Sunday, December 10, 2017

2 Samuel 24

You can look these places in the journey up (sort of) on a map. They start by travelling towards modern day Jordan through some places that are not identifiable, into the land of Dan north of Kinnereth, then further north to Sidon where they turn south to Tyre then way south to Beer-sheva, 100 or so km south of Jerusalem. I tried mapping it on Google maps - without much success.

A difficult journey today, and probably difficult in David's time as well.

Verse 1 - what was David doing? In the parallel 1 Chronicles 21, it is an accuser (Hebrew, Satan) who incites David. Could David  just want to 'number' (ספר) Israel. The verb here is מנה, portion, apportion, and in a few places (like Qohelet 1:15) I have used fathom. This seems to me to be a credible sin. Otherwise what's the problem with a census (ראשׁ a head count)?

In response to the request to fathom Joab visits and conscripts (פקד, also commonly visit). I have used this verb also in Numbers where tradition has number. As you can see, counting is represented by 4 different stems in the Hebrew. Hence my predicament when dealing with these, whatever they are, shades of 'meaning'.

It is not possible, by the way, to get answers to these kinds of puzzling questions from a 'study Bible'. Most of these simply assume the traditional glosses and fail even to point out the guesswork behind the scenes of the translations. They are about as good for what we need to know from the Bible as a Google map for an ancient journey.

2 Samuel 24 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיֹּ֙סֶף֙ אַף־יְהוָ֔ה לַחֲר֖וֹת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיָּ֨סֶת אֶת־דָּוִ֤ד בָּהֶם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לֵ֛ךְ מְנֵ֥ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְאֶת־יְהוּדָֽה
1 And again the anger of Yahweh burned in Israel,
and he incited David against them, saying, Go, fathom Israel and Judah.
3d 4C 13
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶל־יוֹאָ֣ב ׀ שַׂר־הַחַ֣יִל אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֗וֹ שֽׁוּט־נָ֞א בְּכָל־שִׁבְטֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִדָּן֙ וְעַד־בְּאֵ֣ר שֶׁ֔בַע וּפִקְד֖וּ אֶת־הָעָ֑ם
וְיָ֣דַעְתִּ֔י אֵ֖ת מִסְפַּ֥ר הָעָֽם
2 And the king said to Joab, chief of the force that was with him, Rove please among all the sceptres of Israel from Dan and to Beer-Sheva, and conscript the people,
so I may know the count of the people.
3e 4C 40
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יוֹאָ֜ב אֶל־הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וְיוֹסֵ֣ף יְהוָה֩ אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ אֶל־הָעָ֜ם כָּהֵ֤ם ׀ וְכָהֵם֙ מֵאָ֣ה פְעָמִ֔ים וְעֵינֵ֥י אֲדֹנִֽי־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ רֹא֑וֹת
וַאדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לָ֥מָּה חָפֵ֖ץ בַּדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה
3 And Joab said to the king, May Yahweh your God add to the people as they are, and a hundred times as they are and let the eyes of my Lord the king see,
but why does my lord the king delight in this matter?
3e 4C 41
וַיֶּחֱזַ֤ק דְּבַר־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־יוֹאָ֔ב וְעַ֖ל שָׂרֵ֣י הֶחָ֑יִל
וַיֵּצֵ֨א יוֹאָ֜ב וְשָׂרֵ֤י הַחַ֙יִל֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לִפְקֹ֥ד אֶת־הָעָ֖ם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
4 But the word of the king was resolute to Joab and against the chiefs of the force,
and Joab and the chiefs of the force went out, in the presence of the king, to conscript the people, Israel.
3e 4C 19
וַיַּעַבְר֖וּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן
וַיַּחֲנ֣וּ בַעֲרוֹעֵ֗ר יְמִ֥ין הָעִ֛יר אֲשֶׁ֛ר בְּתוֹךְ־הַנַּ֥חַל הַגָּ֖ד וְאֶל־יַעְזֵֽר
5 And they crossed over at the Jordan,
and encamped at Aroer on the right hand of the city that is in the midst of the wadi of Gad, and toward Yazer.
3d 4B 8
וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ הַגִּלְעָ֔דָה וְאֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ תַּחְתִּ֖ים חָדְשִׁ֑י
וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ דָּ֣נָה יַּ֔עַן וְסָבִ֖יב אֶל־צִידֽוֹן
6 And they came toward the Gilead and to the land of lowest new moon [Txtymhodshy],
and they came towards Dan (because) [Dan-Yeem] and round about to Sidon.
3e 4B 15
וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ מִבְצַר־צֹ֔ר וְכָל־עָרֵ֥י הַחִוִּ֖י וְהַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֑י
וַיֵּֽצְא֛וּ אֶל־נֶ֥גֶב יְהוּדָ֖ה בְּאֵ֥ר שָֽׁבַע
7 And they came the enclosure of Tyre, and all the cities of the Hivite and the Canaanite,
and they went forth to the south of Judah, Beer-Sheva.
3d 4A 18
וַיָּשֻׁ֖טוּ בְּכָל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ מִקְצֵ֨ה תִשְׁעָ֧ה חֳדָשִׁ֛ים וְעֶשְׂרִ֥ים י֖וֹם יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם
8 And they held out in all the land,
and came at the culmination of nine months and twenty days to Jerusalem.
3c 4A 9
וַיִּתֵּ֥ן יוֹאָ֛ב אֶת־מִסְפַּ֥ר מִפְקַד־הָעָ֖ם אֶל־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
וַתְּהִ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֡ל שְׁמֹנֶה֩ מֵא֨וֹת אֶ֤לֶף אִֽישׁ־חַ֙יִל֙ שֹׁ֣לֵֽף חֶ֔רֶב וְאִ֣ישׁ יְהוּדָ֔ה חֲמֵשׁ־מֵא֥וֹת אֶ֖לֶף אִֽישׁ
9 And Joab gave the count of the conscription of the people to the king.
And there were in Israel eight hundred thousand men of ability that drew a sword, and those of Judah, five hundred thousand men.
3d 4C 16
וַיַּ֤ךְ לֵב־דָּוִד֙ אֹת֔וֹ אַחֲרֵי־כֵ֖ן סָפַ֣ר אֶת־הָעָ֑ם
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶל־יְהוָ֗ה חָטָ֤אתִי מְאֹד֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֔יתִי וְעַתָּ֣ה יְהוָ֔ה הַֽעֲבֶר־נָא֙ אֶת־עֲוֺ֣ן עַבְדְּךָ֔ כִּ֥י נִסְכַּ֖לְתִּי מְאֹֽד
10 And the heart of David struck him after so counting the people,
and David said to Yahweh, I have sinned excessively in what I have done, and now Yahweh, let pass please the iniquity of your servant, for I have been excessively silly.
3e 4C 16
וַיָּ֥קָם דָּוִ֖ד בַּבֹּ֑קֶר
וּדְבַר־יְהוָ֗ה הָיָה֙ אֶל־גָּ֣ד הַנָּבִ֔יא חֹזֵ֥ה דָוִ֖ד לֵאמֹֽר
11 And David arose in the morning,
and the word of Yahweh happened to Gad the prophet, the visionary for David, saying,
3e 4B 8
הָל֞וֹךְ וְדִבַּרְתָּ֣ אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה שָׁלֹ֕שׁ אָנֹכִ֖י נוֹטֵ֣ל עָלֶ֑יךָ
בְּחַר־לְךָ֥ אַֽחַת־מֵהֶ֖ם וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ
12 Go and speak to David, Thus says Yahweh, Three I will tolerate over you.
Chose one of them for you, that I will undertake for you.
3e 4C 24
וַיָּבֹא־גָ֥ד אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד וַיַּגֶּד־ל֑וֹ
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֡וֹ הֲתָב֣וֹא לְךָ֣ שֶֽׁבַע שָׁנִ֣ים ׀ רָעָ֣ב ׀ בְּאַרְצֶ֡ךָ אִם־שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה חֳ֠דָשִׁים נֻסְךָ֨ לִפְנֵֽי־צָרֶ֜יךָ וְה֣וּא רֹדְפֶ֗ךָ וְאִם־הֱ֠יוֹת שְׁלֹ֨שֶׁת יָמִ֥ים דֶּ֙בֶר֙ בְּאַרְצֶ֔ךָ עַתָּה֙ דַּ֣ע וּרְאֵ֔ה מָה־אָשִׁ֥יב שֹׁלְחִ֖י דָּבָֽר
13 So Gad came to David and made it clear to him,
and said to him, Will seven years of famine come to you in your land, or three months you withdraw before your foes while he pursues you, or will there be three days pestilence in your land? Now acknowledge and see. What word will I return to him who sent me?
3e 4B 11
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר דָּוִ֛ד אֶל־גָּ֖ד צַר־לִ֣י מְאֹ֑ד
נִפְּלָה־נָּ֤א בְיַד־יְהוָה֙ כִּֽי־רַבִּ֣ים רַֽחֲמָ֔יו וּבְיַד־אָדָ֖ם אַל־אֶפֹּֽלָה
14 And David said to Gad, My troubles are excessive.
Let us fall, please, into the hand of Yahweh, for many are his compassions, and into the hand of humanity let me not fall.
3c 4C 11
וַיִּתֵּ֨ן יְהוָ֥ה דֶּ֙בֶר֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מֵהַבֹּ֖קֶר וְעַד־עֵ֣ת מוֹעֵ֑ד
וַיָּ֣מָת מִן־הָעָ֗ם מִדָּן֙ וְעַד־בְּאֵ֣ר שֶׁ֔בַע שִׁבְעִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף אִֽישׁ
15 And Yahweh gave a pestilence on Israel, from the morning and to an appointed time,
and there died from the people, from Dan and to Beer-Sheva, seventy thousand men.
3e 4B 20
וַיִּשְׁלַח֩ יָד֨וֹ הַמַּלְאָ֥ךְ ׀ יְרֽוּשָׁלִַם֮ לְשַׁחֲתָהּ֒ וַיִּנָּ֤חֶם יְהוָה֙ אֶל־הָ֣רָעָ֔ה וַ֠יֹּאמֶר לַמַּלְאָ֞ךְ הַמַּשְׁחִ֤ית בָּעָם֙ רַ֔ב עַתָּ֖ה הֶ֣רֶף יָדֶ֑ךָ
וּמַלְאַ֤ךְ יְהוָה֙ הָיָ֔ה עִם־גֹּ֖רֶן הָאֲרַ֥וְנָה הַיְבֻסִֽי
16 And the angel extended his hand to Jerusalem to destroy, and Yahweh sighed at the evil, and said to the angel, the destroyer among the people, Too much now. Let your hand desist.
And the angel of Yahweh was beside the threshing-floor of Aravnah the Jebusite.
3e 4C 45
וַיֹּאמֶר֩ דָּוִ֨ד אֶל־יְהוָ֜ה בִּרְאֹת֣וֹ ׀ אֶֽת־הַמַּלְאָ֣ךְ ׀ הַמַּכֶּ֣ה בָעָ֗ם וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הִנֵּ֨ה אָנֹכִ֤י חָטָ֙אתִי֙ וְאָנֹכִ֣י הֶעֱוֵ֔יתִי וְאֵ֥לֶּה הַצֹּ֖אן מֶ֣ה עָשׂ֑וּ
תְּהִ֨י נָ֥א יָדְךָ֛ בִּ֖י וּבְבֵ֥ית אָבִֽי
17 And David said to Yahweh when he saw the angel of striking among the people, and he said, Behold I, I have sinned, and I myself have been perverse, but these, the flock, what have they done?
Let be, if you will, your hand against me, and against the house of my father.
3d 4C 47
וַיָּבֹא־גָ֥ד אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ עֲלֵה֙ הָקֵ֤ם לַֽיהוָה֙ מִזְבֵּ֔חַ בְּגֹ֖רֶן אֲרַ֥וְנָה הַיְבֻסִֽי
18 So Gad came to David in that day and said to him. Go up. Raise up for Yahweh an altar on the threshing-floor of Aravnah the Jebusite. 3e 4C 11
וַיַּ֤עַל דָּוִד֙ כִּדְבַר־גָּ֔ד כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָֽה 19 And David went up according to the word of Gad as Yahweh commanded. 3e 4C 15
וַיַּשְׁקֵ֣ף אֲרַ֗וְנָה וַיַּ֤רְא אֶת־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וְאֶת־עֲבָדָ֔יו עֹבְרִ֖ים עָלָ֑יו
וַיֵּצֵ֣א אֲרַ֔וְנָה וַיִּשְׁתַּ֧חוּ לַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אַפָּ֖יו אָֽרְצָה
20 And Aravnah leaned over to look and he saw the king and his servants crossing to him,
and Aravnah went out and he prostrated himself to the king, his nose earthward.
3c 4C 21
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲרַ֔וְנָה מַדּ֛וּעַ בָּ֥א אֲדֹנִֽי־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶל־עַבְדּ֑וֹ
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד לִקְנ֧וֹת מֵעִמְּךָ֣ אֶת־הַגֹּ֗רֶן לִבְנ֤וֹת מִזְבֵּ֙חַ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה וְתֵעָצַ֥ר הַמַּגֵּפָ֖ה מֵעַ֥ל הָעָֽם
21 And Aravnah said, Why has my Lord the king come to his servant?
And David said, To buy from you the threshing-floor to build an altar to Yahweh, that the plague may be contained from over the people.
3c 4C 18
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲרַ֙וְנָה֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד יִקַּ֥ח וְיַ֛עַל אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ הַטּ֣וֹב בְּעֵינָ֑יו
רְאֵה֙ הַבָּקָ֣ר לָעֹלָ֔ה וְהַמֹּרִגִּ֛ים וּכְלֵ֥י הַבָּקָ֖ר לָעֵצִֽים
22 And Aravnah said to David, Let my Lord the king take and offer up of what is good in his eyes.
See the oxen for the burnt offering, and threshing instruments and vessels of the oxen, for wood.
3d 4C 25
הַכֹּ֗ל נָתַ֛ן אֲרַ֥וְנָה הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲרַ֙וְנָה֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ יִרְצֶֽךָ
23 The whole Aravnah gave to the king for the king.
And Aravnah said to the king, Yahweh your God accept you.
3d 4C 13
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶל־אֲרַ֗וְנָה לֹ֚א כִּֽי־קָנ֨וֹ אֶקְנֶ֤ה מֵאֽוֹתְךָ֙ בִּמְחִ֔יר וְלֹ֧א אַעֲלֶ֛ה לַיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהַ֖י עֹל֣וֹת חִנָּ֑ם
וַיִּ֨קֶן דָּוִ֤ד אֶת־הַגֹּ֙רֶן֙ וְאֶת־הַבָּקָ֔ר בְּכֶ֖סֶף שְׁקָלִ֥ים חֲמִשִּֽׁים
24 And the king said to Aravnah, No, for buying, I will buy from you at a price, for I should not offer up to Yahweh my God burnt offerings for nothing.
And David bought the threshing-floor and the oxen with fifty shekels of silver.
3c 4C 34
וַיִּבֶן֩ שָׁ֨ם דָּוִ֤ד מִזְבֵּ֙חַ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה וַיַּ֥עַל עֹל֖וֹת וּשְׁלָמִ֑ים
וַיֵּעָתֵ֤ר יְהוָה֙ לָאָ֔רֶץ וַתֵּעָצַ֥ר הַמַּגֵּפָ֖ה מֵעַ֥ל יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
25 And David built there an altar to Yahweh, and he offered up burnt offerings and peace offerings,
and Yahweh was petitioned for the land and the plague was contained from over Israel.
3e 4C 19

Friday, December 8, 2017


People often ask, Where should I start to read the Hebrew Bible?

Ha! If there ever was a loaded question that's it. Why should you read, why would you want to, what will we do with the choices, all bound up in a 'where should I start' question.

I am now looking for a lottery on where will I finish. Even one on the odds of finishing. C'mon bookmakers, do a lottery and give me a cut. Somehow, I doubt it.

But here's the chapters left by book. So how will I finish - with a gradual sweep or a book at a time?

Book chapters left
Dec 12
out of 
Torah Genesis 25 50
Exodus 8 40
Leviticus 7 27
Numbers 16 36
Deuteronomy 6 34
Former Prophets Joshua 9 24
Judges 16 21
1 Samuel 18 31
2 Samuel 18 24
1 Kings 10 22
2 Kings 9 25
Later Prophets Isaiah 28 66
Jeremiah 20 52
Ezekiel 28 48
Other Daniel 9 12
Ezra 7 10
Nehemiah 11 13
1 Chronicles 21 29
2 Chronicles 19 36

So far I have done specific groups of books completely. I think it was important to have begun with the Psalms, and to have done the five scrolls. I think Deuteronomy should be completed. I suspect it is another key to the formation of the history. Samuel, Kings and Chronicles will support each other. As one chapter is done, its parallel passages will be guessed. The final section lags the others.

Overall, both more and less detail at once:
Books Chapters Verses by vs Chapters 'Done' Verses compl ch Words compl ch weeks left % 'done' by ch
1 Torah 187 5853 25% 125 3847 52943 16.7 66.8%
2 Former Prophets 147 4317 19% 67 1902 30827 20.1 45.6%
3 Later Prophets 166 3928 17% 90 1911 29184 16.8 54.2%
4 The 12 67 1050 5% 67 1050 14357 0.0 100.0%
5 Books of Truth 223 4512 19% 223 4512 34841 0.0 100.0%
6 The 5 Scrolls 39 745 3% 39 745 10118 0.0 100.0%
7 Other 100 2791 12% 33 742 11252 17.1 33.0%
Totals 929 23196 100% 644 14,709 183,522 70.7 69.3%

Leviticus 18

It is not surprising that Leviticus 18 would be 60% guessed after Leviticus 20 was done. It should have been higher but I had some confusion in the stems of chapter 18. After sorting this out I see that the two chapters share 80% of their words.

The subjects are similar and they surround Leviticus 19. [Not the middle chapter of this middle book. I mistakenly thought there were 37 chapters in Leviticus - but I am thankful there are only 27. There are 37 verses in chapter 19 which I was working on at that confused time.] Nonetheless, circular structures like this abound as a feature of Biblical literature.

The first thing I noted when reading the beginning of this chapter (v 5) is the use of a 6 word phrase that we found in Ezekiel 20. (אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה אוֹתָ֛ם הָאָדָ֖ם וָחַ֥י בָּהֶֽם The human that does them will live in them.)

Verse 6 is contorted. The Hebrew word order is very awkward in English. This is because it is more 'natural' (and when was my English ever such?) to phrase it in the negative. And it is third personal indirect speech and then suddenly switches to a direct second person plural verb.

Leviticus 18 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 1 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
דַּבֵּר֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
2 Speak to the children of Israel and say to them,
I am Yahweh your God.
3e 4B 15
כְּמַעֲשֵׂ֧ה אֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרַ֛יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְשַׁבְתֶּם־בָּ֖הּ לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֑וּ
וּכְמַעֲשֵׂ֣ה אֶֽרֶץ־כְּנַ֡עַן אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֲנִי֩ מֵבִ֨יא אֶתְכֶ֥ם שָׁ֙מָּה֙ לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֔וּ וּבְחֻקֹּתֵיהֶ֖ם לֹ֥א תֵלֵֽכוּ
3 What is done in the land of Egypt where you were settled you will not do,
and what is done in the land of Canaan where I am bringing you, you will not do, and in their statutes you will not walk.
3c 4B 18
אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֧י תַּעֲשׂ֛וּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַ֥י תִּשְׁמְר֖וּ לָלֶ֣כֶת בָּהֶ֑ם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
4 My judgments you will do, and my statutes you will keep to walk in them.
I am Yahweh your God.
3c 4B 20
וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֤ם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי֙ וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֔י אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתָ֛ם הָאָדָ֖ם וָחַ֣י בָּהֶ֑ם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
5 And you will keep my statutes and my judgments. (The human that does them will live in them.)
I am Yahweh.
3d 4C 26
אִ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ אֶל־כָּל־שְׁאֵ֣ר בְּשָׂר֔וֹ לֹ֥א תִקְרְב֖וּ לְגַלּ֣וֹת עֶרְוָ֑ה
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
6 f No person of you to any near relation of their flesh will approach to uncover nakedness.
I am Yahweh.
3e 4B 18
עֶרְוַ֥ת אָבִ֛יךָ וְעֶרְוַ֥ת אִמְּךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
אִמְּךָ֣ הִ֔וא לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽהּ
7 The nakedness of your father and the nakedness of your mother, you will not uncover.
Your mother she is. You will not uncover her nakedness.
3d 4B 14
עֶרְוַ֥ת אֵֽשֶׁת־אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
עֶרְוַ֥ת אָבִ֖יךָ הִֽוא
8 The nakedness of the wife of your father you will not uncover.
The nakedness of your father, it is.
3e 4B 11
עֶרְוַ֨ת אֲחֽוֹתְךָ֤ בַת־אָבִ֙יךָ֙ א֣וֹ בַת־אִמֶּ֔ךָ מוֹלֶ֣דֶת בַּ֔יִת א֖וֹ מוֹלֶ֣דֶת ח֑וּץ
לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽן
9 The nakedness of your sister, a daughter of your father, or a daughter of your mother, born of the house or born outside,
you will not uncover their nakedness.
3e 4C 24
עֶרְוַ֤ת בַּת־בִּנְךָ֙ א֣וֹ בַֽת־בִּתְּךָ֔ לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָ֑ן
כִּ֥י עֶרְוָתְךָ֖ הֵֽנָּה
10 The nakedness of a daughter of your son or a daughter your daughter, you will not uncover their nakedness,
for your nakedness they are.
3e 4C 16
עֶרְוַ֨ת בַּת־אֵ֤שֶׁת אָבִ֙יךָ֙ מוֹלֶ֣דֶת אָבִ֔יךָ אֲחוֹתְךָ֖ הִ֑וא
לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽהּ
11 The nakedness of a daughter of the wife of your father born of your father, your sister she is.
You will not uncover her nakedness.
3e 4C 18
עֶרְוַ֥ת אֲחוֹת־אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
שְׁאֵ֥ר אָבִ֖יךָ הִֽוא
12 The nakedness of a sister of your father you will not uncover.
A near relation of your father she is.
3e 4B 11
עֶרְוַ֥ת אֲחֽוֹת־אִמְּךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
כִּֽי־שְׁאֵ֥ר אִמְּךָ֖ הִֽוא
13 The nakedness of a sister of your mother, you will not uncover,
because a near relation of your mother she is.
3e 4B 10
עֶרְוַ֥ת אֲחִֽי־אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
אֶל־אִשְׁתּוֹ֙ לֹ֣א תִקְרָ֔ב דֹּדָֽתְךָ֖ הִֽוא
14 The nakedness of a brother of your father you will not uncover.
To his wife you will not approach. Your aunt she is.
3e 4B 10
עֶרְוַ֥ת כַּלָּֽתְךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
אֵ֤שֶׁת בִּנְךָ֙ הִ֔וא לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽהּ
15 The nakedness of your daughter-in-law you will not uncover.
The wife of your son she is. You will not uncover her nakedness.
3e 4C 9
עֶרְוַ֥ת אֵֽשֶׁת־אָחִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
עֶרְוַ֥ת אָחִ֖יךָ הִֽוא
16 The nakedness of the wife of your brother you will not uncover.
The nakedness of your brother it is.
3e 4B 11
עֶרְוַ֥ת אִשָּׁ֛ה וּבִתָּ֖הּ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
אֶֽת־בַּת־בְּנָ֞הּ וְאֶת־בַּת־בִּתָּ֗הּ לֹ֤א תִקַּח֙ לְגַלּ֣וֹת עֶרְוָתָ֔הּ שַׁאֲרָ֥ה הֵ֖נָּה זִמָּ֥ה הִֽוא
17 The nakedness of a woman and her daughter you will not uncover, the daughter of her son, or the daughter of her daughter you will not take to uncover her nakedness.
Her near relation they are. Scheming it is.
3d 4C 11
וְאִשָּׁ֥ה אֶל־אֲחֹתָ֖הּ לֹ֣א תִקָּ֑ח
לִצְרֹ֗ר לְגַלּ֧וֹת עֶרְוָתָ֛הּ עָלֶ֖יהָ בְּחַיֶּֽיהָ
18 And a woman with her sister, you will not take,
as an adversary, to uncover her nakedness with her, in her lifetime.
3c 4B 10
וְאֶל־אִשָּׁ֖ה בְּנִדַּ֣ת טֻמְאָתָ֑הּ
לֹ֣א תִקְרַ֔ב לְגַלּ֖וֹת עֶרְוָתָֽהּ
19 And to a woman in the segregation of her uncleanness, you will not approach to uncover her nakedness. 3e 4B 10
וְאֶל־אֵ֙שֶׁת֙ עֲמִֽיתְךָ֔ לֹא־תִתֵּ֥ן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ֖ לְזָ֑רַע
20 And with the wife of your fellow, you will not give your emission of seed,
to be defiled in it.
3e 4A 16
וּמִֽזַּרְעֲךָ֥ לֹא־תִתֵּ֖ן לְהַעֲבִ֣יר לַמֹּ֑לֶךְ
וְלֹ֧א תְחַלֵּ֛ל אֶת־שֵׁ֥ם אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
21 And you will not give from your seed to pass through for Moloch,
and you will not profane the name of your God. I am Yahweh.
3c 4B 14
וְאֶ֨ת־זָכָ֔ר לֹ֥א תִשְׁכַּ֖ב מִשְׁכְּבֵ֣י אִשָּׁ֑ה
תּוֹעֵבָ֖ה הִֽוא
22 And with a male you will not lie down as the lying down of a woman.
An abomination it is.
3e 4B 12
וּבְכָל־בְּהֵמָ֛ה לֹא־תִתֵּ֥ן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ֖ לְטָמְאָה־בָ֑הּ
וְאִשָּׁ֗ה לֹֽא־תַעֲמֹ֞ד לִפְנֵ֧י בְהֵמָ֛ה לְרִבְעָ֖הּ תֶּ֥בֶל הֽוּא
23 nor in any beast will you give your emission, to be defiled in it.
Nor will a woman stand before a beast to copulate. Mayhem it is.
3c 4A 15
אַל־תִּֽטַּמְּא֖וּ בְּכָל־אֵ֑לֶּה
כִּ֤י בְכָל־אֵ֙לֶּה֙ נִטְמְא֣וּ הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִ֥י מְשַׁלֵּ֖חַ מִפְּנֵיכֶֽם
24 Do not become unclean in any of these,
for in all these the nations are unclean that I, I send out from your presence.
3e 4C 8
וַתִּטְמָ֣א הָאָ֔רֶץ וָאֶפְקֹ֥ד עֲוֺנָ֖הּ עָלֶ֑יהָ
וַתָּקִ֥א הָאָ֖רֶץ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֶֽיהָ
25 And the land is defiled and I visit its iniquity on it,
and the land vomits those inhabiting it.
3e 4B 15
וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֣ם אַתֶּ֗ם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי֙ וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֔י וְלֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֔וּ מִכֹּ֥ל הַתּוֹעֵבֹ֖ת הָאֵ֑לֶּה
הָֽאֶזְרָ֔ח וְהַגֵּ֖ר הַגָּ֥ר בְּתוֹכְכֶֽם
26 And you yourselves will keep my statutes and my judgments, and will not do from any of these abominations,
the native born or the guest residing in your midst.
3e 4B 28
כִּ֚י אֶת־כָּל־הַתּוֹעֵבֹ֣ת הָאֵ֔ל עָשׂ֥וּ אַנְשֵֽׁי־הָאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לִפְנֵיכֶ֑ם
וַתִּטְמָ֖א הָאָֽרֶץ
27 C Because all these abominations those of the land have done who were before you,
and the land is defiled.
3e 4C 20
וְלֹֽא־תָקִ֤יא הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ אֶתְכֶ֔ם בְּטַֽמַּאֲכֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑הּ
כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר קָאָ֛ה אֶת־הַגּ֖וֹי אֲשֶׁ֥ר לִפְנֵיכֶֽם
28 And the land will not vomit you out when you defile it,
as it vomited out the nation that was before you.
3d 4C 15
כִּ֚י כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר יַעֲשֶׂ֔ה מִכֹּ֥ל הַתּוֹעֵב֖וֹת הָאֵ֑לֶּה
וְנִכְרְת֛וּ הַנְּפָשׁ֥וֹת הָעֹשֹׂ֖ת מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמָּֽם
29 C Because anyone that does from any of these abominations,
the groups doing such will be cut off from within their people.
3d 4C 16
וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֣ם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּ֗י לְבִלְתִּ֨י עֲשׂ֜וֹת מֵחֻקּ֤וֹת הַתּֽוֹעֵבֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נַעֲשׂ֣וּ לִפְנֵיכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א תִֽטַּמְּא֖וּ בָּהֶ֑ם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
30 And you will keep my watch, so as not to do from the statutes of the abominations that were done before you, and you will not become unclean by them.
I am Yahweh your God.
3e 4C 34
Verse 18 to = in addition to, i.e. with (Milgrom p. 1548). Another preposition where one for one relations between languages is impossible. Here are my results mid way through this chapter for אל as a preposition. To clearly predominates but some English phrases cannot use to for various reasons.

אל about (2) against (43) at (41) by (15) concerning (1) even to (1) for (37) from (1) in (29) into (74) of (8) on (47) onto (9) over (4) over against (1) these (2) those (3) though (2) though to (1) to (3,868) to attention (1) to the god of (1) to those (1) toward (4) untranslated (102) upon (3) with (28)

compare with על. Here on and over predominate, but the spread is greater among all the candidate glosses.

על about (47) above (41) after (9) against (267) along (1) as above (2) as for (1) at (61) away from (14) based on (1) before (3) beside (5) by (92) by ... (1) concerning (88) for (102) for in (1) for over (1) from (108) from above (1) from off (28) from over (16) in (144) into (16) of (5) on (1,012) on something (1) onto (25) out of (5) over (1,108) over above (1) per (3) since (2) the above (1) there for (1) though (2) through (1) to (233) toward (1) towards (2) unto (4) untranslated (166) up to (1) upon (151) with (33) within (2)

curious eh?

Thursday, December 7, 2017

Leviticus 20

I was so tempted to allow set my face against as a gloss for נתן followed by את פנה ב (verse 3 and elsewhere) and then I see the stem שום that I use as set used with את פנה, (verse 4) so I am happy to keep the distinction in English since both phrases are used in Hebrew.

In this chapter we have the rationale for clean and unclean: differentiation בדל, the ability to distinguish things that are different. This reflects the language of Genesis 1. The sequence is: perception of the differentiation, holiness since Yahweh is holy, and finally belonging, verse 26, that you would be mine. (So reflecting the Song.)

חסד occurs in verse 17. Milgrom (Leviticus p. 1754) allows three instances of this homonym, disgrace, for the word. Here Proverbs 14:34 and Proverbs 25:9-10. This seems to me to be too few occurrences to justify a homonym. Proverbs 25:10 perhaps can allow the gloss reprimand. Here in Leviticus I am struck by the usage in verse 17, and reminded of a suggestion to render חסד as reproof. I ran this by another Hebraist this morning and he simply said, No. I had already removed any use of this gloss for kindness some months ago. But there are puzzles here. Not least are the differences of opinion I find among those who know the tongue far better than I. I started this project very late in life and I had learned in my early lives by the most tortuous of paths. (Perhaps there are no paths that are straightforward. We live and learn in a jungle.)

I hope to do more work with Milgrom over the next 4 months. This will probably result in some changes. But in this case I have refused the homonym for the moment and probably for ever. With the power and the distortion of sexuality in humanity, it is not surprising that the ultimate gift is confused. Mercy and kindness are not confused. Nonetheless exploitation, self-interest, and unequal relationships are deadly in this area as in others.

V 25 Milgrom: you will not defile your throats. (נפשׁ)
Scheming, there is an inequality here and in a multi dimensional household, scheming (זמם) might well be an appropriate translation. No need to impose a homonym. (This my original thought process is supported by Milgrom p 1548.) I am not as far off as I might think.

Leviticus 20 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 1 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
וְאֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֘ל תֹּאמַר֒ אִ֣ישׁ אִישׁ֩ מִבְּנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל וּמִן־הַגֵּ֣ר ׀ הַגָּ֣ר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֧ן מִזַּרְע֛וֹ לַמֹּ֖לֶךְ מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֑ת
עַ֥ם הָאָ֖רֶץ יִרְגְּמֻ֥הוּ בָאָֽבֶן
2 And to the children of Israel you will say, Any person among the children of Israel or from the guest residing in Israel, who will give from his seed to Moloch will be put to death.
The people of the land will crowd him with stone.
3c 4B 39
וַאֲנִ֞י אֶתֵּ֤ן אֶת־פָּנַי֙ בָּאִ֣ישׁ הַה֔וּא וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י אֹת֖וֹ מִקֶּ֣רֶב עַמּ֑וֹ
כִּ֤י מִזַּרְעוֹ֙ נָתַ֣ן לַמֹּ֔לֶךְ לְמַ֗עַן טַמֵּא֙ אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁ֔י וּלְחַלֵּ֖ל אֶת־שֵׁ֥ם קָדְשִֽׁי
3 And I, I will position my face against that person and I will cut him off from near his people,
for from his seed he gave to Moloch in order to defile my sanctuary and to profane my holy name.
3e 4C 23
וְאִ֡ם הַעְלֵ֣ם יַעְלִימֽוּ֩ עַ֨ם הָאָ֜רֶץ אֶת־עֵֽינֵיהֶם֙ מִן־הָאִ֣ישׁ הַה֔וּא בְּתִתּ֥וֹ מִזַּרְע֖וֹ לַמֹּ֑לֶךְ
לְבִלְתִּ֖י הָמִ֥ית אֹתֽוֹ
4 And if to obscure, the people of the land obscure their eyes from this man, this very one, who has given from his seed to Moloch,
so as not to put him to death,
3e 4B 29
וְשַׂמְתִּ֨י אֲנִ֧י אֶת־פָּנַ֛י בָּאִ֥ישׁ הַה֖וּא וּבְמִשְׁפַּחְתּ֑וֹ
וְהִכְרַתִּ֨י אֹת֜וֹ וְאֵ֣ת ׀ כָּל־הַזֹּנִ֣ים אַחֲרָ֗יו לִזְנ֛וֹת אַחֲרֵ֥י הַמֹּ֖לֶךְ מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמָּֽם
5 Then I myself will set my face against that person and against his family,
and I will cut him off and all playing the harlot after him to play the harlot after the Moloch from within their people.
3c 4B 16
וְהַנֶּ֗פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּפְנֶ֤ה אֶל־הָֽאֹבֹת֙ וְאֶל־הַיִּדְּעֹנִ֔ים לִזְנ֖וֹת אַחֲרֵיהֶ֑ם
וְנָתַתִּ֤י אֶת־פָּנַי֙ בַּנֶּ֣פֶשׁ הַהִ֔וא וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י אֹת֖וֹ מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמּֽוֹ
6 And the self that faces to the necromancer and to the wizards, to play the harlot after them,
I will position my face against that very self and I will cut him off from within his people.
3e 4C 24
וְהִ֨תְקַדִּשְׁתֶּ֔ם וִהְיִיתֶ֖ם קְדֹשִׁ֑ים
כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
7 So you will sanctify yourselves, and you will become holy,
because I am Yahweh your God.
3d 4A 11
וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם֙ אֶת־חֻקֹּתַ֔י וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑ם
אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶֽם
8 And you will keep my statutes and do them.
I am Yahweh who sanctifies you.
3e 4A 13
כִּֽי־אִ֣ישׁ אִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְקַלֵּ֧ל אֶת־אָבִ֛יו וְאֶת־אִמּ֖וֹ מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֑ת
אָבִ֧יו וְאִמּ֛וֹ קִלֵּ֖ל דָּמָ֥יו בּֽוֹ
9 For any person that makes light of his father or his mother will be put to death.
His father or his mother he slighted. His blood is on himself.
3c 4B 18
וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִנְאַף֙ אֶת־אֵ֣שֶׁת אִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִנְאַ֖ף אֶת־אֵ֣שֶׁת רֵעֵ֑הוּ
מֽוֹת־יוּמַ֥ת הַנֹּאֵ֖ף וְהַנֹּאָֽפֶת
10 And anyone that commits adultery with the wife of another, that commits adultery with the wife of his associate,
the adulterer and the adulteress will be put to death.
3e 4C 20
וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִשְׁכַּב֙ אֶת־אֵ֣שֶׁת אָבִ֔יו עֶרְוַ֥ת אָבִ֖יו גִּלָּ֑ה
מֽוֹת־יוּמְת֥וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֖ם דְּמֵיהֶ֥ם בָּֽם
11 And anyone that lies down with the wife of his father, the nakedness of his father he has uncovered.
To die they will die, the two of them. Their blood is on them.
3e 4C 17
וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִשְׁכַּב֙ אֶת־כַּלָּת֔וֹ מ֥וֹת יוּמְת֖וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֑ם
תֶּ֥בֶל עָשׂ֖וּ דְּמֵיהֶ֥ם בָּֽם
12 And anyone that lies down with his daughter-in-law, to die they will die, the two of them.
Mayhem they have done. Their blood is on them.
3e 4C 16
וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִשְׁכַּ֤ב אֶת־זָכָר֙ מִשְׁכְּבֵ֣י אִשָּׁ֔ה תּוֹעֵבָ֥ה עָשׂ֖וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֑ם
מ֥וֹת יוּמָ֖תוּ דְּמֵיהֶ֥ם בָּֽם
13 And anyone that lies down with a male as the lying down of a woman, an abomination they have done, the two of them.
To die they will die. Their blood is on them.
3e 4C 22
וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִקַּ֧ח אֶת־אִשָּׁ֛ה וְאֶת־אִמָּ֖הּ זִמָּ֣ה הִ֑וא
בָּאֵ֞שׁ יִשְׂרְפ֤וּ אֹתוֹ֙ וְאֶתְהֶ֔ן וְלֹא־תִהְיֶ֥ה זִמָּ֖ה בְּתוֹכְכֶֽם
14 And anyone that took a wife and her mother, scheming it is.
In the fire they will be incinerated, him and them. And such scheming will not be in your midst.
3c 4C 16
וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֧ן שְׁכָבְתּ֛וֹ בִּבְהֵמָ֖ה מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֑ת
וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָ֖ה תַּהֲרֹֽגוּ
15 And anyone that will give his emission into a beast will be put to death,
and the beast you will slay.
3c 4B 15
וְאִשָּׁ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּקְרַ֤ב אֶל־כָּל־בְּהֵמָה֙ לְרִבְעָ֣ה אֹתָ֔הּ וְהָרַגְתָּ֥ אֶת־הָאִשָּׁ֖ה וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָ֑ה
מ֥וֹת יוּמָ֖תוּ דְּמֵיהֶ֥ם בָּֽם
16 And a woman who approaches to any beast to copulate with it, you will slay the woman and the beast.
To die they will die. Their blood is on them.
3e 4C 30
וְאִ֣ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִקַּ֣ח אֶת־אֲחֹת֡וֹ בַּת־אָבִ֣יו א֣וֹ בַת־אִ֠מּוֹ וְרָאָ֨ה אֶת־עֶרְוָתָ֜הּ וְהִֽיא־תִרְאֶ֤ה אֶת־עֶרְוָתוֹ֙ חֶ֣סֶד ה֔וּא וְנִ֨כְרְת֔וּ לְעֵינֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י עַמָּ֑ם
עֶרְוַ֧ת אֲחֹת֛וֹ גִּלָּ֖ה עֲוֺנ֥וֹ יִשָּֽׂא
17 And anyone that took his sister, the daughter of his father or the daughter of his mother, and sees her nakedness and she sees his nakedness . Mercy it is that they will be cut off in the sight of the children of their people.
The nakedness of his sister he has uncovered. His iniquity he will bear.
3c 4C 46
וְ֠אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּ֨ב אֶת־אִשָּׁ֜ה דָּוָ֗ה וְגִלָּ֤ה אֶת־עֶרְוָתָהּ֙ אֶת־מְקֹרָ֣הּ הֶֽעֱרָ֔ה וְהִ֕יא גִּלְּתָ֖ה אֶת־מְק֣וֹר דָּמֶ֑יהָ
וְנִכְרְת֥וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֖ם מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמָּֽם
18 ~ And anyone that lies down with a wife, infirm, and uncovers her nakedness , her fountain he has exposed, and she has uncovered the fountain of her blood,
and the two of them will be cut off from within their people.
3e 4C 35
וְעֶרְוַ֨ת אֲח֧וֹת אִמְּךָ֛ וַאֲח֥וֹת אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
כִּ֧י אֶת־שְׁאֵר֛וֹ הֶעֱרָ֖ה עֲוֺנָ֥ם יִשָּֽׂאוּ
19 And the nakedness of a sister of your mother, or a sister of your father you will not uncover,
because he exposes his near relation. Their iniquity they will bear.
3c 4B 17
וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִשְׁכַּב֙ אֶת־דֹּ֣דָת֔וֹ עֶרְוַ֥ת דֹּד֖וֹ גִּלָּ֑ה
חֶטְאָ֥ם יִשָּׂ֖אוּ עֲרִירִ֥ים יָמֻֽתוּ
20 And anyone that lies down with his aunt, the nakedness of his uncle he has uncovered.
Their sin they will bear. Childless they will die.
3e 4C 16
וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִקַּ֛ח אֶת־אֵ֥שֶׁת אָחִ֖יו נִדָּ֣ה הִ֑וא
עֶרְוַ֥ת אָחִ֛יו גִּלָּ֖ה עֲרִירִ֥ים יִהְיֽוּ
21 And anyone that took the wife of his brother, segregation it is.
The nakedness of his brother he has uncovered. Childless they will be.
3d 4B 14
וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֤ם אֶת־כָּל־חֻקֹּתַי֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפָּטַ֔י וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑ם
וְלֹא־תָקִ֤יא אֶתְכֶם֙ הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֲנִ֜י מֵבִ֥יא אֶתְכֶ֛ם שָׁ֖מָּה לָשֶׁ֥בֶת בָּֽהּ
22 And you will keep all my statutes and all my judgments and do them,
and the land will not vomit you out that I am bringing you toward to settle in it.
3d 4C 20
וְלֹ֤א תֵֽלְכוּ֙ בְּחֻקֹּ֣ת הַגּ֔וֹי אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִ֥י מְשַׁלֵּ֖חַ מִפְּנֵיכֶ֑ם
כִּ֤י אֶת־כָּל־אֵ֙לֶּה֙ עָשׂ֔וּ וָאָקֻ֖ץ בָּֽם
23 But you will not walk in the statutes of the nation that I, I sent out from your presence.
Because all these things they have done, I bristle at them.
3e 4C 21
וָאֹמַ֣ר לָכֶ֗ם אַתֶּם֮ תִּֽירְשׁ֣וּ אֶת־אַדְמָתָם֒ וַאֲנִ֞י אֶתְּנֶ֤נָּה לָכֶם֙ לָרֶ֣שֶׁת אֹתָ֔הּ אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָ֑שׁ
אֲנִי֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הִבְדַּ֥לְתִּי אֶתְכֶ֖ם מִן־הָֽעַמִּֽים
24 So I said to you, You are those who will possess their ground, and I, I will give it to you to possess it, a land gushing with milk and honey.
I am Yahweh your God who differentiated you from the peoples.
3d 4C 34
וְהִבְדַּלְתֶּ֞ם בֵּֽין־הַבְּהֵמָ֤ה הַטְּהֹרָה֙ לַטְּמֵאָ֔ה וּבֵין־הָע֥וֹף הַטָּמֵ֖א לַטָּהֹ֑ר
וְלֹֽא־תְשַׁקְּצ֨וּ אֶת־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶ֜ם בַּבְּהֵמָ֣ה וּבָע֗וֹף וּבְכֹל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּרְמֹ֣שׂ הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־הִבְדַּ֥לְתִּי לָכֶ֖ם לְטַמֵּֽא
25 So you will differentiate between the beast, clean to unclean, and between the fowl, unclean to clean,
and you will not make yourselves detestable by beast or by fowl, or by all that creep of the ground that I have differentiated for you to be unclean.
3e 4C 24
וִהְיִ֤יתֶם לִי֙ קְדֹשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י קָד֖וֹשׁ אֲנִ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
וָאַבְדִּ֥ל אֶתְכֶ֛ם מִן־הָֽעַמִּ֖ים לִהְי֥וֹת לִֽי
26 Then you will be holy to me because I, Yahweh, am holy,
and I have differentiated you from the peoples that you would be mine.
3d 4C 14
וְאִ֣ישׁ אֽוֹ־אִשָּׁ֗ה כִּֽי־יִהְיֶ֨ה בָהֶ֥ם א֛וֹב א֥וֹ יִדְּעֹנִ֖י מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֑תוּ
בָּאֶ֛בֶן יִרְגְּמ֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם דְּמֵיהֶ֥ם בָּֽם
27 And a man or a woman that has in them necromancy or wizardry, to die they will die.
With stone you will crowd them. Their blood is on them.
3d 4B 18

Wednesday, December 6, 2017

Ezekiel 6

What to do with חלל, usually rendered by me as related to profane. JB just leaves the word out (rendered as men). KJV renders it frequently as slain. I have, true to my rules, not allowed slain, slew, since this for me and others is הרג. And in this case I have managed to keep separated the various stems around slaying, killing, dying. A dead body will render a person unclean and so unable to come before the holy places, i.e. profane (pro-fanus). Perhaps this is where profanity implies death. So bear it in mind that death is in view.

Scripture4all, a very useful site for a quick check of literal grammar, has wound for חלל, but I have מחץ for wound. Perhaps it is a symbolic wound or death allowing the one so afflicted still to know that 'I am Yahweh'. Unlikely in this historical case, but may be applied by analogy to the death of Jesus for those who use such power to escape from sin. Both the violence of the conquest (Joshua) and the violence of the exile (the later prophets) can be used by analogy in this way.

Wondering about idols etc, where is it that we find ourselves relaxing, the tension lessened, or the tension increased? If we are relaxed (because the market is going up), is this the 'restful fragrance' that the idol experiences? (The experiencing is in us of course since the idol, be it money or estate or work, has no feeling apart from us.)

The refrain '... will know that I am Yahweh' occurs 39 times in Ezekiel. The refrain is also in Exodus where it is Egypt who will know (5 times). Also once in Deuteronomy, twice in Joel. Leviticus has the statement 'for I am Yahweh your God' 22 times. The prophet reminds us of Torah. I searched for these manually using אני followed by יהוה as my search arguments. Then I searched within this for either אלוהם or a form of ידע. I may have missed a couple, but this emphasis in each of Leviticus and Ezekiel is definitely present. These are respectively among their favorite phrases and no other book uses them to the extent they do.

Verse 14 Riblah, not Diblah, i.e. from the south to the north of the land.
Ezekiel 6 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר 1 And the word of Yahweh happened to me, saying, 3e 3g 10
בֶּן־אָדָ֕ם שִׂ֥ים פָּנֶ֖יךָ אֶל־הָרֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וְהִנָּבֵ֖א אֲלֵיהֶֽם
2 Child of humanity, set your face to the mountains of Israel,
and prophesy to them.
3e 4B 13
וְאָ֣מַרְתָּ֔ הָרֵי֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל שִׁמְע֖וּ דְּבַר־אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה
כֹּה־אָמַ֣ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יְ֠הוִה לֶהָרִ֨ים וְלַגְּבָע֜וֹת לָאֲפִיקִ֣ים וְלַגֵּאָי֗וֹת הִנְנִ֨י אֲנִ֜י מֵבִ֤יא עֲלֵיכֶם֙ חֶ֔רֶב וְאִבַּדְתִּ֖י בָּמֽוֹתֵיכֶֽם
3 And you say, O mountains of Israel, hear the word of my Lord Yahweh.
Thus says my Lord Yahweh to the hills and to the hillocks, to the river channels and to the gorges, behold me, I am bringing against you a sword, and I will eliminate your high places.
3e 4C 18
וְנָשַׁ֙מּוּ֙ מִזְבְּח֣וֹתֵיכֶ֔ם וְנִשְׁבְּר֖וּ חַמָּֽנֵיכֶ֑ם
וְהִפַּלְתִּי֙ חַלְלֵיכֶ֔ם לִפְנֵ֖י גִּלּוּלֵיכֶֽם
4 And your altars will be desolate and your sun-pillars will be broken,
and I will make your profaned fall before your figurines.
3e 4B 17
וְנָתַתִּ֗י אֶת־פִּגְרֵי֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לִפְנֵ֖י גִּלּֽוּלֵיהֶ֑ם
וְזֵרִיתִי֙ אֶת־עַצְמ֣וֹתֵיכֶ֔ם סְבִיב֖וֹת מִזְבְּחוֹתֵיכֶֽם
5 And I will position the carcasses of the children of Israel before their figurines,
and I will sift your bones round about your altars.
3e 4B 18
בְּכֹל֙ מוֹשְׁב֣וֹתֵיכֶ֔ם הֶעָרִ֣ים תֶּחֱרַ֔בְנָה וְהַבָּמ֖וֹת תִּישָׁ֑מְנָה
לְמַעַן֩ יֶחֶרְב֨וּ וְיֶאְשְׁמ֜וּ מִזְבְּחֽוֹתֵיכֶ֗ם וְנִשְׁבְּר֤וּ וְנִשְׁבְּתוּ֙ גִּלּ֣וּלֵיכֶ֔ם וְנִגְדְּעוּ֙ חַמָּ֣נֵיכֶ֔ם וְנִמְח֖וּ מַעֲשֵׂיכֶֽם
6 In all your settlements, the cities will be deserted, and the high places will be a wasteland, so that your altars will be deserted and declared guilty, and your figurines be broken and eradicated,
and your sun-pillars be chopped off, and your constructions wiped out.
3e 4C 20
וְנָפַ֥ל חָלָ֖ל בְּתֽוֹכְכֶ֑ם
וִֽידַעְתֶּ֖ם כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
7 And profanity in your midst will fall,
and you will know that I am Yahweh.
3e 4A 8
וְהוֹתַרְתִּ֗י בִּהְי֥וֹת לָכֶ֛ם פְּלִ֥יטֵי חֶ֖רֶב בַּגּוֹיִ֑ם
בְּהִזָּרֽוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם בָּאֲרָצֽוֹת
8 But I will leave a remnant to become for you those secured from the sword among the nations,
when you are sifted among the lands.
3d 4A 16
וְזָכְר֨וּ פְלִֽיטֵיכֶ֜ם אוֹתִ֗י בַּגּוֹיִם֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נִשְׁבּוּ־שָׁם֒ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִשְׁבַּ֜רְתִּי אֶת־לִבָּ֣ם הַזּוֹנֶ֗ה אֲשֶׁר־סָר֙ מֵֽעָלַ֔י וְאֵת֙ עֵֽינֵיהֶ֔ם הַזֹּנ֕וֹת אַחֲרֵ֖י גִּלּֽוּלֵיהֶ֑ם
וְנָקֹ֙טּוּ֙ בִּפְנֵיהֶ֔ם אֶל־הָֽרָעוֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשׂ֔וּ לְכֹ֖ל תּוֹעֲבֹתֵיהֶֽם
9 And those secured will remember me among the nations where they are captive, that I am shattered by their heart of harlotry that has turned aside from me, and their eyes of harlotry following their figurines.
They will be upset in their own presence at the evil that they have done for all their abominations.
3e 4B 49
וְיָדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
לֹ֤א אֶל־חִנָּם֙ דִּבַּ֔רְתִּי לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת לָהֶ֖ם הָרָעָ֥ה הַזֹּֽאת
10 And they will know that I am Yahweh.
Not for nothing have I spoken to do to them this evil.
3e 4C 7
כֹּֽה־אָמַ֞ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֗ה הַכֵּ֨ה בְכַפְּךָ֜ וּרְקַ֤ע בְּרַגְלְךָ֙ וֶֽאֱמָר־אָ֔ח אֶ֛ל כָּל־תּוֹעֲב֥וֹת רָע֖וֹת בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
אֲשֶׁ֗ר בַּחֶ֛רֶב בָּרָעָ֥ב וּבַדֶּ֖בֶר יִפֹּֽלוּ
11 Thus says my Lord Yahweh, Strike with your palm and pummel with your foot, and say, Aye yai yai at all evil abominations of the house of Israel,
that by the sword, in scarcity, and by pestilence, they will fall.
3d 4C 34
הָרָח֞וֹק בַּדֶּ֣בֶר יָמ֗וּת וְהַקָּרוֹב֙ בַּחֶ֣רֶב יִפּ֔וֹל וְהַנִּשְׁאָר֙ וְהַנָּצ֔וּר בָּרָעָ֖ב יָמ֑וּת
וְכִלֵּיתִ֥י חֲמָתִ֖י בָּֽם
12 The distant by pestilence will die, and the near by the sword will fall, and the residue that is blockaded in scarcity will die,
and I will consume my heat in them.
3e 4B 30
וִֽידַעְתֶּם֙ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י יְהוָ֔ה בִּֽהְי֣וֹת חַלְלֵיהֶ֗ם בְּתוֹךְ֙ גִּלּ֣וּלֵיהֶ֔ם סְבִיב֖וֹת מִזְבְּחֽוֹתֵיהֶ֑ם
אֶל֩ כָּל־גִּבְעָ֨ה רָמָ֜ה בְּכֹ֣ל ׀ רָאשֵׁ֣י הֶהָרִ֗ים וְתַ֨חַת כָּל־עֵ֤ץ רַֽעֲנָן֙ וְתַ֙חַת֙ כָּל־אֵלָ֣ה עֲבֻתָּ֔ה מְק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֤ר נָֽתְנוּ־שָׁם֙ רֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֔חַ לְכֹ֖ל גִּלּוּלֵיהֶֽם
13 And you will know that I am Yahweh, when their profaned are in the midst of their figurines surrounding their altars,
at every high hillock, by all the tops of the hills, and under every green tree, and under every gnarled oak, the place where they gave a restful fragrance to all their figurines.
3e 4C 26
וְנָטִ֤יתִי אֶת־יָדִי֙ עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם וְנָתַתִּ֨י אֶת־הָאָ֜רֶץ שְׁמָמָ֤ה וּמְשַׁמָּה֙ מִמִּדְבַּ֣ר דִּבְלָ֔תָה בְּכֹ֖ל מוֹשְׁבֽוֹתֵיהֶ֑ם
וְיָדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
14 And I will stretch out my hand over them, and I will give the land to desolation upon desolation, from the wilderness to Riblah, in all their settlements,
and they will know that I am Yahweh.
3e 4C 36

Tuesday, December 5, 2017

Joshua 11

How revealing is it that grace is denied to the seven nations that are described in the first 3 verses?

Joshua 11 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְהִ֕י כִּשְׁמֹ֖עַ יָבִ֣ין מֶֽלֶךְ־חָצ֑וֹר
וַיִּשְׁלַ֗ח אֶל־יוֹבָב֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מָד֔וֹן וְאֶל־מֶ֥לֶךְ שִׁמְר֖וֹן וְאֶל־מֶ֥לֶךְ אַכְשָֽׁף
1 And it happened when Jabin king of Chatsor heard,
that he reached out to Yovav king of Madon, and to the king of Shimron, and to the king of Akshap,
3e 4B 11
וְֽאֶל־הַמְּלָכִ֞ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר מִצְּפ֗וֹן בָּהָ֧ר וּבָעֲרָבָ֛ה נֶ֥גֶב כִּֽנֲר֖וֹת וּבַשְּׁפֵלָ֑ה
וּבְנָפ֥וֹת דּ֖וֹר מִיָּֽם
2 And to the kings that were northward on the mountain, and on the steppe south of Harps, and in a lowly place,
and on the elevation of Dor seaward.
3c 4B 25
הַֽכְּנַעֲנִי֙ מִמִּזְרָ֣ח וּמִיָּ֔ם וְהָאֱמֹרִ֧י וְהַחִתִּ֛י וְהַפְּרִזִּ֥י וְהַיְבוּסִ֖י בָּהָ֑ר
וְהַֽחִוִּי֙ תַּ֣חַת חֶרְמ֔וֹן בְּאֶ֖רֶץ הַמִּצְפָּֽה
3 The Canaanite from the sunrise and from the sea, and the Amorite and the Hittite and the Perizzite and the Jebusite on the mountain,
and the Hivite under Hermon in the land toward Mizpah.
3c 4B 29
וַיֵּצְא֣וּ הֵ֗ם וְכָל־מַֽחֲנֵיהֶם֙ עִמָּ֔ם עַם־רָ֕ב כַּח֛וֹל אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־שְׂפַת־הַיָּ֖ם לָרֹ֑ב
וְס֥וּס וָרֶ֖כֶב רַב־מְאֹֽד
4 And they went forth, and all their armies with them, a people abundant as the sand that is by the bank of the sea for abundance,
both horse and chariot very abundant.
3d 4B 25
וַיִּוָּ֣עֲד֔וּ כֹּ֖ל הַמְּלָכִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה
וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ וַיַּחֲנ֤וּ יַחְדָּו֙ אֶל־מֵ֣י מֵר֔וֹם לְהִלָּחֵ֖ם עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
5 And when all these kings had engaged,
they came and they encamped as one, by the waters from on high, to fight the people of Israel.
3e 4C 12
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֣ה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ֮ אַל־תִּירָ֣א מִפְּנֵיהֶם֒ כִּֽי־מָחָ֞ר כָּעֵ֣ת הַזֹּ֗את אָנֹכִ֞י נֹתֵ֧ן אֶת־כֻּלָּ֛ם חֲלָלִ֖ים לִפְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
אֶת־סוּסֵיהֶ֣ם תְּעַקֵּ֔ר וְאֶת־מַרְכְּבֹתֵיהֶ֖ם תִּשְׂרֹ֥ף בָּאֵֽשׁ
6 And Yahweh said to Joshua, Do not fear before them, for tomorrow about this time I am giving them all, profaned, in the face of Israel.
Their horses you will hamstring and their chariots you will incinerate in the fire.
3c 4B 38
וַיָּבֹ֣א יְהוֹשֻׁ֡עַ וְכָל־עַם֩ הַמִּלְחָמָ֨ה עִמּ֧וֹ עֲלֵיהֶ֛ם עַל־מֵ֥י מֵר֖וֹם פִּתְאֹ֑ם
וַֽיִּפְּל֖וּ בָּהֶֽם
7 And Joshua came on them, and all the people of battle with him, by the waters from on high, suddenly,
and they fell on them.
3c 4B 25
וַיִּתְּנֵ֨ם יְהוָ֥ה בְּיַֽד־יִשְׂרָאֵל֮ וַיַּכּוּם֒ וַֽיִּרְדְּפ֞וּם עַד־צִיד֣וֹן רַבָּ֗ה וְעַד֙ מִשְׂרְפ֣וֹת מַ֔יִם וְעַד־בִּקְעַ֥ת מִצְפֶּ֖ה מִזְרָ֑חָה
וַיַּכֻּ֕ם עַד־בִּלְתִּ֥י הִשְׁאִֽיר־לָהֶ֖ם שָׂרִֽיד
8 And Yahweh gave them into the hand of Israel, and they struck them and pursued them to Sidon the Plenary, and to the incinerations of water, and to the crevasse of Mizpah toward sunrise,
and they struck them until they were without a trace of survivor.
3e 4B 37
וַיַּ֤עַשׂ לָהֶם֙ יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר אָֽמַר־ל֖וֹ יְהוָ֑ה
אֶת־סוּסֵיהֶ֣ם עִקֵּ֔ר וְאֶת־מַרְכְּבֹתֵיהֶ֖ם שָׂרַ֥ף בָּאֵֽשׁ
9 And Joshua did to them as Yahweh had said to him.
Their horses he hamstrung, and their chariots he incinerated in the fire.
3e 4C 17
וַיָּ֨שָׁב יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ בָּעֵ֤ת הַהִיא֙ וַיִּלְכֹּ֣ד אֶת־חָצ֔וֹר וְאֶת־מַלְכָּ֖הּ הִכָּ֣ה בֶחָ֑רֶב
כִּֽי־חָצ֣וֹר לְפָנִ֔ים הִ֕יא רֹ֖אשׁ כָּל־הַמַּמְלָכ֥וֹת הָאֵֽלֶּה
10 And Joshua turned at that time and he conquered Hazor and struck her king by the sword,
because Hazor before was the head of all these kingdoms.
3e 4C 26
וַ֠יַּכּוּ אֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּ֨פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֤הּ לְפִי־חֶ֙רֶב֙ הַֽחֲרֵ֔ם לֹ֥א נוֹתַ֖ר כָּל־נְשָׁמָ֑ה
וְאֶת־חָצ֖וֹר שָׂרַ֥ף בָּאֵֽשׁ
11 ~ And he struck anyone that was in her, utterly destroying with the edge of the sword.
He did not let any breath-bearing remain, and Hazor, he incinerated in the fire.
3e 4C 24
וְֽאֶת־כָּל־עָרֵ֣י הַמְּלָכִֽים־הָ֠אֵלֶּה וְֽאֶת־כָּל־מַלְכֵיהֶ֞ם לָכַ֧ד יְהוֹשֻׁ֛עַ וַיַּכֵּ֥ם לְפִי־חֶ֖רֶב הֶחֱרִ֣ים אוֹתָ֑ם
כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוָּ֔ה מֹשֶׁ֖ה עֶ֥בֶד יְהוָֽה
12 And all the cities of these kings and all their kings Joshua conquered, and he struck them with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them,
as Moses, the servant of Yahweh, had commanded.
3c 4B 34
רַ֣ק כָּל־הֶעָרִ֗ים הָעֹֽמְדוֹת֙ עַל־תִּלָּ֔ם לֹ֥א שְׂרָפָ֖ם יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
זוּלָתִ֛י אֶת־חָצ֥וֹר לְבַדָּ֖הּ שָׂרַ֥ף יְהוֹשֻֽׁעַ
13 B But all the cities standing on a ridge, Israel did not incinerate,
except Hazor alone, Joshua incinerated.
3d 4B 18
וְ֠כֹל שְׁלַ֞ל הֶעָרִ֤ים הָאֵ֙לֶּה֙ וְהַבְּהֵמָ֔ה בָּזְז֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
רַ֣ק אֶֽת־כָּל־הָאָדָ֞ם הִכּ֣וּ לְפִי־חֶ֗רֶב עַד־הִשְׁמִדָם֙ אוֹתָ֔ם לֹ֥א הִשְׁאִ֖ירוּ כָּל־נְשָׁמָֽה
14 ~ And all the spoil of these cities and the cattle, the children of Israel despoiled for themselves, but every human they struck with the edge of the sword until they exterminated them.
They did not leave a trace of any breath-bearing.
3e 4C 23
כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֣ה עַבְדּ֔וֹ כֵּן־צִוָּ֥ה מֹשֶׁ֖ה אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ
וְכֵן֙ עָשָׂ֣ה יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ לֹֽא־הֵסִ֣יר דָּבָ֔ר מִכֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־מֹשֶֽׁה
15 As Yahweh commanded Moses his servant, so Moses commanded Joshua,
and so Joshua did. He did not put aside a word from all that Yahweh commanded Moses.
3d 4C 22
וַיִּקַּ֨ח יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ אֶת־כָּל־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֗את הָהָ֤ר וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּ֙גֶב֙ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־אֶ֣רֶץ הַגֹּ֔שֶׁן וְאֶת־הַשְּׁפֵלָ֖ה וְאֶת־הָעֲרָבָ֑ה
וְאֶת־הַ֥ר יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וּשְׁפֵלָתֹֽה
16 And Joshua took all this land, the mountain and all the south, and all the land of Goshen, and the lowly place and toward the steppe,
and the mountain of Israel and her lowly place,
3e 4C 41
מִן־הָהָ֤ר הֶֽחָלָק֙ הָעוֹלֶ֣ה שֵׂעִ֔יר וְעַד־בַּ֤עַל גָּד֙ בְּבִקְעַ֣ת הַלְּבָנ֔וֹן תַּ֖חַת הַר־חֶרְמ֑וֹן
וְאֵ֤ת כָּל־מַלְכֵיהֶם֙ לָכַ֔ד וַיַּכֵּ֖ם וַיְמִיתֵֽם
17 From the hill of the Share that goes up to Seir, and to Baal-Gad in the crevasse of Lebanon under mount Hermon,
and all their kings he conquered, and he struck them and put them to death.
3e 4C 27
יָמִ֣ים רַבִּ֗ים עָשָׂ֧ה יְהוֹשֻׁ֛עַ אֶת־כָּל־הַמְּלָכִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה מִלְחָמָֽה 18 Many days Joshua made all these kings battle. 3c 4B 21
לֹֽא־הָיְתָ֣ה עִ֗יר אֲשֶׁ֤ר הִשְׁלִ֙ימָה֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בִּלְתִּ֥י הַחִוִּ֖י יֹשְׁבֵ֣י גִבְע֑וֹן
אֶת־הַכֹּ֖ל לָקְח֥וּ בַמִּלְחָמָֽה
19 There was not a city that made peace with the children of Israel except the Hivite, the inhabitants of Gibeon.
The whole they took in battle.
3e 4C 24
כִּ֣י מֵאֵ֣ת יְהוָ֣ה ׀ הָיְתָ֡ה לְחַזֵּ֣ק אֶת־לִבָּם֩ לִקְרַ֨את הַמִּלְחָמָ֤ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לְמַ֣עַן הַֽחֲרִימָ֔ם לְבִלְתִּ֥י הֱיוֹת־לָהֶ֖ם תְּחִנָּ֑ה
כִּ֚י לְמַ֣עַן הַשְׁמִידָ֔ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־מֹשֶֽׁה
20 B For from Yahweh it was to make their heart resolute to the call of battle with Israel, in order to utterly destroy them, without there being grace for them,
but for the sake of exterminating them, as Yahweh commanded Moses.
3d 4C 40
וַיָּבֹ֨א יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֗יא וַיַּכְרֵ֤ת אֶת־הָֽעֲנָקִים֙ מִן־הָהָ֤ר מִן־חֶבְרוֹן֙ מִן־דְּבִ֣ר מִן־עֲנָ֔ב וּמִכֹּל֙ הַ֣ר יְהוּדָ֔ה וּמִכֹּ֖ל הַ֣ר יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
עִם־עָרֵיהֶ֖ם הֶחֱרִימָ֥ם יְהוֹשֻֽׁעַ
21 And Joshua came at that time and he cut off the Anaqim from the mountain, from Hebron, from Debir, from Grapeland, and from all the mountain of Judah, and from all the mountain of Israel.
With their cities. Joshua destroyed them utterly.
3e 4C 45
לֹֽא־נוֹתַ֣ר עֲנָקִ֔ים בְּאֶ֖רֶץ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
רַ֗ק בְּעַזָּ֛ה בְּגַ֥ת וּבְאַשְׁדּ֖וֹד נִשְׁאָֽרוּ
22 No Anaqim were left in the land of the children of Israel.
Solely in Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod, there was a trace.
3d 4B 13
וַיִּקַּ֨ח יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ אֶת־כָּל־הָאָ֗רֶץ כְּ֠כֹל אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֣ר יְהוָה֮ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה֒ וַיִּתְּנָהּ֩ יְהוֹשֻׁ֨עַ לְנַחֲלָ֧ה לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל כְּמַחְלְקֹתָ֖ם לְשִׁבְטֵיהֶ֑ם
וְהָאָ֥רֶץ שָׁקְטָ֖ה מִמִּלְחָמָֽה
23 And Joshua took all the land, according to all that Yahweh had spoken to Moses, and Joshua gave it as an inheritance for Israel, according to their divisions for their bands.
And the land was quiet from war.
3c 4B 47