of the 17th century CE. The Hebrew tenses are not obvious. Continuous present or imperfect is the choice I have made for Joshua, regardless of who wrote it. The rationale is that it is more present to the narrative itself. There is still some past tense related to the lot and its determination.

In the last verse, inherited (נחל) is used as a verb with transitive (piel intensive?) force, as if it were attributing cause to the subjects of the sentence. JB substitutes apportion (מנה). NIV has assign (נתן). Also in this long sentence, Yahweh is in apposition to the door. One could throw in a preposition from thin air. With doors, one is generally 'at' the door.

Throughout the chapters two words are used for the action verb associated with the lot, to come up (עלה), or to come out (יצא). Each of these stems has a host of variations distinguished only by the idea of up verses out.

יצא brought out (110) emerge (100) go forth (99) came out (76) went out (71) went forth (66) came forth (65) bring forth (57) come forth (50) go out (50) brought forth (49) going out (40) bring out (37) come out (28) exeunt (18) goes out (17) comes forth (15) going forth (15) coming forth (11) exit (9) comes out (8) gone out (8) offspring (8) brings forth (7) goes forth (7) gone forth (7) bringing out (5) emergence (5) brings out (4) come (4) source (4) -- (3) goings forth (3) bringing forth (2) bulge out (2) coming out (2) go (2) going off duty (2) goings out (2) out came (2) sally forth (2) and went out (1) anyone going out (1) duty (1) forth (1) get out (1) outgo (1) sally (1) there emerge (1) vanish (1)
עלה burnt offering (278) ascend (205) go up (107) went up (91) brought up (89) came up (91) come up (62) and upward (56) ascent (45) bring up (46) offered up (32) offer up (30) above (28) from above (22) degree (17) stair (16) upper room (16) going up (15) leaf (11) ascendant (10) offer (10) brings up (9) coming up (9) gone up (9) upward (8) comes up (7) trim (7) conduit (6) goes up (6) leave (6) ascendancy (5) from above it (5) offering (5) offering up (5) ascendance (3) bringing up (3) climb (3) get up (3) pretext (3) such come up (3) and forward (2) and from above (2) from (2) the upper (2) -- (1) a great degree (1) and come up (1) and they improve (1) from the ascendance of (1) got up (1) grew up (1) offers up (1) rose upward (1) to above it (1) to the upward (1) upper (1)

The use of the lot has always intrigued me. People in the Bible talk directly to Yahweh, why not get the instructions and the plan for settlement directly? Why use a random process? People who want to read codes into the Bible predicting this or that should think more about shared responsibility and freedom of action and probabilities. Let's have a quantum theology, not a theology of magic.

Joshua 19 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיֵּצֵ֞א הַגּוֹרָ֤ל הַשֵּׁנִי֙ לְשִׁמְע֔וֹן לְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־שִׁמְע֖וֹן לְמִשְׁפְּחוֹתָ֑ם
וַֽיְהִי֙ נַֽחֲלָתָ֔ם בְּת֖וֹךְ נַחֲלַ֥ת בְּנֵֽי־יְהוּדָֽה
1 And the second lot came out to Simeon of the branch of the children of Simeon in their families.
And their inheritance is in the midst of the inheritance of the children of Judah.
3e 4C 24
16
וַיְהִ֥י לָהֶ֖ם בְּנַֽחֲלָתָ֑ם
בְּאֵֽר־שֶׁ֥בַע וְשֶׁ֖בַע וּמוֹלָדָֽה
2 And there was for them in their inheritance,
Beer-Sheva, and Sheva, and Moladah,
3e 4A 9
11
וַחֲצַ֥ר שׁוּעָ֛ל וּבָלָ֖ה וָעָֽצֶם 3 And Chatsar, Shual, and Balah, and Atsem, 3d 3g 11
וְאֶלְתּוֹלַ֥ד וּבְת֖וּל וְחָרְמָֽה 4 And Eltolad, and Bethul, and Charmah, 3e 3g 9
וְצִֽקְלַ֥ג וּבֵית־הַמַּרְכָּב֖וֹת וַחֲצַ֥ר סוּסָֽה 5 And Tsiqlag, and the house of Riders, and the courts of Her Horse, 3e 3g 14
וּבֵ֥ית לְבָא֖וֹת וְשָֽׁרוּחֶ֑ן
עָרִ֥ים שְׁלֹשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה וְחַצְרֵיהֶֽן
6 And the house of Lebaoth, and Sharuxen,
thirteen cities and their courts,
3e 4A 9
10
עַ֥יִן ׀ רִמּ֖וֹן וָעֶ֣תֶר וְעָשָׁ֑ן
עָרִ֥ים אַרְבַּ֖ע וְחַצְרֵיהֶֽן
7 f Ain, Rimmon, and Eter, and Ashan,
four cities and their courts,
3e 4B 9
8
וְכָל־הַֽחֲצֵרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר סְבִיבוֹת֙ הֶֽעָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה עַד־בַּֽעֲלַ֥ת בְּאֵ֖ר רָ֣אמַת נֶ֑גֶב
זֹ֗את נַחֲלַ֛ת מַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־שִׁמְע֖וֹן לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָֽם
8 And all the villages that surround these cities, to Baal of Beer, Ramoth of the south.
This is the inheritance of the branch of the children of Simeon in their families.
3d 4C 27
15
מֵחֶ֙בֶל֙ בְּנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה נַחֲלַ֖ת בְּנֵ֣י שִׁמְע֑וֹן
כִּֽי־הָיָ֞ה חֵ֤לֶק בְּנֵֽי־יְהוּדָה֙ רַ֣ב מֵהֶ֔ם וַיִּנְחֲל֥וּ בְנֵֽי־שִׁמְע֖וֹן בְּת֥וֹךְ נַחֲלָתָֽם
9 Out of the territory of the children of Judah was the inheritance of the children of Simeon,
for the division of the children of Judah was too much for them, so the children of Simeon were given to inherit in the midst of their inheritance.
3e 4C 15
26
וַיַּ֙עַל֙ הַגּוֹרָ֣ל הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֔י לִבְנֵ֥י זְבוּלֻ֖ן לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֑ם
וַיְהִ֛י גְּב֥וּל נַחֲלָתָ֖ם עַד־שָׂרִֽיד
10 And the third lot came up of the children of Zebulun in their families,
and the border of their inheritance is to Sarid.
3d 4B 19
11
וְעָלָ֨ה גְבוּלָ֧ם ׀ לַיָּ֛מָּה וּמַרְעֲלָ֖ה וּפָגַ֣ע בְּדַבָּ֑שֶׁת
וּפָגַע֙ אֶל־הַנַּ֔חַל אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י יָקְנְעָֽם
11 And their border ascends toward the sea and Stagger, and butts into Honey,
and butts into the wadi that is over before Yiqneam.
3c 4B 20
15
וְשָׁ֣ב מִשָּׂרִ֗יד קֵ֚דְמָה מִזְרַ֣ח הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ עַל־גְּב֥וּל כִּסְלֹ֖ת תָּבֹ֑ר
וְיָצָ֥א אֶל־הַדָּֽבְרַ֖ת וְעָלָ֥ה יָפִֽיעַ
12 Then it turns from Sarid eastward toward the rising of the sun to the border of the Folly of Tavor.
And it goes out to Daberat and ascends to Shine.
3e 4C 19
13
וּמִשָּׁ֤ם עָבַר֙ קֵ֣דְמָה מִזְרָ֔חָה גִּתָּ֥ה חֵ֖פֶר עִתָּ֣ה קָצִ֑ין
וְיָצָ֛א רִמּ֥וֹן הַמְּתֹאָ֖ר הַנֵּעָֽה
13 And from there crosses over eastward toward the sunrise towards Gath Xefar, towards Itqtsyn,
and comes out at Rimmon the Handsome to Ne`ah.
3d 4C 18
11
וְנָסַ֤ב אֹתוֹ֙ הַגְּב֔וּל מִצְּפ֖וֹן חַנָּתֹ֑ן
וְהָיוּ֙ תֹּֽצְאֹתָ֔יו גֵּ֖י יִפְתַּח־אֵֽל
14 And the border circles it from the north to Xanathan,
and its exeunts in the gorge of Jephthah-El.
3e 4C 12
10
וְקַטָּ֤ת וְנַֽהֲלָל֙ וְשִׁמְר֔וֹן וְיִדְאֲלָ֖ה וּבֵ֣ית לָ֑חֶם
עָרִ֥ים שְׁתֵּים־עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה וְחַצְרֵיהֶֽן
15 And Qattat, and Nahalol, and Samaria, and Yidalah, and the house of bread [Bethlehem],
twelve cities and their courts.
3e 4C 18
10
זֹ֛את נַחֲלַ֥ת בְּנֵֽי־זְבוּלֻ֖ן לְמִשְׁפְּחוֹתָ֑ם
הֶֽעָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה וְחַצְרֵיהֶֽן
16 d This is the inheritance of the children of Zebulun in their families,
these cities and their courts.
3d 4A 14
10
לְיִ֨שָּׂשכָ֔ר יָצָ֖א הַגּוֹרָ֣ל הָֽרְבִיעִ֑י
לִבְנֵ֥י יִשָּׂשכָ֖ר לְמִשְׁפְּחוֹתָֽם
17 For Issachar the fourth lot came out,
of the children of Issachar in their families.
3e 4B 12
10
וַיְהִ֖י גְּבוּלָ֑ם
יִזְרְעֶ֥אלָה וְהַכְּסוּלֹ֖ת וְשׁוּנֵֽם
18 And their border,
is toward Jezreel, and Kesullot, and Shunem,
3e 4A 5
11
וַחֲפָרַ֥יִם וְשִׁיאֹ֖ן וַאֲנָחֲרַֽת 19 And Xapharim, and Shion, and Anaxarat, 3e 3g 12
וְהָֽרַבִּ֥ית וְקִשְׁי֖וֹן וָאָֽבֶץ 20 And Rabbit, and Qishyon, and Abets, 3e 3g 10
וְרֶ֧מֶת וְעֵין־גַּנִּ֛ים וְעֵ֥ין חַדָּ֖ה וּבֵ֥ית פַּצֵּֽץ 21 And Remet, and Ein-Ganim, and Ein-Xaddah, and the house of Patsats, 3c 3g 15
וּפָגַע֩ הַגְּב֨וּל בְּתָב֤וֹר וְשַׁחֲצִ֙ימָה֙ וּבֵ֣ית שֶׁ֔מֶשׁ וְהָי֛וּ תֹּצְא֥וֹת גְּבוּלָ֖ם הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן
עָרִ֥ים שֵׁשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה וְחַצְרֵיהֶֽן
22 And the border butts with Tabor, and Shaxatsymah, and the House of the Sun.
And the exeunts of their border, the Jordan, sixteen cities and their courts.
3d 4C 28
9
זֹ֗את נַחֲלַ֛ת מַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־יִשָּׂשכָ֖ר לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֑ם
הֶעָרִ֖ים וְחַצְרֵיהֶֽן
23 ~ This is the inheritance of the branch of the children of Issachar in their families,
the cities and their villages.
3d 4A 15
7
וַיֵּצֵא֙ הַגּוֹרָ֣ל הַֽחֲמִישִׁ֔י לְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־אָשֵׁ֖ר לְמִשְׁפְּחוֹתָֽם 24 And the fifth lot came out of the branch of the children of Asher in their families. 3e 4B 21
וַיְהִ֖י גְּבוּלָ֑ם
חֶלְקַ֥ת וַחֲלִ֖י וָבֶ֥טֶן וְאַכְשָֽׁף
25 And their borders are,
Xelqat, and Xali, and Belly, and Akshap,
3e 4A 5
11
וְאַֽלַמֶּ֥לֶךְ וְעַמְעָ֖ד וּמִשְׁאָ֑ל
וּפָגַ֤ע בְּכַרְמֶל֙ הַיָּ֔מָּה וּבְשִׁיח֖וֹר לִבְנָֽת
26 And Alammelech, and Amad, and Mishal,
and butt with Carmel toward the sea, and with the white of Blackest Dawn.
3e 4C 11
14
וְשָׁ֨ב מִזְרַ֣ח הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ֮ בֵּ֣ית דָּגֹן֒ וּפָגַ֣ע בִּ֠זְבֻלוּן וּבְגֵ֨י יִפְתַּח־אֵ֥ל צָפ֛וֹנָה בֵּ֥ית הָעֵ֖מֶק וּנְעִיאֵ֑ל
וְיָצָ֥א אֶל־כָּב֖וּל מִשְּׂמֹֽאל
27 Then it turns toward the rising of the sun, the house of grain, and butts with Zebulun and the gorge of Jephthah El northward, the house of the valley, and Ni`el,
and exits to Kabul on the left.
3d 4B 31
8
וְעֶבְרֹ֥ן וּרְחֹ֖ב וְחַמּ֣וֹן וְקָנָ֑ה
עַ֖ד צִיד֥וֹן רַבָּֽה
28 And Ebrun, and Rehob, and Xamon, and Qenah,
to Sidon the Plenary.
3e 4B 11
5
וְשָׁ֤ב הַגְּבוּל֙ הָֽרָמָ֔ה וְעַד־עִ֖יר מִבְצַר־צֹ֑ר
וְשָׁ֤ב הַגְּבוּל֙ חֹסָ֔ה וְהָי֧וּ תֹצְאֹתָ֛יו הַיָּ֖מָּה מֵחֶ֥בֶל אַכְזִֽיבָה
29 Then the border turns to Ramah and to the enclosed city, Tyre.
Then the border turns to Hosah and its exeunts toward the sea, from the margin toward Akzib.
3c 4C 13
21
וְעֻמָ֥ה וַאֲפֵ֖ק וּרְחֹ֑ב
עָרִ֛ים עֶשְׂרִ֥ים וּשְׁתַּ֖יִם וְחַצְרֵיהֶֽן
30 And Umah, and Aphaq, and Rexob,
twenty two cities and their courts.
3d 4A 8
10
זֹ֗את נַחֲלַ֛ת מַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־אָשֵׁ֖ר לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֑ם
הֶעָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה וְחַצְרֵיהֶֽן
31 ~ This is the inheritance of the branch of the children of Asher in their families,
these cities and their courts.
3d 4A 14
10
לִבְנֵ֣י נַפְתָּלִ֔י יָצָ֖א הַגּוֹרָ֣ל הַשִּׁשִּׁ֑י
לִבְנֵ֥י נַפְתָּלִ֖י לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָֽם
32 For the children of Naphtali the sixth lot came out,
for the children of Naphtali in their families.
3e 4B 13
10
וַיְהִ֣י גְבוּלָ֗ם מֵחֵ֨לֶף מֵֽאֵל֜וֹן בְּצַעֲנַנִּ֗ים וַאֲדָמִ֥י הַנֶּ֛קֶב וְיַבְנְאֵ֖ל עַד־לַקּ֑וּם
וַיְהִ֥י תֹצְאֹתָ֖יו הַיַּרְדֵּֽן
33 And their border is from Xalep, from Elon into Tsaannym and Adami, the Hammer and Yabneel to Laqum,
and its exeunts the Jordan.
3d 4B 30
8
וְשָׁ֨ב הַגְּב֥וּל יָ֙מָּה֙ אַזְנ֣וֹת תָּב֔וֹר וְיָצָ֥א מִשָּׁ֖ם חוּקֹ֑קָה
וּפָגַ֨ע בִּזְבֻל֜וּן מִנֶּ֗גֶב וּבְאָשֵׁר֙ פָּגַ֣ע מִיָּ֔ם וּבִ֣יהוּדָ֔ה הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן מִזְרַ֥ח הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ
34 Then the border turns seaward to the ears of Tabor and emerges from there to the Lawgiver,
and butts with Zebulun from the Negev and butting into Asher seaward, and into Judah of the Jordan, toward the rising of the sun.
3e 4B 18
28
וְעָרֵ֖י מִבְצָ֑ר
הַצִּדִּ֣ים צֵ֔ר וְחַמַּ֖ת רַקַּ֥ת וְכִנָּֽרֶת
35 And the cities enclosed,
Tsiddim, Tser and Hamath, Raqqat and Kinneret,
3e 4B 5
13
וַאֲדָמָ֥ה וְהָרָמָ֖ה וְחָצֽוֹר 36 And Adamah, and Ramah, and Chatsor, 3e 3g 11
וְקֶ֥דֶשׁ וְאֶדְרֶ֖עִי וְעֵ֥ין חָצֽוֹר 37 And Qedesh, and Edrei, and Ein-Chatsor, 3e 3g 11
וְיִרְאוֹן֙ וּמִגְדַּל־אֵ֔ל חֳרֵ֥ם וּבֵית־עֲנָ֖ת וּבֵ֣ית שָׁ֑מֶשׁ
עָרִ֥ים תְּשַֽׁע־עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה וְחַצְרֵיהֶֽן
38 And Yiron, and Migdal-El, Xorem and the house of Anah, and the House of the Sun,
nineteen cities and their courts.
3e 4B 17
10
זֹ֗את נַחֲלַ֛ת מַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־נַפְתָּלִ֖י לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֑ם
הֶעָרִ֖ים וְחַצְרֵיהֶֽן
39 ~ This is the inheritance of the branch of the children of Naphtali in their families,
the cities and their villages.
3d 4A 16
7
לְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵי־דָ֖ן לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֑ם
יָצָ֖א הַגּוֹרָ֥ל הַשְּׁבִיעִֽי
40 For the branch of the children of Dan in their families,
the seventh lot came out.
3e 4A 11
8
וַיְהִ֖י גְּב֣וּל נַחֲלָתָ֑ם
צָרְעָ֥ה וְאֶשְׁתָּא֖וֹל וְעִ֥יר שָֽׁמֶשׁ
41 And the border of their inheritance is,
Tsarah, and Eshtaol, and the city of the Sun,
3e 4B 8
10
וְשַֽׁעֲלַבִּ֥ין וְאַיָּל֖וֹן וְיִתְלָֽה 42 And Shaalbim, and Ailon, and Yitlah, 3e 3g 12
וְאֵיל֥וֹן וְתִמְנָ֖תָה וְעֶקְרֽוֹן 43 And Ailon, and Timnatah, and Eqron, 3e 3g 10
וְאֶלְתְּקֵ֥ה וְגִבְּת֖וֹן וּבַעֲלָֽת 44 And Elteqeh, and Gibbethon, and Baalat, 3e 3g 11
וִיהֻ֥ד וּבְנֵֽי־בְרַ֖ק וְגַת־רִמּֽוֹן 45 And Jexud, and the children of lightning, and Gath Rimmon. 3e 3g 10
וּמֵ֥י הַיַּרְק֖וֹן וְהָֽרַקּ֑וֹן
עִֽם־הַגְּב֖וּל מ֥וּל יָפֽוֹ
46 And Me-Hayirqon and Raqqon,
with the border in the forefront of Yapho.
3e 4A 9
6
וַיֵּצֵ֥א גְבוּל־בְּנֵי־דָ֖ן מֵהֶ֑ם
וַיַּעֲל֣וּ בְנֵֽי־דָ֠ן וַיִּלָּחֲמ֨וּ עִם־לֶ֜שֶׁם וַיִּלְכְּד֥וּ אוֹתָ֣הּ ׀ וַיַּכּ֧וּ אוֹתָ֣הּ לְפִי־חֶ֗רֶב וַיִּֽרְשׁ֤וּ אוֹתָהּ֙ וַיֵּ֣שְׁבוּ בָ֔הּ וַיִּקְרְא֤וּ לְלֶ֙שֶׁם֙ דָּ֔ן כְּשֵׁ֖ם דָּ֥ן אֲבִיהֶֽם
47 And the border of the children of Dan came out for them.
And the children of Dan came up and fought with Leshem, and they conquered her, and struck her with the edge of the sword, and they possessed her, and they inhabited in her, and called Leshem, Dan, like the name of Dan their father.
3c 4C 10
52
זֹ֗את נַחֲלַ֛ת מַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵי־דָ֖ן לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֑ם
הֶֽעָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה וְחַצְרֵיהֶֽן
48 ~ This is the inheritance of the branch of the children of Dan in their families,
these cities and their courts.
3d 4A 14
10
וַיְכַלּ֥וּ לִנְחֹל־אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ לִגְבֽוּלֹתֶ֑יהָ
וַיִּתְּנ֨וּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֧ל נַחֲלָ֛ה לִיהוֹשֻׁ֥עַ בִּן־נ֖וּן בְּתוֹכָֽם
49 And they finished inheriting the land for their borders,
and the children of Israel gave an inheritance to Joshua, child of Nun, among them.
3c 4A 14
20
עַל־פִּ֨י יְהוָ֜ה נָ֣תְנוּ ל֗וֹ אֶת־הָעִיר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׁאָ֔ל אֶת־תִּמְנַת־סֶ֖רַח בְּהַ֣ר אֶפְרָ֑יִם
וַיִּבְנֶ֥ה אֶת־הָעִ֖יר וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב בָּֽהּ
50 At the mandate of Yahweh, they gave to to him the city that he asked, Temanat-Sprawl, in mount Ephraim.
And he built the city and he settled in her.
3e 4B 24
10
אֵ֣לֶּה הַנְּחָלֹ֡ת אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִחֲל֣וּ אֶלְעָזָ֣ר הַכֹּהֵ֣ן ׀ וִיהוֹשֻׁ֪עַ בִּן־נ֟וּן וְרָאשֵׁ֣י הָֽאָב֣וֹת לְמַטּוֹת֩ בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֨ל ׀ בְּגוֹרָ֤ל ׀ בְּשִׁלֹה֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד
וַיְכַלּ֕וּ מֵֽחַלֵּ֖ק אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ
51 B These are the inheritances that Eleazar the priest, and Joshua, child of Nun, and the heads of the ancestors inherited for the branches of the children of Israel by lot in Shiloh, in the presence of Yahweh, the door of the tent of engagement.
And they finished the division of the land.
3d 4C 52
10

Sunday, October 14, 2018

Status - last lap approaching

Status as of 2018-10-14ChaptersVersesWords
Completed90622,334293,242
97.5%96.3%96.0%
In process0.0%0.9%
To do, excluding in process238619,514
2.5%3.7%3.1%

We are back in the saddle and hopefully no more computer crashes for the next 3 weeks. We are 96% or over on all measures. Fewer than 900 verses left, fewer than 10,000 words. The Hebrew runs quickly. There are still a few chapters of Aramaic that will slow me down.

If you look at the page here, you will gradually find English text files of books and groups of books that anyone can read and comment on. We do have something to learn about this text. There must be still much to do, but I will push ahead and finish putting all the puzzle pieces in place. Then decisions can be made to repaint some of them as needed.