Saturday, May 23, 2020

Automation and the Hebrew Language

Years ago I attempted a grammar routine that would take a stem and its word form and automatically tell me if it was a noun or verb form etc. This is a non trivial problem.

These past few weeks I undertook a subset of the problem to determine the morphology of a Hebrew word.  This is the opposite of determining the stem from the word. Now I have the stems and they are mostly consistent (though I have found some errors and corrected them and the Aramaic is tricky since I stored the equivalent Hebrew stem instead of the Aramaic). There are of course real exceptions and transpositions of letters in the text, sometimes to avoid tongue twisters like the fourth word in Isaiah 3:4, וְתַעֲלוּלִ֖ים which has עולל as its stem.

With SimHebrew now partially integrated into my translation system, transposition of letters is both easier to see and process with the computer. The morphology of this word is: vt/ylvl\im. Notice how the stem yvll is altered to make the word easier to say. The vl of the stem has become lv in the word form. I have all words decoded now automatically using a simple recursive function implemented in the database. It was fascinating to do it. Here's the verse in a few different forms:

Isaiah 3:4 SimHebrew Malé text My translation
וְנָתַתִּ֥י נְעָרִ֖ים שָׂרֵיהֶ֑ם
וְתַעֲלוּלִ֖ים יִמְשְׁלוּ־בָֽם
d vntti nyrim wrihm
vtylulim imwlu-bm
ד ונתתי נערים שריהם
ותעלולים ימשלו־במ
4 And I will give youngsters as their nobility,
infants, and they will govern them.

I had no idea it was so politically appropriate.

And this is the verse in SimHebrew with each word decomposed.
vn/tt\i nyr\im wr\ihm, vt/ylvl\im i/mwl\v b\m.

I have about 50 words left to examine out of the 305,000-odd in the canon. Astounding what a recursive program can do (though one has to be careful that it will not loop infinitely).

The process is just string manipulation. if the stem is in the word form exactly, it's easy. But this is true for only words with strong consonants in them. And a large number of consonants are weak sometimes, and move around in the word forms depending on the word form. Also of course Hebrew is enclitic, so additional affixes glom onto the stem to make it do things like change its tense or aspect or subject or object. When they do this, some parts of the stem disappear. Lots of letters disappear. Sometimes there is only one letter of the stem left. But there is a limit. In the above example, vav is notorious for moving or changing its shape to yod or whatever else you want to call it. So the program tries a manipulation in various sequences and then calls itself again (recurses) with the variation.

Here is the full set of possibilities for yvll:
yll\i, yll\ihm, ylv\t, yvll, yvl\hm, yll\ih, v/yll\ihm, yvll\im, vt/ylvl\im, l/yvll\ihm, yvl\m, m/yvll, yvl, c/yll\im, yvl\h, yll\ic, yvll\ic, m/yll

Programming is a great escape from isolation.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Chanting the Psalms and other things

I haven't forgotten about the psalms, about singing, even though I have a perpetual frog in my throat. No friend of mine. I haven't forgotten the feel of the 16th century English rhythms of Coverdale such as was beautifully demonstrated in Sarah's quarantine composition, which moves from lament to praise in the same way as the construction of the Psalter from its centre to the end and as a whole. There's nothing I can think of that this 'thin book' (to cite another real teacher) misses.

I still give advice in how to sing and how to read and sense if someone is feeding you good advice or unsubstantiated opinion. There's little point in having an opinion that might mislead you in the actual reading and hearing of this masterpiece of poetic construction that holds and calls the human spirit into its fullness.

I responded to one who is learning about chanting, when I felt he might be hearing a potentially unsubstantiated claim about parallelism and rhyme in Hebrew poetry. (He is in no danger of not hearing, but abstractions, especially touted from advertised famous writers, can be distracting even to an obsessive learner.)
My own opinion on the poetry is that sound is vital to understanding through repeated words, an objective measure. But I am a long way from knowing how to hear well. I can give advice, but I can't do it! Parallelism is notoriously complex and at times quite subjective. I think it is overrated but still important. It is third in importance to me for hearing: first, music, second, sound patterns, third parallelism. As far as the pronunciation of Yahweh, you're on a long journey. I think of the Name as all vowels, eeaaooaaee - a very good singing exercise. Sing through the end of the phrase - don't imitate that CBC reporter who always loses her breath at the end of every sentence.
Then I tried again to say in words what I like to hear in chanting whether the psalms or Torah or any other text.
My advice is to discover the pulse (not meter) in the words. Don't throw away any syllable. Within the pulsed group make them all roughly equal, both the stressed and the unstressed, the important as well as the unimportant. A pulsed group may be 2, 3, 4, 5 syllables. Possibly even more. The consecutive pulses will define a line of music: pa-pa-/pa pa-pa-/pa-pa pa-pa pa-pa-/pa pa-pa-pa-pa-/pa. Typically there will be one slightly stressed / syllable in the group and slight but audible gaps ' ' between the groups. This style is heard in good Catholic, Orthodox or Anglican plainsong. In the prose books as in Anglican chant, the pulses may be more like speech rhythm. But never throw away syllables. Sing through them all.
What an impossible task - here I should have demonstrated with an example not a bunch of unreadable papa's, though that is a good exercise.

I recall that longest recitation of any book in the Bible, 55 syllables if I remember correctly. No, not exactly. On page 128 of The Song in the Night, I read that 2 Kings 23:4 was 55 syllables, Nehemiah 10:40 is 51, but Judges 10:6 has a recitation of 62 syllables. Note how it is divided by the accents. These required some stresses (not to mention breathing   gaps) longer than one would do in western plainsong.
Judges 10:6, the longest recitation that I have found in the Hebrew Bible
A kindle edition of Seeing the Psalter is available on Amazon. This is a full exploration of the sounds of the Psalms through the recurring word patterns. It also introduces the music and parallelism as techniques for learning this body of poetry.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Immersed in an intellectual problem

I have been ignoring this blog and its ratings are dropping. Augh!

I have been blogging on a private blog in experimental mode, exploring the rules for converting Hebrew paser text to SimHebrew such that they agree with the result of converting malé text to SimHebrew.

Hunh! What does that mean. Well, I tell ya, it's complicated, and my logic is contorted, and my name for programmers including me is bugs-r-us.

I have also been listening to amazing music in virtual performances like this one from the sixteen,

or this one on Classical Cambridge from Sarah, my daughter, the proof of the 40 part version (about minute 33) of the same quarantine song from the Psalms below - astonishing (but listen to the video performance first and then the whole interview). The forty part version is like a congregation singing in tongues.

I have considered but not even begun the possibility that the music of the Psalms per Haïk-Vantoura could be imagined in a similar round.




I will post about the programming problem soon - it is another of the things that has occupied me during lockdown, but equally as interesting with respect to learning Hebrew as the music of the accents has been.

More to come...

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

New Editions of Seeing the Psalter

An Updated of Seeing the Psalter including accumulated changes over the last 7 years is now available in hardcopy. There's a special on at Energion Direct. Also available is an e-copy in Kindle form at Amazon. Looks great.

The e-books, 12 of them now, one in PDF form, should also be available in libraries.

You can browse the translation series here. The Hebrew Bible and its Music, in 10 volumes with many musical examples as illustrations. Pace yourself while reading and sing a verse in Hebrew.
1. The Torah
2. The Former Prophets
3. The Major Prophets
4. The Twelve
5. The Books of Truth
6. The Five Scrolls
7. The Remaining Writings
8. A Biblical Hebrew to English Concordance
9. A is for Abandon, An English to Biblical Hebrew Alphabet book
10. The Progression of the Music, The Accents of the Hebrew Bible
Seeing the Psalter: Patterns of Recurrence in the Poetry of the Psalms. Preview at Energion Direct and at Amazon. Ebook is here. Or may be ordered direct from the publisher.

The Song in the Night is available at Amazon in both print and kindle editions. It has had a few small changes.

You can see all the books on my author page.

Monday, May 4, 2020

More experimentation - 3 varieties of Hebrew

A four column comparison of haser text, SimHebrew, malé text and English translation
Jeremiah 32
הַדָּבָ֞ר אֲשֶׁר־הָיָ֤ה אֶֽל־יִרְמְיָ֙הוּ֙ מֵאֵ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה בַּשָּׁנָה֙ הָעֲשִׂרִ֔ית לְצִדְקִיָּ֖הוּ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה
הִ֧יא הַשָּׁנָ֛ה שְׁמֹנֶֽה־עֶשְׂרֵ֥ה שָׁנָ֖ה לִנְבֽוּכַדְרֶאצַּֽר
a hdbr awr-hih al-irmihu mat ihvh bwnh hywirit lxdqiihu mlç ihudh
hia hwnh wmonh-ywrh wnh lnbucdraxr
א הדבר אשר־היה אל־ירמיהו מאת יהוה בשנה העשירית לצדקייהו מלך יהודה
היא השנה שמונה־עשרה שנה לנבוכדראצר
1 The word that happened to Jeremiah from Yahweh in the tenth year of Zedekiah, king of Judah.
This was the eighteenth year of Nebukadretsar.
וְאָ֗ז חֵ֚יל מֶ֣לֶךְ בָּבֶ֔ל צָרִ֖ים עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וְיִרְמְיָ֣הוּ הַנָּבִ֗יא הָיָ֤ה כָלוּא֙ בַּחֲצַ֣ר הַמַּטָּרָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בֵּֽית־מֶ֥לֶךְ יְהוּדָֽה
b vaz kil mlç bbl xrim yl-iruwlim
virmihu hnbia hih clua bkxr hm'trh awr bit-mlç ihudh
ב ואז חיל מלך בבל צרים על־ירושלים
וירמיהו הנביא היה כלוא בחצר המטרה אשר בית־מלך יהודה
2 By then the force of the king of Babel was besieging Jerusalem,
and Jeremiah the prophet was under restraint in the court of the cell that was the house of king of Judah.
אֲשֶׁ֣ר כְּלָא֔וֹ צִדְקִיָּ֥הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר
מַדּוּעַ֩ אַתָּ֨ה נִבָּ֜א לֵאמֹ֗ר כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה הִנְנִ֨י נֹתֵ֜ן אֶת־הָעִ֥יר הַזֹּ֛את בְּיַ֥ד מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֖ל וּלְכָדָֽהּ
g awr clao xdqiihu mlç-ihudh lamor
mduy ath niba lamor ch amr ihvh hnni notn at-hyir hzat bid mlç-bbl ulcdh
ג אשר כלאו צדקייהו מלך־יהודה לאמור
מדוע אתה ניבא לאמור כה אמר יהוה הנני נותן את־העיר הזאת ביד מלך־בבל ולכדה
3 Zedekiah king of Judah had been happy to restrain him, saying,
For what purpose are you to prophesy, saying, Thus says Yahweh, Note me well giving this city into the hand of the king of Babel, and he will conquer it?
וְצִדְקִיָּ֙הוּ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֔ה לֹ֥א יִמָּלֵ֖ט מִיַּ֣ד הַכַּשְׂדִּ֑ים
כִּ֣י הִנָּתֹ֤ן יִנָּתֵן֙ בְּיַ֣ד מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֔ל וְדִבֶּר־פִּ֣יו עִם־פִּ֔יו וְעֵינָ֖יו אֶת־עֵינָ֥יו תִּרְאֶֽינָה
d vxdqiihu mlç ihudh la iiml't mid hcwdim
ci hinton iintn bid mlç-bbl vdibr-piv ym-piv vyiniv at-yiniv trainh
ד וצדקייהו מלך יהודה לא יימלט מיד הכשדים
כי הינתון יינתן ביד מלך־בבל ודיבר־פיו עם־פיו ועיניו את־עיניו תראינה
4 And Zedekiah king of Judah, he will not escape from the hand of the Chaldeans?
For he will be given into the hand of the king of Babel, and will speak, its mouth with its mouth, and its eyes with its eyes, will see?
וּבָבֶ֞ל יוֹלִ֤ךְ אֶת־צִדְקִיָּ֙הוּ֙ וְשָׁ֣ם יִֽהְיֶ֔ה עַד־פָּקְדִ֥י אֹת֖וֹ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה
כִּ֧י תִֽלָּחֲמ֛וּ אֶת־הַכַּשְׂדִּ֖ים לֹ֥א תַצְלִֽיחוּ
h ubbl ioliç at-xdqiihu vwm ihih yd-poqdi aoto naum-ihvh
ci tilkmu at-hcwdim la txliku
ה ובבל יוליך את־צדקייהו ושם יהיה עד־פוקדי אותו נאום־יהוה
כי תילחמו את־הכשדים לא תצליחו
5 And to Babel will be ushered Zedekiah? and there he will be until I visit him? an oracle of Yahweh?
for you fight the Chaldeans? You will not prosper?
וַיֹּ֖אמֶר יִרְמְיָ֑הוּ
הָיָ֥ה דְּבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר
v viamr irmihu
hih dbr-ihvh alii lamor
ו ויאמר ירמיהו
היה דבר־יהוה אליי לאמור
6 And Jeremiah said,
It happened that Yahweh spoke to me, saying,
הִנֵּ֣ה חֲנַמְאֵ֗ל בֶּן־שַׁלֻּם֙ דֹּֽדְךָ֔ בָּ֥א אֵלֶ֖יךָ לֵאמֹ֑ר
קְנֵ֣ה לְךָ֗ אֶת־שָׂדִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּעֲנָת֔וֹת כִּ֥י לְךָ֛ מִשְׁפַּ֥ט הַגְּאֻלָּ֖ה לִקְנֽוֹת
z hnh knmal bn-wlum dodç ba aliç lamor
qnh lç at-wdi awr byntot ci lç mwp't hgaulh lqnot
ז הנה חנמאל בן־שלום דודך בא אליך לאמור
קנה לך את־שדי אשר בענתות כי לך משפט הגאולה לקנות
7 Behold Hanmel child of Shallum, your uncle, will come to you to say,
Buy for yourself my field that is in Anathoth, for yours is the judgment of redemption to buy.
וַיָּבֹ֣א אֵ֠לַי חֲנַמְאֵ֨ל בֶּן־דֹּדִ֜י כִּדְבַ֣ר יְהוָה֮ אֶל־חֲצַ֣ר הַמַּטָּרָה֒ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֡י קְנֵ֣ה נָ֠א אֶת־שָׂדִ֨י אֲשֶׁר־בַּעֲנָת֜וֹת אֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ בִּנְיָמִ֗ין כִּֽי־לְךָ֞ מִשְׁפַּ֧ט הַיְרֻשָּׁ֛ה וּלְךָ֥ הַגְּאֻלָּ֖ה קְנֵה־לָ֑ךְ
וָאֵדַ֕ע כִּ֥י דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה הֽוּא
k viboa alii knmal bn-dodi cdbr ihvh al-kxr hm'trh viamr alii qnh na at-wdi awr-byntot awr barx bnimin ci-lç mwp't hiruwh ulç hgaulh qnh-lç
vady ci dbr-ihvh hua
ח ויבוא אליי חנמאל בן־דודי כדבר יהוה אל־חצר המטרה ויאמר אליי קנה נא את־שדי אשר־בענתות אשר בארץ בנימין כי־לך משפט הירושה ולך הגאולה קנה־לך
ואדע כי דבר־יהוה הוא
8 And Hanmel child of my uncle came to me according to the word of Yahweh, to the court of the cell and said to me, You buy please a field that is in Anathoth, that is in the land of Benjamin, for yours is the judgment of possession, and yours the redemption. You buy for yourself.
And I knew that it is the word of Yahweh.
וָֽאֶקְנֶה֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה מֵאֵ֛ת חֲנַמְאֵ֥ל בֶּן־דֹּדִ֖י אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּעֲנָת֑וֹת
וָֽאֶשְׁקֲלָה־לּוֹ֙ אֶת־הַכֶּ֔סֶף שִׁבְעָ֥ה שְׁקָלִ֖ים וַעֲשָׂרָ֥ה הַכָּֽסֶף
't vaqnh at-hwdh mat knmal bn-dodi awr byntot
vawqlh-lo at-hcsf wbyh wqlim vywrh hcsf
ט ואקנה את־השדה מאת חנמאל בן־דודי אשר בענתות
ואשקלה־לו את־הכסף שבעה שקלים ועשרה הכסף
9 And I bought the field from Hanmel child of my uncle that is in Anathoth,
and I weighed for him the silver, seventeen shekels of the silver.
וָאֶכְתֹּ֤ב בַּסֵּ֙פֶר֙ וָֽאֶחְתֹּ֔ם וָאָעֵ֖ד עֵדִ֑ים
וָאֶשְׁקֹ֥ל הַכֶּ֖סֶף בְּמֹאזְנָֽיִם
i vactob bspr vaktom vayd ydim
vawqol hcsf bmazniim
י ואכתוב בספר ואחתום ואעד עדים
ואשקול הכסף במאזניימ
10 And I wrote in the record and sealed it, and I had it witnessed by witnesses,
and I weighed the silver in the balances.
וָאֶקַּ֖ח אֶת־סֵ֣פֶר הַמִּקְנָ֑ה
אֶת־הֶֽחָת֛וּם הַמִּצְוָ֥ה וְהַחֻקִּ֖ים וְאֶת־הַגָּלֽוּי
ia vaqk at-spr hmqnh
at-hktum hmxvh vhkuqim vat-hglui
יא ואקח את־ספר המקנה
את־החתום המצוה והחוקים ואת־הגלוי
11 And I took the record of the purchase,
what was sealed by the commandment and the statutes, and what was uncovered.
וָאֶתֵּ֞ן אֶת־הַסֵּ֣פֶר הַמִּקְנָ֗ה אֶל־בָּר֣וּךְ בֶּן־נֵרִיָּה֮ בֶּן־מַחְסֵיָה֒ לְעֵינֵי֙ חֲנַמְאֵ֣ל דֹּדִ֔י וּלְעֵינֵי֙ הָֽעֵדִ֔ים הַכֹּתְבִ֖ים בְּסֵ֣פֶר הַמִּקְנָ֑ה
לְעֵינֵי֙ כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִ֔ים הַיֹּשְׁבִ֖ים בַּחֲצַ֥ר הַמַּטָּרָֽה
ib vatn at-hspr hmqnh al-bruç bn-nriih bn-mksih lyini knmal dodi ulyini hydim hcotbim bspr hmqnh
lyini cl-hihudim hiowbim bkxr hm'trh
יב ואתן את־הספר המקנה אל־ברוך בן־נרייה בן־מחסיה לעיני חנמאל דודי ולעיני העדים הכותבים בספר המקנה
לעיני כל־היהודים היושבים בחצר המטרה
12 And I consigned the record of the purchase to Baruch, child of Neriah, child of Mechasyah, in the sight of Hanmel, my uncle's, and in the sight of the witnesses that wrote in the record of the purchase,
in the sight of all the Judeans sitting in the court of the cell.
וָֽאֲצַוֶּה֙ אֶת־בָּר֔וּךְ לְעֵינֵיהֶ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר ig vaxvvh at-bruç lyinihm lamor יג ואצווה את־ברוך לעיניהם לאמור 13 And I commanded Baruch in their sight, saying,
כֹּֽה־אָמַר֩ יְהוָ֨ה צְבָא֜וֹת אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לָק֣וֹחַ אֶת־הַסְּפָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֡לֶּה אֵ֣ת סֵפֶר֩ הַמִּקְנָ֨ה הַזֶּ֜ה וְאֵ֣ת הֶחָת֗וּם וְאֵ֨ת סֵ֤פֶר הַגָּלוּי֙ הַזֶּ֔ה וּנְתַתָּ֖ם בִּכְלִי־חָ֑רֶשׂ
לְמַ֥עַן יַעַמְד֖וּ יָמִ֥ים רַבִּֽים
id ch-amr ihvh xbaot alohi iwral lqok at-hsprim halh at spr hmqnh hzh vat hktum vat spr hglui hzh unttm bcli-krw
lmyn iymdu imim rbim
יד כה־אמר יהוה צבאות אלוהי ישראל לקוח את־הספרים האלה את ספר המקנה הזה ואת החתום ואת ספר הגלוי הזה ונתתם בכלי־חרש
למען יעמדו ימים רבימ
14 Thus says Yahweh of hosts, the God of Israel, take these records, the record of this purchase and what is sealed, and this uncovered record, and consign it in the earthenware vessel,
so that they will stand many days.
כִּ֣י כֹ֥ה אָמַ֛ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
ע֣וֹד יִקָּנ֥וּ בָתִּ֛ים וְשָׂד֥וֹת וּכְרָמִ֖ים בָּאָ֥רֶץ הַזֹּֽאת
'tv ci ch amr ihvh xbaot alohi iwral
yod iiqnu btim vwdot ucrmim barx hzat
טו כי כה אמר יהוה צבאות אלוהי ישראל
עוד ייקנו בתים ושדות וכרמים בארץ הזאת
15 Because thus says Yahweh of hosts, the God of Israel,
They will continue to be purchased, houses and fields and vineyards, in this land.
וָאֶתְפַּלֵּ֖ל אֶל־יְהוָ֑ה
אַחֲרֵ֤י תִתִּי֙ אֶת־סֵ֣פֶר הַמִּקְנָ֔ה אֶל־בָּר֥וּךְ בֶּן־נֵרִיָּ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר
'tz vatpll al-ihvh
akri titi at-spr hmqnh al-bruç bn-nriih lamor
טז ואתפלל אל־יהוה
אחרי תיתי את־ספר המקנה אל־ברוך בן־נרייה לאמור
16 And I prayed to Yahweh,
after I had consigned the record of the purchase to Baruch child of Neriah, saying,
אֲהָהּ֮ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִה֒ הִנֵּ֣ה ׀ אַתָּ֣ה עָשִׂ֗יתָ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ וְאֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ בְּכֹֽחֲךָ֙ הַגָּד֔וֹל וּבִֽזְרֹעֲךָ֖ הַנְּטוּיָ֑ה
לֹֽא־יִפָּלֵ֥א מִמְּךָ֖ כָּל־דָּבָֽר
iz ahh adonii ihvh hnh ath ywit at-hwmiim vat-harx bcokç hgdol ubzroyç hn'tuih
la-iipla mmç cl-dbr
יז אהה אדוניי יהוה הנה אתה עשית את־השמיים ואת־הארץ בכוחך הגדול ובזרועך הנטויה
לא־ייפלא ממך כל־דבר
17 Aye yai yai, my Lord Yahweh, behold yourself, you have made the heavens and the earth in your great power and with your arm stretched out.
Nothing is too wonderful for you.
עֹ֤שֶׂה חֶ֙סֶד֙ לַֽאֲלָפִ֔ים וּמְשַׁלֵּם֙ עֲוֺ֣ן אָב֔וֹת אֶל־חֵ֥יק בְּנֵיהֶ֖ם אַחֲרֵיהֶ֑ם
הָאֵ֤ל הַגָּדוֹל֙ הַגִּבּ֔וֹר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמֽוֹ
ik yowh ksd lalpim umwlm yvon abot al-kiq bnihm akrihm
hal hgdol hgibor ihvh xbaot wmo
יח עושה חסד לאלפים ומשלם עוון אבות אל־חיק בניהם אחריהם
האל הגדול הגיבור יהוה צבאות שמו
18 You undertake mercy for thousands, and repay the iniquity of parents into the embrace of their children after them,
the One, the Great, the Valiant, Yahweh of hosts is his name.
גְּדֹל֙ הָֽעֵצָ֔ה וְרַ֖ב הָעֲלִֽילִיָּ֑ה
אֲשֶׁר־עֵינֶ֣יךָ פְקֻח֗וֹת עַל־כָּל־דַּרְכֵי֙ בְּנֵ֣י אָדָ֔ם לָתֵ֤ת לְאִישׁ֙ כִּדְרָכָ֔יו וְכִפְרִ֖י מַעֲלָלָֽיו
i't gdol hyxh vrb hyliliih
awr-yiniç pqukot yl-cl-drci bni adm ltt laiw cdrciv vcpri mylliv
יט גדול העצה ורב העלילייה
אשר־עיניך פקוחות על־כל־דרכי בני אדם לתת לאיש כדרכיו וכפרי מעלליו
19 Great the counsel and abundant the practices,
as your eyes are given sight over all the ways of the children of humanity, to give to each according to its ways and according to the fruit of its practices.
אֲשֶׁר־שַׂ֠מְתָּ אֹת֨וֹת וּמֹפְתִ֤ים בְּאֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ עַד־הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה וּבְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וּבָֽאָדָ֑ם
וַתַּעֲשֶׂה־לְּךָ֥ שֵׁ֖ם כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה
c awr-wmt aotot umoptim barx-mxriim yd-hiom hzh ubiwral ubadm
vtywh-lç wm ciom hzh
כ אשר־שמת אותות ומופתים בארץ־מצריים עד־היום הזה ובישראל ובאדם
ותעשה־לך שם כיום הזה
20 You who have set up signs and portents in the land of Egypt to this day, and in Israel and among humanity,
and have made for yourself a name as on this day.
וַתֹּצֵ֛א אֶת־עַמְּךָ֥ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם
בְּאֹת֣וֹת וּבְמוֹפְתִ֗ים וּבְיָ֤ד חֲזָקָה֙ וּבְאֶזְר֣וֹעַ נְטוּיָ֔ה וּבְמוֹרָ֖א גָּדֽוֹל
ca vtoxa at-ymç at-iwral marx mxriim
baotot ubmoptim ubid kzqh ubazroy n'tuih ubmora gdol
כא ותוצא את־עמך את־ישראל מארץ מצריים
באותות ובמופתים וביד חזקה ובאזרוע נטויה ובמורא גדול
21 And have brought forth your people Israel from the land of Egypt,
with signs and with portents, and by a courageous hand and by an arm stretched out and with great fear.
וַתִּתֵּ֤ן לָהֶם֙ אֶת־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּ֥עְתָּ לַאֲבוֹתָ֖ם לָתֵ֣ת לָהֶ֑ם
אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָֽשׁ
cb vtitn lhm at-harx hzat awr-nwbyt labotm ltt lhm
arx zbt klb udbw
כב ותיתן להם את־הארץ הזאת אשר־נשבעת לאבותם לתת להם
ארץ זבת חלב ודבש
22 And you gave them this land that you swore to their ancestors to give them,
a land gushing with milk and honey.
וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ וַיִּֽרְשׁ֣וּ אֹתָ֗הּ וְלֹֽא־שָׁמְע֤וּ בְקוֹלֶ֙ךָ֙ וּבְתוֹרָתְךָ֣ לֹא־הָלָ֔כוּ אֵת֩ כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוִּ֧יתָה לָהֶ֛ם לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת לֹ֣א עָשׂ֑וּ
וַתַּקְרֵ֣א אֹתָ֔ם אֵ֥ת כָּל־הָרָעָ֖ה הַזֹּֽאת
cg viboau viirwu aoth vla-wmyu bqolç ubtortç la-hlcu at cl-awr xivvit lhm lywot la ywu
vtqra aotm at cl-hryh hzat
כג ויבואו ויירשו אותה ולא־שמעו בקולך ובתורתך לא־הלכו את כל־אשר ציווית להם לעשות לא עשו
ותקרא אותם את כל־הרעה הזאת
23 And they came and they possessed it, and they did not hear with your voice, and in your instruction they did not walk. All that you commanded them to do, they have not done,
so you have had them encounter all evil this.
הִנֵּ֣ה הַסֹּלְל֗וֹת בָּ֣אוּ הָעִיר֮ לְלָכְדָהּ֒ וְהָעִ֣יר נִתְּנָ֗ה בְּיַ֤ד הַכַּשְׂדִּים֙ הַנִּלְחָמִ֣ים עָלֶ֔יהָ מִפְּנֵ֛י הַחֶ֥רֶב וְהָרָעָ֖ב וְהַדָּ֑בֶר
וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֛רְתָּ הָיָ֖ה וְהִנְּךָ֥ רֹאֶֽה
cd hnh hsollot bau hyir llocdh vhyir nitnh bid hcwdim hnlkmim ylih mpni hkrb vhryb vhdbr
vawr dibrt hih vhnç roah
כד הנה הסוללות באו העיר ללוכדה והעיר ניתנה ביד הכשדים הנלחמים עליה מפני החרב והרעב והדבר
ואשר דיברת היה והנך רואה
24 Behold the ramps. They enter the city to conquer it, and the city is given into the hand of the Chaldeans that fight against it, in the face of the sword and the famine and the pestilence.
And what you have spoken has happened. Here you are, seeing.
וְאַתָּ֞ה אָמַ֤רְתָּ אֵלַי֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה קְנֵֽה־לְךָ֧ הַשָּׂדֶ֛ה בַּכֶּ֖סֶף וְהָעֵ֣ד עֵדִ֑ים
וְהָעִ֥יר נִתְּנָ֖ה בְּיַ֥ד הַכַּשְׂדִּֽים
ch vath amrt alii adonii ihvh qnh-lç hwdh bcsf vhyd ydim
vhyir nitnh bid hcwdim
כה ואתה אמרת אליי אדוניי יהוה קנה־לך השדה בכסף והעד עדים
והעיר ניתנה ביד הכשדימ
25 But you, you said to me, O Lord Yahweh, You buy for yourself the field with silver and have it witnessed by witnesses,
and the city is given into the hand of the Chaldeans.
וַיְהִי֙ דְּבַר־יְהוָ֔ה אֶֽל־יִרְמְיָ֖הוּ לֵאמֹֽר cv vihi dbr-ihvh al-irmihu lamor כו ויהי דבר־יהוה אל־ירמיהו לאמור 26 And the word of Yahweh happened to Jeremiah, saying,
הִנֵּה֙ אֲנִ֣י יְהוָ֔ה אֱלֹהֵ֖י כָּל־בָּשָׂ֑ר
הֲ‍ֽמִמֶּ֔נִּי יִפָּלֵ֖א כָּל־דָּבָֽר
cz hnh ani ihvh alohi cl-bwr
hmmni iipla cl-dbr
כז הנה אני יהוה אלוהי כל־בשר
הממני ייפלא כל־דבר
27 Behold, I am Yahweh, the God of all flesh.
For me is any thing too wonderful?
לָכֵ֕ן כֹּ֖ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה
הִנְנִ֣י נֹתֵן֩ אֶת־הָעִ֨יר הַזֹּ֜את בְּיַ֣ד הַכַּשְׂדִּ֗ים וּבְיַ֛ד נְבֽוּכַדְרֶאצַּ֥ר מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֖ל וּלְכָדָֽהּ
ck lcn ch amr ihvh
hnni notn at-hyir hzat bid hcwdim ubid nbucdraxr mlç-bbl ulcdh
כח לכן כה אמר יהוה
הנני נותן את־העיר הזאת ביד הכשדים וביד נבוכדראצר מלך־בבל ולכדה
28 Therefore thus says Yahweh, Note me well, giving this city into the hand of the Chaldeans and into the hand of Nebukadretsar, king of Babel,
and he will conquer it.
וּבָ֣אוּ הַכַּשְׂדִּ֗ים הַנִּלְחָמִים֙ עַל־הָעִ֣יר הַזֹּ֔את וְהִצִּ֜יתוּ אֶת־הָעִ֥יר הַזֹּ֛את בָּאֵ֖שׁ וּשְׂרָפ֑וּהָ
וְאֵ֣ת הַבָּתִּ֡ים אֲשֶׁר֩ קִטְּר֨וּ עַל־גַּגּֽוֹתֵיהֶ֜ם לַבַּ֗עַל וְהִסִּ֤כוּ נְסָכִים֙ לֵאלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים לְמַ֖עַן הַכְעִסֵֽנִי
c't ubau hcwdim hnlkmim yl-hyir hzat vhxitu at-hyir hzat baw uwrpuh
vat hbtim awr qi'tru yl-ggotihm lbyl vhiscu nscim lalohim akrim lmyn hcyisni
כט ובאו הכשדים הנלחמים על־העיר הזאת והציתו את־העיר הזאת באש ושרפוה
ואת הבתים אשר קיטרו על־גגותיהם לבעל והיסכו נסכים לאלוהים אחרים למען הכעיסני
29 And the Chaldeans will come that fight this city, and they will char this city in the fire and incinerate it,
and the houses where they have burnt incense on their housetops to Baal, and spilled out libations to other gods so that they may grieve me.
כִּֽי־הָי֨וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל וּבְנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֗ה אַ֣ךְ עֹשִׂ֥ים הָרַ֛ע בְּעֵינַ֖י מִנְּעֻרֹֽתֵיהֶ֑ם
כִּ֣י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אַ֣ךְ מַכְעִסִ֥ים אֹתִ֛י בְּמַעֲשֵׂ֥ה יְדֵיהֶ֖ם נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה
l ci-hiu bni-iwral ubni ihudh aç yowim hry byinii mnyurotihm
ci bni-iwral aç mcyisim aoti bmywh idihm naum-ihvh
ל כי־היו בני־ישראל ובני יהודה אך עושים הרע בעיניי מנעורותיהם
כי בני־ישראל אך מכעיסים אותי במעשה ידיהם נאום־יהוה
30 Because the children of Israel and the children of Judah were surely doing evil in my eyes from their youth,
for the children of Israel surely grieve me with the deed of their hands. An oracle of Yahweh.
כִּ֧י עַל־אַפִּ֣י וְעַל־חֲמָתִ֗י הָ֤יְתָה לִּי֙ הָעִ֣יר הַזֹּ֔את לְמִן־הַיּוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּנ֣וּ אוֹתָ֔הּ וְעַ֖ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה
לַהֲסִירָ֖הּ מֵעַ֥ל פָּנָֽי
la ci yl-api vyl-kmti hiith li hyir hzat lmn-hiom awr bnu aoth vyd hiom hzh
lhsirh myl pnii
לא כי על־אפי ועל־חמתי הייתה לי העיר הזאת למן־היום אשר בנו אותה ועד היום הזה
להסירה מעל פניי
31 For concerning my anger, and concerning my heat, this city has become for me, from the day that they built it and till this day...
that I should put it aside from my presence,
עַל֩ כָּל־רָעַ֨ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל וּבְנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשׂוּ֙ לְהַכְעִסֵ֔נִי הֵ֤מָּה מַלְכֵיהֶם֙ שָֽׂרֵיהֶ֔ם כֹּהֲנֵיהֶ֖ם וּנְבִֽיאֵיהֶ֑ם
וְאִ֣ישׁ יְהוּדָ֔ה וְיֹשְׁבֵ֖י יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם
lb yl cl-ryt bni-iwral ubni ihudh awr ywu lhcyisni hmh mlcihm wrihm cohnihm unbiaihm
vaiw ihudh viowbi iruwlim
לב על כל־רעת בני־ישראל ובני יהודה אשר עשו להכעיסני המה מלכיהם שריהם כוהניהם ונביאיהם
ואיש יהודה ויושבי ירושלימ
32 Over all the evil of the children of Israel and the children of Judah that they did to grieve me, they, their kings, their nobility, their priests, and their prophets,
and each of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem.
וַיִּפְנ֥וּ אֵלַ֛י עֹ֖רֶף וְלֹ֣א פָנִ֑ים
וְלַמֵּ֤ד אֹתָם֙ הַשְׁכֵּ֣ם וְלַמֵּ֔ד וְאֵינָ֥ם שֹׁמְעִ֖ים לָקַ֥חַת מוּסָֽר
lg vipnu alii yorf vla pnim
vlmd aotm hwcm vlmd vainm womyim lqkt musr
לג ויפנו אליי עורף ולא פנים
ולמד אותם השכם ולמד ואינם שומעים לקחת מוסר
33 And they faced to me, nape and not faces,
and I taught them, rising early, and teaching, and there is none of them hearing, to lay hold of my chastening.
וַיָּשִׂ֣ימוּ שִׁקּֽוּצֵיהֶ֗ם בַּבַּ֛יִת אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָֽא־שְׁמִ֥י עָלָ֖יו לְטַמְּאֽוֹ ld viwimu wiquxihm bbit awr-nqra-wmi yliv l'tmao לד וישימו שיקוציהם בבית אשר־נקרא־שמי עליו לטמאו 34 But they set up their detestable things in the house that is called, My Name Is On It, to defile it.
וַיִּבְנוּ֩ אֶת־בָּמ֨וֹת הַבַּ֜עַל אֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ בְּגֵ֣יא בֶן־הִנֹּ֗ם לְ֠הַעֲבִיר אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶ֣ם וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם֮ לַמֹּלֶךְ֒ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־צִוִּיתִ֗ים וְלֹ֤א עָֽלְתָה֙ עַל־לִבִּ֔י לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת הַתּוֹעֵבָ֣ה הַזֹּ֑את
לְמַ֖עַן הַחֲטִ֥יא אֶת־יְהוּדָֽה
lh vibnu at-bmot hbyl awr bgia bn-hinom lhybir at-bnihm vat-bnotihm lmolç awr la-xivvitim vla ylth yl-libi lywot htoybh hzat
lmyn hk'tia at-ihudh
לה ויבנו את־במות הבעל אשר בגיא בן־הינום להעביר את־בניהם ואת־בנותיהם למולך אשר לא־ציוויתים ולא עלתה על־ליבי לעשות התועבה הזאת
למען החטיא את־יהודה
35 And they built the high places of the Baal that are in the gorge of the child of Hinnom, to transfer their sons and their daughters to Moloch, that I did not command them, nor did such come up in my heart to do this abomination,
so as to make Judah sin.
וְעַתָּ֕ה לָכֵ֛ן כֹּֽה־אָמַ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
אֶל־הָעִ֨יר הַזֹּ֜את אֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ אַתֶּ֣ם אֹמְרִ֗ים נִתְּנָה֙ בְּיַ֣ד מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֔ל בַּחֶ֖רֶב וּבָרָעָ֥ב וּבַדָּֽבֶר
lv vyth lcn ch-amr ihvh alohi iwral
al-hyir hzat awr atm aomrim nitnh bid mlç-bbl bkrb ubryb ubdbr
לו ועתה לכן כה־אמר יהוה אלוהי ישראל
אל־העיר הזאת אשר אתם אומרים ניתנה ביד מלך־בבל בחרב וברעב ובדבר
36 And now therefore, thus says Yahweh, the God of Israel,
against this city which you are saying is given into the hand of the king of Babel by the sword and by famine and by pestilence.
הִנְנִ֤י מְקַבְּצָם֙ מִכָּל־הָ֣אֲרָצ֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִדַּחְתִּ֥ים שָׁ֛ם בְּאַפִּ֥י וּבַחֲמָתִ֖י וּבְקֶ֣צֶף גָּד֑וֹל
וַהֲשִֽׁבֹתִים֙ אֶל־הַמָּק֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה וְהֹשַׁבְתִּ֖ים לָבֶֽטַח
lz hnni mqbxm mcl-harxot awr hdktim wm bapi ubkmti ubqxf gdol
vhwibotim al-hmqom hzh vhowbtim lb'tk
לז הנני מקבצם מכל־הארצות אשר הדחתים שם באפי ובחמתי ובקצף גדול
והשיבותים אל־המקום הזה והושבתים לבטח
37 Note me well, collecting them from all the lands where I banished them in my anger and in my heat and great rage,
and I will return them again to this place, and I will settle them in trust.
וְהָ֥יוּ לִ֖י לְעָ֑ם
וַאֲנִ֕י אֶהְיֶ֥ה לָהֶ֖ם לֵאלֹהִֽים
lk vhiu li lym
vani ahih lhm lalohim
לח והיו לי לעם
ואני אהיה להם לאלוהימ
38 And they will be my people,
and myself, I will become their God.
וְנָתַתִּ֨י לָהֶ֜ם לֵ֤ב אֶחָד֙ וְדֶ֣רֶךְ אֶחָ֔ד לְיִרְאָ֥ה אוֹתִ֖י כָּל־הַיָּמִ֑ים
לְט֣וֹב לָהֶ֔ם וְלִבְנֵיהֶ֖ם אַחֲרֵיהֶֽם
l't vntti lhm lb akd vdrç akd lirah aoti cl-himim
l'tob lhm vlbnihm akrihm
לט ונתתי להם לב אחד ודרך אחד ליראה אותי כל־הימים
לטוב להם ולבניהם אחריהמ
39 And I will give them one heart and one way to fear me every day,
for good for them, and their children after them.
וְכָרַתִּ֤י לָהֶם֙ בְּרִ֣ית עוֹלָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־אָשׁוּב֙ מֵאַ֣חֲרֵיהֶ֔ם לְהֵיטִיבִ֖י אוֹתָ֑ם
וְאֶת־יִרְאָתִי֙ אֶתֵּ֣ן בִּלְבָבָ֔ם לְבִלְתִּ֖י ס֥וּר מֵעָלָֽי
m vcrti lhm brit yolm awr la-awub makrihm lhi'tibi aotm
vat-irati atn blbbm lblti sur mylii
ם וכרתי להם ברית עולם אשר לא־אשוב מאחריהם להיטיבי אותם
ואת־יראתי אתן בלבבם לבלתי סור מעליי
40 And I will cut for them a covenant forever, that I will not turn away from them, that I may do them good.
And my fear I will give in their heart, that they not turn aside from me.
וְשַׂשְׂתִּ֥י עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם לְהֵטִ֣יב אוֹתָ֑ם
וּנְטַעְתִּ֞ים בָּאָ֤רֶץ הַזֹּאת֙ בֶּאֱמֶ֔ת בְּכָל־לִבִּ֖י וּבְכָל־נַפְשִֽׁי
ma vwwti ylihm lhi'tib aotm
un'tytim barx hzat bamt bcl-libi ubcl-npwi
מא וששתי עליהם להיטיב אותם
ונטעתים בארץ הזאת באמת בכל־ליבי ובכל־נפשי
41 And I will joy over them to do good to them,
and I will plant them in this land in truth, with all my heart and with all my being.
כִּֽי־כֹה֙ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר הֵבֵ֙אתִי֙ אֶל־הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה אֵ֛ת כָּל־הָרָעָ֥ה הַגְּדוֹלָ֖ה הַזֹּ֑את
כֵּ֣ן אָנֹכִ֞י מֵבִ֤יא עֲלֵיהֶם֙ אֶת־כָּל־הַטּוֹבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָנֹכִ֖י דֹּבֵ֥ר עֲלֵיהֶֽם
mb ci-ch amr ihvh cawr hbati al-hym hzh at cl-hryh hgdolh hzat
cn anoci mbia ylihm at-cl-h'tobh awr anoci dobr ylihm
מב כי־כה אמר יהוה כאשר הבאתי אל־העם הזה את כל־הרעה הגדולה הזאת
כן אנוכי מביא עליהם את־כל־הטובה אשר אנוכי דובר עליהמ
42 Because thus says Yahweh, As I have brought to this people all this great evil,
so I will bring upon them all the good that I was speaking concerning them.
וְנִקְנָ֥ה הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה בָּאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֑את
אֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ אַתֶּ֣ם אֹמְרִ֗ים שְׁמָמָ֥ה הִיא֙ מֵאֵ֤ין אָדָם֙ וּבְהֵמָ֔ה נִתְּנָ֖ה בְּיַ֥ד הַכַּשְׂדִּֽים
mg vnqnh hwdh barx hzat
awr atm aomrim wmmh hia main adm ubhmh nitnh bid hcwdim
מג ונקנה השדה בארץ הזאת
אשר אתם אומרים שממה היא מאין אדם ובהמה ניתנה ביד הכשדימ
43 And the field will be purchased in this land,
that you are saying, It is desolate, without human or beast, given into the hand of the Chaldeans.
שָׂד֞וֹת בַּכֶּ֣סֶף יִקְנ֗וּ וְכָת֨וֹב בַּסֵּ֥פֶר ׀ וְחָתוֹם֮ וְהָעֵ֣ד עֵדִים֒ בְּאֶ֨רֶץ בִּנְיָמִ֜ן וּבִסְבִיבֵ֣י יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם וּבְעָרֵ֤י יְהוּדָה֙ וּבְעָרֵ֣י הָהָ֔ר וּבְעָרֵ֥י הַשְּׁפֵלָ֖ה וּבְעָרֵ֣י הַנֶּ֑גֶב
כִּֽי־אָשִׁ֥יב אֶת־שְׁבוּתָ֖ם נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה
md wdot bcsf iqnu vctob bspr vktom vhyd ydim barx bnimin ubsbibi iruwlim ubyri ihudh ubyri hhr ubyri hwpilh ubyri hngb
ci-awib at-wbutm naum-ihvh
מד שדות בכסף יקנו וכתוב בספר וחתום והעד עדים בארץ בנימין ובסביבי ירושלים ובערי יהודה ובערי ההר ובערי השפילה ובערי הנגב
כי־אשיב את־שבותם נאום־יהוה
44 Fields with silver they will buy, and write in the record, and seal them, and will have witnesses witness in the land of Benjamin, and in the places surrounding Jerusalem, and in the cities of Judah, and in the cities of the hill, and in the cities of the lowly places, and in the cities of the Negev,
for I will reverse their captivity. An oracle of Yahweh.

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Comparing SimHebrew with the WLC

All my youth as a Hebrew student, I have used the Aleppo and Westminster Leningrad traditions. I am now into my teen-aged years as a student of this tongue, and I have recently come across the undotted version of the text that is common in modern usage. My colleague and coach, Jonathan Orr-Stav has invented a new and simple method of encoding undotted Hebrew or Aramaic (of any sort) in English (Latin) characters called simulated Hebrew, or SimHebrew for short. (You can find an introduction here.) Jonathan explains:
ḥaser in the context of ktiv (spelling) means 'lacking, deficient'—as opposed to malé, which means 'full'. 
The former refers to the austere use of yods and vavs to indicate /i/ and /o/ or /u/ sounds — limiting them to where they are actually part of the word stem, and relying on niqqud to dispel misunderstandings. The latter refers to the generous use of yods and vavs to indicate /i/, /o/ or /u/. [and as will be noted below, sometimes qamats and patah (a)].
Undotted Hebrew (both today and in the Second Temple era) tends to use malé, esp. for secular purposes. 
I was wondering if it was possible to write a program that would analyse the WLC (a ḥaser text) and produce an undotted version (malé). I think it is.

And it is very clear to me that information is lost in this conversion process, notably vowels and accents, but this does simulate the ancient versions that had no vowels (though I would not rush to say that they had no accents). And with that simulation plus a few extra mater lectiones, (vavs and yods that aid the reader), we do have a text that could be subject to text mining without the need to manage Unicode.

I am holding my breath about putting the SimHebrew text into the music. At present that will have to wait. But the exercise of programming 9 chapters of test data has proven very instructive so far. One thing it has taught me is how illogical I am at times, thinking one thing and coding another. This is common in programming, especially I imagine in old programmers, but that is anecdotal.

I am now going to try and 'explain' my rules in English.

There is an easy mapping from Unicode to Latin characters. For the sake of understanding I mapped the members of the non-grammatical team first. A straightforward replace. The Unicode values translate unambiguously:
1490 - g, 1491 - d, 1494 - z, 1495 - k, 1496 - +, 1505 - s,
1506 - y, 1508 - p, 1507 - f, 1510 - x, 1509 - x, 1511 - q, 1512 - r
Note I use + for tet (internally). It does have the odd use grammatically, but not for hitting runs, just keeping score.
Then the grammatical letters:
1488 - a, 1489 - b, 1492 - h, 1493 - v, 1497 - i, 1499 - c, 1498 - ç,
1500 - l, 1502 - m, 1501 - m, 1504 - n, 1503 - n, 1513 - w, 1514 - t
These all have significant impacts on the placement and usage of i's and o's in the SimHebrew representation of the malé square text. Yod and vav have the most complex problems. There is an initial quick conversion for vav, vav+1460 is vi, vav+other vowels are vv, vav+1466 is vo. There's some nuance here since these are not final decisions. They depend on other variables. The holam 1465 can follow many letters and has a number of rules. 1466 is used only with vav and is generally fixed.

I also allow myself the generality of converting some common suffixes. It's a bit surprising, but it saves a lot of hunting later.
PatternResult
t-1461 c-1462;mticm
l-1461 c-1462;mlicm
l-1461 h-1462;mlihm
n-1464 i-1460;mni*im
t-1463 i-1460;mti*im
b-1468-1463;i-1460;mbi*im
i-1468-1464;hi*ih
(The * is to prevent this as being seen as a double i which might be prevented per later rules. The * like the + is removed as a last step in constructing the full version of the verse.)

Some of the above may need restricting, e.g. there are 291 rows with the last combo and they might not all behave the same way in the rest of the WLC.

This is the beginning. And I won't continue this level of detail. I need to explain that each of the remaining rules by stem are processed in sequence. They allow one to see if a vowel in the text will cause a conversion to a mater lectionis. All the jots and tittles gradually disappear.

This is the matrix: (It will extend - and who knows, may become simpler if the rules appear to have patterns, particularly with respect to some diphthongs.)

It is similar to doing a program to deal with English lemmas. So many exceptions. I began my career as a programmer 54 years ago. I got the job because I could remember a host of three-character nonsense syllables. This program seems to be my bookend.

This table breaks down to three sections: Getting to the o's, Getting to the i's, A. vowels that undergo strange transformations, and B. Finally getting to the real i.

Rule abbreviatedApplies to stem (+ = ט)Comment
tsere vavnvh exceptions to vav+vowel becomes vv
qamats qatanycrn nsy mlc krm ahl
awih azn +rk krb kpry lcd pyl sll
render vowel a (Unicode 1464) as o
qamats qatan afxpqd acl render a as o except for some affixes
qamats qatan bwmy render a as o for prefix b
allow o lacl allow holam with prefix l
allow o bywh allow holam with prefix b
allow o vywh allow holam with prefix v
allow o eywh allow holam with segol
allow o sfywh allow holam with some suffixes
prevent oywh acl aph azn ch la mwh
pry raw xan zat
prevent holam
prevent o prefamr prevent holam with some common prefixes

tsere hireqrcc yrc rgn zrh wrq wrp kth kmr kln bar aph yvr ird pl+ wpl +vb render tsere (1461) as i (some conditions)
tsere hireqmman allow for some stems beginning with m but prevent i for single prefix mem with tsere
tsere hireq trpa ywh allow hireq from tsere for t
patah hireqrcc wnh mdi avli ybd pnh kq dbr yin al ph becomes ii but not for prefixed vai
patah hireqiild ird יַ ip (1497-1463) becomes ii
qamats upqd הָת ht becomes hut -- specialized prefix
qamats hireqvwlv ikd 'ָv' qamats-v (1464-1493) becomes iv
qamats hireqhih pnh yl qamats i becomes ii except for suffix ' th nh '
qamats hireq pfitr ivm qamats i becomes ii - except for prefix 'vָi'
prevent final ikih suppress rendering of final ai as ii
allow init pilvn wby allow initial patah-i as ii
allow init pi exciwb lqk allow initial patah-i as ii except for trailing u

allow iww yzz rpa qxx nsy ywr nqb nkl lvn ktt abd acr am amn awh aw at azn bxr clm csh cpr cys dbr dmm gbr gll hlc hll hnm kmw kx lb lbb lqk mxa mla ml+ nba ntc npl ntn npx pla psl q+r qnh rgy rnn wqx wbr wck wvb +vb tmm xvh xih yl yll ycb yxb yxmallow hireq (1460) to be realized -- too generous?
Note that hireq is rendered as i when a step contains an i anywhere.
allow i tqrb nwa ntn mxa ngp lcd lkm allow hireq to be realized for prefix t
allow i hwlv wby rby lvi kll nqm nsc lkm allow hireq to be realized for prefix h
allow i itmm wmm lkm allow hireq to be realized for prefix i
allow i vzvd wlk wlm tpw rmh nwa nqm nkm itr allow hireq to be realized for prefix v
allow i lpnh allow hireq to be realized for prefix v
allow i cxpkt allow hireq to be realized for prefix c
allow i mzmm allow hireq to be realized for prefix m
prevent iymindb ymihvd ynqi xvriwdi wlmial pgyial wyir tnin sin sini sir lvi ymiwdi gdyni cnyni brik bin di riq kih acl abidn cid rib irmih hia yir ci mi kli nbia csdi ihvdi cwdi ict itr bli ikm ial id idy anci bnimn iwb cli bit iwral ivm hih ani prevent hireq -- too restrictive?
And what will happen with names?
prevent i nwbr rpa lkm ird mxa qnh csh suppress hireq prefix n
prevent i hixg ixt hlc rgy +tb q+r suppress hireq prefix h
prevent i mdmm suppress hireq prefix m
prevent i cdbr suppress hireq prefix c
prevent i aww ird suppress tsere or hireq prefix aleph or h - may need refining
prevent i ioird suppress hireq prefix yod vav
prevent i vqrb lqk dmm suppress hireq prefix vav --
prevent i tsuppress hireq for prefix t
prevent i ilqk qnh suppress hireq for preterite/imperfect yod
prevent i l-xxx suppress hireq for prefix l
prevent i umla mxa suppress hireq for suffix u
allow dbl ircc wmm lqk ixt iin mdi bxr nplti yl yvr dmm igy wbr qnh kq ntn ml+ pla irw yll ixm gvi npl allow initial double hireq
prevent dbl iwlk wlm xpkt wby rpa rby yzz ywr ww nqm nkl mni tmm mla mim kx lvn ill ild nptli ixg nwa cpr kmw npx gmlial gll amn dbr azn mah +vb aliab aliwmy alixvr ink amr at ail ain akiry akiyzr  adryi iyd iwb aim psl ptiw abir xvh xih xivn wit bvw wvb aiw awh gbr anci lb cys brit ira bli idy nsc q+r pl+prevent double hireq
except forlkm ensures leading ii for stem, no ii anywhere else. There is supposedly a rule that with a prefix, the i is not doubled. Sometimes...

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Psalm 119 SimHebrew with sharpened tools

After several weeks of programming, my conversion of Psalm 119 to SimHebrew with what I have learned from transforming the WLC to a malé unpointed text has resulted in many changes to the Psalm that I published at the beginning of the month. [refreshed again after examining 100 or so differences, and again as a retest fixing the internal spaces in the verse 'alphabets' greater than q.]
a awri tmimi-drç
hholcim btort ihvh.
1 All joy for the complete of the way,
who walk in the instruction of Yahweh.
b awri noxri ydotiv bcl-lb idrwuhu.
2 All joy for those observing his testimonies. With a whole heart they search him out.
g af la-pylu yvvlh
bdrciv hlcu.
3 Also they do not work injustice,
in his ways they walk.
d ath xivvit piqudiç lwmor maod.
4 And you commanded your precepts to keep in full.
h aklii iiconu drcii lwmor kuqiç.
5 Ah that established were my ways to keep your statutes.
v az la-abow
bhbi'ti al-cl-mxvotiç.
6 And then I would not be ashamed,
to take note of all your commandments.
z aodç biowr lbb
blomdi mwp'ti xdqç.
7 And I will thank you with an upright heart,
when I learn the judgments of your righteousness.
k at-kuqiç awmor
al-tyzbni yd-maod.
8 And your statutes I will keep.
Do not forsake me in full for ever.
't bmh izch-nyr at-aorko
lwmor cdbrç?
9 But how will a youth clear his path,
to keep it according to your word?
i bcl-libi drwtiç
al-twgni mmxvotiç.
10 By all my heart I have searched you out.
Do not let me stray from your commandments.
ia blibi xpnti amrtç
lmyn la ak'ta-lç.
11 By my heart I have treasured your promise,
in order that I will not sin against you.
ib bruç ath ihvh lmdni kuqiç.
12 Blessed are you Yahweh. Teach me your statutes.
ig bwptii siprti
col mwp'ti-piç.
13 By my lips I have recounted,
all the judgments of your mouth.
id bdrç ydvotiç wwti cyl cl-hon.
14 By the way of your testimonies I joy as above all value.
'tv bpiqudiç awikh
vabi'th aorkotiç.
15 By your precepts I will ponder,
and I will take note of your paths.
'tz bkuqotiç awtywy
la awck dbrç.
16 By your statutes I will revel,
nor will I forget your word.
iz gmol yl-ybdç akih vawmrh dbrç.
17 Grow your servant. I will live and keep your word.
ik gl-yinii vabi'th
nplaot mtortç.
18 Give discovery to my eyes,
and I will take note of wonders in your instruction.
i't gr anoci barx
al-tstr mmni mxvotiç.
19 Guest I am on the earth,
do not hide from me your commandments.
c grsh npwi ltabh
al-mwp'tiç bcl-yt.
20 Ground down is my being for longing,
for your judgments at all times.
ca gyrt zdim arurim
hwogim mmxvotiç.
21 Giving, you rebuke the presumptuous, cursed,
straying from your commandments.
cb gl mylii krph vbuz
ci ydotiç nxrti.
22 Get from me reproach and contempt,
for your testimonies I have observed.
cg gm iwbu wrim bi nidbru
ybdç iwik bkuqiç.
23 Grand sultans sat. Against me they spoke.
Your servant will ponder on your statutes.
cd gm-ydotiç wywuyii anwi yxti.
24 Grand your testimonies and my revel. They are my personal counsels.
ch dbqh lypr npwi
kiini cdbrç.
25 Dust-cleaved is my being.
give me life according to your word.
cv drcii siprti vtynni lmdni kuqiç.
26 Declared have I my ways and you answered me. Teach me your statutes.
cz drç-piqudiç hbinni
vawikh bnplaotiç.
27 Direct my discernment in the way of your precepts,
and I will ponder on your wonderful works.
ck dlph npwi mtugh
qiimni cdbrç.
28 Drips my being with sadness.
Raise me according to your word.
c't drç-wqr hsr mmni
vtortç konni.
29 Deceitful way put aside from me,
and with your instruction grace me.
l drç-amunh bkrti
mwp'tiç wivviti.
30 Deliberated have I a way of faith.
With your judgments I have agreed.
la dbqti bydvotiç
ihvh al-tbiwni.
31 Determined I cleave to your testimonies.
Yahweh, do not put me to shame.
lb drç-mxvotiç arux
ci trkib libi.
32 Directed by your commandments I will race,
for you enlarge my heart.
lg hvrni ihvh drç kuqiç vaxrnh yqb.
33 Help me learn Yahweh the way of your statutes and I will observe with foot firmly planted.
ld hbinni vaxrh tortç vawmrnh bcl-lb.
34 Have me understand and I will observe your instruction, and I will keep it with a whole heart.
lh hdricni bntib mxvotiç
ci-bo kpxti.
35 Have me go in the pathway of your commandments,
for in it I have delighted.
lv h't-libi al-ydvotiç val al-bxy.
36 Hearten me to your testimonies and not to extortion.
lz hybr yinii mraot wva
bdrcç kiini.
37 Hide my eyes from seeing vanity.
In your way give me life.
lk hqm lybdç amrtç
awr liratç.
38 Hold high to your servant your promise,
which is to your fear.
l't hybr krpti awr igorti
ci mwp'tiç 'tobim.
39 Hide my reproach that I am afraid of,
for your judgments are good.
m hnh tabti lpiqudiç
bxdqtç kiini.
40 Here I have longed for your precepts.
In your righteousness give me life.
ma viboauni ksdiç ihvh
twuytç camrtç.
41 Well come to me is your mercy, Yahweh,
your salvation as your promise.
mb vaynh korpi dbr
ci-b'tkti bdbrç.
42 With which I will answer a word to one reproaching me,
for I trust in your word.
mg val-txl mpi dbr-amt yd-maod
ci lmwp'tiç ikltii.
43 Word of truth do not remove from my mouth utterly,
for of your judgments, I have hope.
md vawmrh tortç tmid lyolm vyd.
44 Watch over your instruction I will continually forever and ever.
mh vathlch brkbh
ci piqudiç drwti.
45 Walk in a spacious room I will,
for your precepts I have searched out.
mv vadbrh bydotiç ngd mlcim vla abow.
46 Words I will have of your testimonies before kings and I will not be ashamed.
mz vawtywy bmxvotiç awr ahbti.
47 Wherefore my revel will be in your commandments which I have loved.
mk vawa-cpii al-mxvotiç awr ahbti vawikh bkuqiç.
48 Wave my palms I will to your commandments, which I have loved and I will ponder on your statutes.
m't zcor-dbr lybdç
yl awr ikltnii.
49 You remember a word to your servant,
on which you give me hope.
n zat nkmti byonii
ci amrtç kiitni.
50 Yes - this is my comfort in my poverty,
for your promise gives me life.
na zdim hlixuni yd-maod
mtortç la n'titi.
51 Yet though the presumptuous hold me in much scorn,
from your instruction I have not swerved.
nb zcrti mwp'tiç myolm ihvh vatnkm.
52 Your judgments I bring to remembrance from of old Yahweh and I comfort myself.
ng zlyph akztni mrwyim
yozbi tortç.
53 Yang of fire grasps me from the wicked,
forsaking your instruction.
nd zmirot hiu-li kuqiç bbit mgurii.
54 Yin of psalms your statutes have become to me in the house where I am guest.
nh zcrti blilh wmç ihvh
vawmrh tortç.
55 Your name I have remembered in the night, Yahweh.
I have kept your instruction.
nv zat hiith-li
ci piqudiç nxrti.
56 You are mine,
for your precepts I have observed.
nz klqi ihvh amrti lwmor dbriç.
57 Chosen share, mine you are, Yahweh. I have promised to keep your word.
nk kiliti pniç bcl-lb
konni camrtç.
58 Craved have I your presence with a whole heart,
be gracious to me according to your promise.
n't kiwbti drcii
vawibh rglii al-ydotiç.
59 Considered have I my ways,
and turned my feet to your testimonies.
s kwti vla htmhmhti
lwmor mxvotiç.
60 Came quickly I did and I would not linger,
to keep your commandments.
sa kbli rwyim yivvduni
tortç la wckti.
61 Companies of the wicked continue around me.
Your instruction I have not forgotten.
sb kxot-lilh aqum lhodot lç
yl mwp'ti xdqç.
62 Come midnight I arise to give thanks to you,
over the judgments of your righteousness.
sg kbr ani lcl-awr irauç
ulwomri piqudiç.
63 Companion am I to all who fear you,
and are keepers of your precepts.
sd ksdç ihvh mlah harx kuqiç lmdni.
64 Covenant mercy yours, Yahweh, has filled the earth. Your statutes you will teach me.
sh 'tob ywit ym-ybdç
ihvh cdbrç.
65 Too well you have dealt with your servant,
Yahweh, through your word.
sv 'tub 'tym vdyt lmdni
ci bmxvotiç hamnti.
66 Teach me good taste and knowledge,
for in your commandments I have believed.
sz 'trm aynh ani wogg
vyth amrtç wmrti.
67 Time past, afflicted I was going astray,
but now your promise I have kept.
sk 'tob-ath um'tib lmdni kuqiç.
68 Too good are you and doing good. Teach me your statutes.
s't 'tplu ylii wqr zdim
ani bcl-lb axor piqudiç.
69 The presumptuous smear falsehood over me.
As for me, with a whole heart I will observe your precepts.
y 'tpw cklb libm
ani tortç wiywyti.
70 Their heart is grossly inert.
As for me, in your instruction I will revel.
ya 'tob-li ci-yuniti
lmyn almd kuqiç.
71 That I was afflicted is good for me,
so I will learn your statutes.
yb 'tob-li tort-piç
malpi zhb vcsf.
72 The instruction of your mouth is good to me,
more than thousands in gold and silver.
yg idiç ywuni viconnuni
hbinni valmdh mxvotiç.
73 Your hands have made me and established me.
Give me understanding and I will teach your commandments.
yd iraiç irauni viwmku
ci ldbrç ikltii.
74 Yes - those who fear you when they see me will be glad,
for of your word I have hoped.
yh idyti ihvh ci-xdq mwp'tiç
vamunh yinitni.
75 Yet I know Yahweh that righteous are your judgments,
and in faithfulness you afflicted me.
yv ihi-na ksdç lnkmni
camrtç lybdç.
76 Your mercy to comfort me, may it be,
according to your promise to your servant.
yz iboauni rkmiç vakih
ci-tortç wywuyii.
77 You will come to me in your compassion and I will live,
for your instruction is my revel.
yk ibowu zdim ci-wqr yivvtuni
ani awik bpiqudiç.
78 Yon presumptuous will be shamed for in falsehood they subverted me.
As for me, I will ponder on your precepts.
y't iwubu li iraiç
viodyi ydotiç.
79 You will let those who fear you turn to me,
and those knowing your testimonies.
p ihi-libi tmim bkuqiç
lmyn la abow.
80 Yea, let my heart be complete in your statutes,
so I will not be ashamed.
pa clth ltwuytç npwi
ldbrç ikltii.
81 Faints my being for your salvation.
Of your word I have hoped.
pb clu yinii lamrtç
lamor mtii tnkmni?
82 Faint my eyes for your promise,
saying, When will you comfort me?
pg ci-hiiti cnad bqi'tor
kuqiç la wckti.
83 For I have become like a bottle in vapour.
Your statutes I have not forgotten.
pd cmh imi-ybdç
mtii tywh brodpii mwp't?
84 For how are the days of your servant?
When will you do judgment against my persecutors?
ph cru-li zdim wikot
awr la ctortç.
85 For me the presumptuous dig ditches,
that are not of your instruction.
pv cl-mxvotiç amunh
wqr rdpuni yozrni.
86 Faithful are all your commandments.
In falsehood they persecute me. Help me.
pz cmy't ciluni barx
vani la-yzbti piqudiç.
87 For scarcely they consume me in the earth,
but as for me, I do not forsake your precepts.
pk cksdç kiini
vawmrh ydut piç.
88 For your mercy give me life,
and I will keep the testimony of your mouth.
p't lyolm ihvh
dbrç nixb bwmiim.
89 LORD (Yahweh) forever your word,
stands firm in heaven.
t ldor vdor amuntç
connt arx vtymod.
90 Lo from generation to generation is your faithfulness.
You established earth and she stands.
ta lmwp'tiç ymdu hiom
ci hcol ybdiç.
91 Living in your judgments they stand this day,
for they all are your servants.
tb luli tortç wywuyii
az abdti byonii.
92 Love, unless your instruction is my revel,
then I have perished in my poverty.
tg lyolm la-awck piqudiç
ci bm kiitni.
93 Let me never forget your precepts,
for in them you have made me live.
td lç-ani howiyni
ci piqudiç drwti.
94 Love, to you I myself belong, save me,
for your precepts I have searched out.
th li qivu rwyim labdni
ydotiç atbonn.
95 Lying in wait for me to make me perish are the wicked.
Your testimonies I will understand.
tv lcl-tclh raiti qx
rkbh mxvvtç maod.
96 Lo, to all consummation I saw an end.
Very spacious are your commandments.
tz mh-ahbti tortç
cl-hiom hia wikti.
97 My - how I love your instruction.
All the day long it is my pondering.
tk maoibii tkcmni mxvotç
ci lyolm hia-li.
98 Making me wiser than my enemies by your commandment,
for it is mine forever.
t't mcl-mlmdii hwclti
ci ydvotiç wikh li.
99 Midst all my teachers I have insight,
for your testimonies are my pondering.
q mzqnim atbonn
ci piqudiç nxrti.
100 More than the aged I understand,
for your precepts I have observed.
qa mcl-aork ry clati rglii
lmyn awmor dbrç.
101 Missing every path of evil I have restrained my feet,
so that I will keep your word.
qb mmwp'tiç la-srti
ci-ath horitni.
102 Mid your judgments I have not been stubborn,
for you yourself have instructed me.
qg mh-nmlxu lkici amrtç mdbw lpi.
103 More than gratifying to my palate, your promise than honey to my mouth.
qd mpiqudiç atbonn
yl cn wnati cl-aork wqr.
104 Minding your precepts I have discernment,
therefore I have hated every path of falsehood.
qh nr-lrgli dbrç
vaor lntibti.
105 Nigh a lamp to my feet is your word,
and light to my pathway.
qv nwbyti vaqiimh
lwmor mwp'ti xdqç.
106 Now I have sworn and I will arise to it,
to keep the judgments of your righteousness.
qz nyniti yd-maod
ihvh kiini cdbrç.
107 Near to much poverty am I, Yahweh.
Give me life according to your word.
qk ndbot pi rxh-na ihvh
umwp'tiç lmdni.
108 Now may you accept, Yahweh, the freewill offerings of my mouth,
and your judgments teach me.
q't npwi bcpi tmid
vtortç la wckti.
109 Now my being is in the palm of my hand continually,
and your instruction I have not forgotten.
qi ntnu rwyim pk li
umpiqudiç la tyiti.
110 Netted the wicked a snare for me,
but from your precepts I did not wander.
qia nklti ydvotiç lyolm
ci-wwon libi hmh.
111 Near are your testimonies, my inheritance forever,
for the joy of my heart are they.
qib n'titi libi lywot kuqiç lyolm yqb.
112 Nuanced have I my heart to do your statutes, forever with foot firmly planted.
qig sypim wnati
vtortç ahbti.
113 Schismatics I hate,
and your instruction I have loved.
qid stri umgini ath
ldbrç ikltii.
114 Secret mine and my shield are you.
Of your word I have hoped.
q'tv suru-mmni mryim
vaxrh mxvot alohii.
115 Stay from me, you evildoers,
for I will observe the commandments of my God.
q'tz somcni camrtç vakih
val-tbiwni mwbri.
116 Support me according to your promise so I will live.
Let me not be ashamed of my reliance.
qiz sydni vaivvwyh
vawyh bkuqiç tmid.
117 Sustain me and I will be saved,
and I will look to your statutes continually.
qik slit cl-wogim mkuqiç
ci-wqr trmitm.
118 Suspended have you all who stray from your statutes,
for falsehood is their deceit.
qi't sigim hwbt cl-rwyi-arx
lcn ahbti ydotiç.
119 Swill you eradicated all the wicked of the earth,
so I have loved your testimonies.
qc smr mpkdç bwri
ummwp'tiç irati.
120 Shivers from your dread my flesh,
and your judgments I fear.
qca ywiti mwp't vxdq
bl-tnikni lyowqii.
121 I have dealt judgment and righteousness.
Do not leave me to those oppressing me.
qcb yrob ybdç l'tob
al-iywquni zdim.
122 Insure your servant for good.
Do not let the presumptuous oppress me.
qcg yinii clu liwuytç
ulamrt xdqç.
123 I - I - my eyes - faint for your salvation,
and for the promise of your righteousness.
qcd ywh ym-ybdç cksdç vkuqiç lmdni.
124 I ask you to deal with your servant according to your mercy, and your statutes to teach me.
qch ybdç-ani hbinni
vadyh ydotiç.
125 I am your servant, let me understand,
that I may know your testimonies.
qcv yt lywot lihvh
hpru tortç.
126 It is time to act, Yahweh.
Your instruction they have thwarted.
qcz yl-cn ahbti mxvotiç
mzhb umpz.
127 I have loved your commandments therefore,
above gold and above pure gold.
qck yl-cn cl-piqvdi col iwrtii
cl-aork wqr wnati.
128 Indeed all your precepts, all I find upright.
Every path of falsehood I hate.
qc't plaot ydvotiç
yl-cn nxrtm npwi.
129 Plentiful of wonders are your testimonies,
therefore my being will observe them.
ql ptk dbriç iair mbin ptiim.
130 Penetration of your words gives light, giving understanding to the simple.
qla pi-pyrti vawaph
ci lmxvotiç iabti.
131 Parting mouth, gaping, I sigh heavily,
for to your commandments is my longing.
qlb pnh-alii vkonni
cmwp't laohbi wmç.
132 Put your face to me and be gracious to me,
for judgment to those who love your name.
qlg pymii hcn bamrtç
val-twl't-bi cl-aovn.
133 Prepare my footfalls in your promise,
and do not let any mischief dominate me.
qld pdni myowq adm
vawmrh piqudiç.
134 Pray ransom me from the oppression of a human,
and I will keep your precepts.
qlh pniç har bybdç
vlmdni at-kuqiç.
135 Pyre your face on your servant,
and teach me your statutes.
qlv plgi-mim irdu yinii
yl la-wmru tortç.
136 Pouring streams of waters descend from my eyes,
that they do not keep your instruction.
qlz xdiq ath ihvh
viwr mwp'tiç.
137 So righteous you are, Yahweh,
and upright are your judgments.
qlk xivvit xdq ydotiç
vamunh maod.
138 Set you have the righteousness of your testimonies,
and much faithfulness.
ql't ximttni qnati
ci-wcku dbriç xrii.
139 Stricken I was for my zeal,
for my foes forgot your words.
qm xruph amrtç maod vybdç ahbh.
140 Supremely refined is your promise and your servant loves it.
qma xyir anoci vnbzh
piqudiç la wckti.
141 Small am I and despised.
Your precepts I have not forgotten.
qmb xdqtç xdq lyolm
vtortç amt.
142 Saving righteousness, yours, is righteousness forever,
and your instruction is truth.
qmg xr-umxoq mxauni
mxvotiç wywuyii.
143 Strain and distress find me out.
Your commandments are my revel.
qmd xdq ydvotiç lyolm hbinni vakih.
144 Such righteousness of your testimonies forever let me understand, and I will live.
qmh qrati bcl-lb ynni ihvh kuqiç axorh.
145 Queried I with a whole heart, answer me Yahweh. Your statutes I will observe.
qmv qratiç howiyni
vawmrh ydotiç.
146 Queried I you, save me,
and I will keep your testimonies.
qmz qidmti bnwf vawvvyh
ldbrç ikltii.
147 Quested I in a twilight hour and I cried for help.
Of your word I have hoped.
qmk qidmv yinii awmurot
lwik bamrtç.
148 Quested my eyes in the night watches,
to ponder on your promise.
qm't qoli wmyh cksdç
ihvh cmwp'tiç kiini.
149 Quest of mine, hear for your mercy, Yahweh.
In your judgments give me life.
qn qrbu rodpi zimh
mtortç rkqu.
150 Quite near are those pursuing an agenda.
From your instruction they are distant.
qna qrob ath ihvh
vcl-mxvotiç amt.
151 Quite near are you, Yahweh,
and all your commandments are truth.
qnb qdm idyti mydotiç
ci lyolm isdtm.
152 Quite from of old I knew from your testimonies,
for you founded them forever.
qng rah-yonii vklxni
ci-tortç la wckti.
153 Regard my poverty and rescue me,
for your instruction I do not forget.
qnd ribh ribi ugalni
lamrtç kiini.
154 Reason my reason and redeem me.
Of your promise give me life.
qnh rkoq mrwyim iwuyh
ci kuqiç la drwu.
155 Remote from the wicked is salvation,
for your statutes they do not search out.
qnv rkmiç rbim ihvh
cmwp'tiç kiini.
156 Richly abundant are your compassions Yahweh.
According to your judgments give me life.
qnz rbim rodpii vxrii
mydvotiç la n'titi.
157 Running after me are many foes.
From your testimonies I do not swerve.
qnk raiti bogdim vatqo't'th
awr amrtç la wmru.
158 Regarding the treacherous I was upset,
that your promise they disregard.
qn't rah ci-piqudiç ahbti
ihvh cksdç kiini.
159 Regard for your precepts I love Yahweh.
According to your mercy give me life.
qs raw-dbrç amt
ulyolm cl-mwp't xdqç.
160 Right true is your word,
and forever is every judgment of your righteousness.
qsa wrim rdpuni kinm
umdbrç pkd libi.
161 Sultans persecute me for nothing,
but from your word my heart stands in dread.
qsb ww anoci yl-amrtç
cmoxa wll rb.
162 Singing I joy over your promise,
as finding abundant spoil.
qsg wqr wnati vatybh
tortç ahbti.
163 Scandal I hate and abhor.
Your instruction I love.
qsd wby biom hilltiç
yl mwp'ti xdqç.
164 Seven times a day do I praise you,
for the judgments of your righteousness.
qsh wlom rb laohbi tortç
vain-lmo mcwol.
165 Such abundant peace to those who love your instruction,
and there is for them no stumbling.
qsv wibrti liwuytç ihvh
umxvotiç ywiti.
166 Steadfast my reliance on your salvation Yahweh,
and your commandments I have done.
qsz wmrh npwi ydotiç
vaohbm maod.
167 Shelters my being your testimonies,
and I love them much.
qsk wmrti piqudiç vydotiç
ci cl-drcii ngdç.
168 So I shelter your precepts and your testimonies,
for all my ways are before you.
qs't tqrb rinti lpniç ihvh
cdbrç hbinni.
169 To your presence let my shout of joy come near, Yahweh.
According to your word, give me understanding.
qy tboa tkinti lpniç
camrtç hxilni.
170 To your presence let my supplication come.
According to your promise deliver me.
qya tbynh wptii thilh
ci tlmdni kuqiç.
171 Tumbling from my lips is praise,
for you have taught me your statutes.
qyb tyn lwoni amrtç
ci cl-mxvotiç xdq.
172 Tongue of mine will answer your promise,
for all your commandments are righteous.
qyg thi-idç lyozrni
ci piqudiç bkrti.
173 There your hand will be to help me,
for your precepts I have chosen.
qyd tabti liwuytç ihvh
vtortç wywuyii.
174 To your salvation I have longed to come, Yahweh,
and your instruction is my revel.
qyh tki-npwi uthllç
umwp'tiç iyzruni.
175 To live let my being and it will praise you,
and from your judgments you will help me.
qyv tyiti cwh aobd bqw ybdç
ci mxvotiç la wckti.
176 Time and again I wander like a newborn lamb that is perishing. Seek your servant,
for your commandments I do not forget.