Tuesday, January 26, 2021

Introduction to SimHebrew - a developer's viewpoint.

As readers will know, I have been allowing the benefits of SimHebrew as a ltr abbreviation for rtl Hebrew sink in over the past year. You could say I have been doing a little word processing experiment with multiple representations of a language. Here is a summary of the things I have learned over the year, extracted from various posts on the subject.


Every software developer who wants to work with a right-to-left language in a left-to-right programming language has a problem testing the values of the words he or she may be working with. SimHebrew is an elegant solution to this problem for Hebrew.

SimHebrew is a representation of rtl square Hebrew in ltr Latin letters. It makes learning the letters easier. It is good for ease of searching, especially with software, and for applications like URL coding. SimHebrew was a very slight translation for me from a technique I had used in the first version of my software, but lowercase rather than uppercase letters and the choices of letters to reflect the shapes through mirroring improve its usability. 

Compare: a traditional keyboard mapping:

xbgdhvzHTjklmnsypcqrwt
אבגדהוזחטיכלמנסעפצקרשת

with the SimHebrew mapping:

abgdhvzk'ticlmnsypxqrwt
אבגדהוזחטיכלמנסעפצקרשת

One has to get used to either one. Dislodging a poor mapping can be difficult for us. My old mapping was usable but I hid it from anything or anyone outside my programs. My aleph was ), my ayin was `, these reminded me of the guttural aspect of the letters. My chet was X. My yod was Y and my kaf was K and my tsade was C like the keyboard. I distinguished shin and sin as $ and W. Enough said. It worked, but SimHebrew is simpler and graphically closer to the Hebrew letters and it doesn't have to be hidden.

The grapheme /a/ begins the alphabet as is traditional. One gets used to /k/, the eighth letter as chet. The ninth, tet is anomalous. SimHebrew uses an escaped /t/. (I use + internally for tet.) The grapheme /i/ is a natural for yod. Similarly C is a natural for כ, its mirror image. And /x/ is not a bad graphic imitation of tsade. Note too how even in our standard typefaces, q, r, and w are all mirror images of the Hebrew letters. This clue is followed up by Jonathan Orr-Stav in his book Aleph through the Looking Glass.

So how do we pronounce these letters and the words they make up? I have no shortcut answers for this question at the moment. But pronunciation can be studied directly by scanning the concordance in the form that I have it in.

Aleph, a, א is a guttural. Think of it as a glottal stop (as in English) but it can carry one of many vowel sounds with it. So the /a/ of ab, father, carries an a. But the /a/ of abn, stone, carries an /e/ so is pronounced ebn (as in Ebenezer). This is not different from English. For example, note that the English any begins with an 'e' sound.

Bet, b, ב sounds as b or v. Gimel, g, ג is g. Dalet, d, ד is d. He (heh), h, ה is the lighter aspirate, but it counts as a guttural too. /a/ and /h/ both have significant grammatical roles.

Vav, v, ו is the connector and appears in SimHebrew as /u/ /o/ or /v/. SimHebrew tells you explicitly for this letter. /v/ is part of the grammatical team.

Zayin, z, ז is z. Chet, k, ח is ch, the serious aspirate, much like ch in loch. Tet, 't, ט is t, a minor player on the grammatical team, occasional metastasis in a word.

Yod, i, י is i. It may operate like a consonant (as does the English /y/, for example, in the name Iago) as well as a vowel.

Kaf, c, כ is a hard c with a little h in it as well. /ç/ is used for a final kaf. Lamed (two syllables), l, ל is l. Mem, m, מ is m. Nun, n, נ is n. /i/, /c/, /l/, /m/, /n/ all play grammatical roles.

Samech, s, ס is s. It may look like an /o/ and be difficult to distinguish from an /m/ sofit. This is not a problem in SimHebrew. Samech, smç, support or sustain, comes in the place of O in the Latin alphabet. There must be story here.

Ayin, y, ע is the heavier-duty guttural - sort of like an emphasized 'excellent' in English. And like aleph, it may take more than one different vowel. For example viyl, so let him go up, is the connector vav, va, followed by the prefix /i/ behaving like a consonant y and the guttural /y/ carrying an ah sound, all together vaiy`al. And yolm, everlasting, eras past, etc, is /y/ glottal stop carrying an o sound, all together `olam. From a pronunciation point of view, two consecutive consonants tend to be separated by something close to a schwa. 

Peh, p, פ sounds like /p/, or /f/ if the last letter of a word. Tsade, x, צ is ts. Qof, q, ק is q. Resh, r, ר is r.

Shin / sin, w, שׁ is sh or s (and you just hafta know). /w/ is a minor player on the grammatical team, the prefix /sh/.

taf t ת is t. /t/ is a grammatical letter. The famous word amt comprised of the first and last letters and the 13th has either a or e associated with its pronunciation, but the two are very close and always heading towards schwa. E.g. amito, his truth, sounds like it is written but amt, truth, sounds like the Lego hero, Emmet.

So: five gutturals, a, h, k, y, and r. (May be disputed.) Several (16) strong letters that rarely disappear in word forms: b, g, d, z, 't, | k, c, l, s, y, | p, x ,q, r, w, t. Several (6) weak letters that often disappear in some word forms a, h, v, i, m, n. In particular, v and i often morph into each other. In SimHebrew the v will be written as v, o, or u.

There does not seem to be anything particularly tidy about this sequence of letters, any more or less than any other alphabet. The ancient scribes were aware of a sequence of letters. This is clear from the acrostic psalms and played on in the poems of Lamentations with what appears to be a reversed order of p and y. There are ancient abecedaries that agree with Lamentations.

SimHebrew has allowed my work to follow an easier path since 2019. Just the use of lowercase rather than my original mapping, has made life easier in this exercise of seeking out the changes in the presentation of the language from the pointed Biblical text to an unpointed text. SimHebrew makes searching very easy and aids greatly in presenting the data of Tanakh. And it so easy to type in both languages.

Saturday, January 23, 2021

Teaching poetry and script

In Lent last year, Jim Gordon had a series on the poetry of George Herbert. Did you ever have trouble reading poetry? I could not slow myself down long enough even in University to tease out the reality of poetry. It was not until I began to sing the Metaphysicals that I began to appreciate all the poetry that had been stuffed into me by rote from Chaucer to Eliot. I still have trouble.

The Psalms, the Prophets, and Job (with the exception of the prologue and Epilogue) are all 'poetry' in the Bible. The words are in short sharp lines and have a different set of cantillation signs.

We should be able to slow down, even if we may read parts of a poem fast as Amanda Gorman did at the inauguration of Biden, We should be able to perform and study and appreciate the shapes, the forms, the sounds of words and letters, to celebrate the gift of tongues that we all have.

Rejoice in God O ye Tongues:
Give the glory to the Lord and the Lamb

Nations and languages And every Creature
In which is the breath of Life

Let man and beast appear before him,
and magnify his name together


Jubilate Agno, Fragment A, by Christopher Smart

A youngster 1/10th my age asked if we could write a book together. I said, yes, but thought, we must explore all aspects of writing in this digital age, cursive, mirror, shape, ease, sound, and also form, content, character, tension, humour, and poetry.

After some discussion of his initial words for a story, and scribbling down some quick thoughts, he and I together, and asking some questions about writing, I started us off with the exercise of tracing the poem Easter Wings by George Herbert, as if one must have a poem as a lead-off, maybe part of the front matter of 'The Book' to be written. All due love to my first teachers of Metaphysical poetry especially Peter Ohlin of McGill, 50+ years ago, and the musicians, knowingly or not, who allowed me to wake up to Herbert's words.

If we are to write a book, we really ought to practise some writing. Here is our first attempt, each of us alternatively tracing the words and letters over three days. What is in the poem?
Tracing Easter Wings by George Herbert

No doubt our letters are impoverished compared to what the 17th century writer would have done. But it is a start. (You can find an original Ms online at the Bodleian - but I could not get it to instantiate.)
Here is an image from Trinity College Cambridge.
Easter Wings  by George Herbert: TCC, VI.11.29, p
Many have written about this poem, what does a 75-year-old see to help teach a 7.5-year-old? What is in the poem today for us in the early 21st Century? It is rather more applicable to us than abstract theology drawn from its surface.

But surely, having touched on the obvious shape, we could begin with sound and letters. Including the words that I inadvertently skipped! My failure will give both of us a lesson in syllables. How could I leave out 'this day', so much a part of Hebert's theology! (There is but one and that one ever).

Why are the syllables asymmetrical? 10, 8, 6, 4, 2 : 2, 4, 8, 8, 10.

Letters that stood out to me were the f's in the last line of stanza 1. These sounds are repeated in the final three lines of the second stanza.

How did I think of applying the content - we are still at the beginning of things, and a poem like this will take years to absorb. But the created order is evident to a 7.5 year old: parks, animals, fields of vegetables, beaches, seas, rain, snow, wind, mountains, clouds, sky, sun and moon, planets and stars. So line 1 has its application - and the loss of species (line 2) he has heard of, the becoming poore. Yet with thee (the old language that he has never heard till now), he can imagine flying even after the fall into most poore in the middle lines.

And stanza 2? Sicknesses and shame he is no stranger to, broken bones, disability in near relations, trouble, and most obviously, the current pandemic. But imp though he is in modern terms, he can hear the original sense of imp, as Jim Gordon pointed out, the grafting of our feathers on greater wings, using even the pandemic as affliction to advance flight.

Can we learn and use such affliction together to advance the flight in us?

Singular must include some aspect of plurality also, lest we be merely self-centred.

Friday, January 22, 2021

A long time ago

I wrote this as a 'page' when I was in the middle of my analysis of the Hebrew Bible. Now with the new concordance, we have come a long way from this initial attempt.

From the archives, a record of a learning process... (unedited)

This will take shape over time. I did a full two-way Biblical Hebrew-English glossary for my 2013 book Seeing the Psalter. Clearly, after working through the whole canon since then, things have changed. I work with a self-developed interactive app using the GX LEAF framework. I don't have the funding to put such a thing on the web, but this page will at least capture the data for others. There is value in the analysis. I have a complete list of stems as a starting point for anyone who wants to critique it. If I am wrong, I am consistently wrong, and several of the areas of weakness in my puzzle solution will be apparent.

I am not working from a rote-learned theological position. I have axes to grind, but they will be obvious. I believe humans have to take responsibility for their actions whether good or bad. Generally you can tell the difference by what the action cost you and how it benefits others. Cheap to you, hurts others: bad. Costly to you, good for others: good. You didn't know what you were doing and your motives were questionable but it proved the lesser of evils to others: probably good. You didn't know what you were doing and it was an embarrassment to others: bad. Is it possible that God will help? Work hard at it and you may find that good is what it is all about.

All this is in the record of the Hebrew Bible. The love in the Song, the unknown in Qohelet, the glory in the Psalms, the failures there and in the former prophets, the judgments in the later prophets, the agony in Job, the pith in the Proverbs, the record of the moment in Chronicles, the formation in Torah, and the hope for restoration and renewal in Ezra-Nehemiah.

Here is a simple list of every gloss by stem.
  • the dominant gloss is the one with the highest count
  • glosses are largely reduced to their English root form
  • I have excluded links - available from a full concordance to be published. 
If you search for (1), you can see immediately which glosses are unique and which stems are unique. You can see real hapaxes (unique stem) and artificial hapaxes (unique gloss) created in the process of translation. An artificial hapax may be caused by a use of an English synonym purely for variety, or the example may be of a unique use for a stem that has multiple uses.

As far as I know I have allowed all true hapaxes to have unique English glosses that do not overlap with any other Hebrew stem.
Aleph Bet Gimel Dalet Heh Vav Zayin Xet Tet Yod Kaf Lamed
Mem Nun Samek Ayin Peh Tsade Qof Resh Shin Sin Taf

The first numeric column counts the 305,368 words of the Hebrew Bible by first letter of the stem.
The second numeric column shows counts of the same words by first letter of the Hebrew word.
Note the significant differences (in bold) where the first letter may be a prefix.
א 62219
ב 19846
ג 6016
ד 7282
ה 12088
ו 38
ז 5388
ח 11401
ט 1876
י 28600
כ 17739
ל 14636
מ 16127
נ 13054
ס 3203
ע 28886
פ 7631
צ 4684
ק 7909
ר 10120
שׁ 20194
שׂ 3443
ת 2988
א 44180
ב 24723
ג 2929
ד 4230
ה 30726
ו 51001
ז 2152
ח 5412
ט 892
י 24047
כ 14298
ל 24920 
מ 20097
נ 6910
ס 1423
ע 16372
פ 3432
צ 2530
ק 2982
ר 4250
שׁ 9411
שׂ 1552
ת 6899

How many? (from an answer I wrote on quora.com.)

There are (at my count) 305,358 words. My word count does not double ketiv (what is written) and qere (what is read), and I count words separated by spaces after replacing every maqaf (hyphen) with a space.

There are 36,364 distinct word forms in these words (excluding names), 39,750 with names. Some of the word forms are derived from different stems. There are, at my current stage of processing, (95% complete), 4,031 distinct stems, 2250 excluding names.

A stem is the entry point to a dictionary or glossary. If you don’t know the stem, you will be lost in a Hebrew dictionary for a while.

Some of these stems may be homonyms, i.e. they are more than one distinct word but they are not distinguishable by their letters. (I do not distinguish verb stem from noun stem and I have kept a few stems distinct that are clearly related.)

Most stems are 3 letters long. My stem counts are as follows:
4 of length 1,
130 of length 2,
1,762 of length 3,
272 of length 4,
67 of length 5,
6 of length 6,
2 of length 7,
and 1 of length 9.

The unique 9 character stem is borrowed, אחשׁדרפנים for satraps (occurs 6 times). It could be reduced in length by removing the plural. The two of length 7 are סומפניה (symphonyah!) and פסנטרין. I have rendered these in reverse order as psaltery (4 times, Daniel 3:5,7,10,15) and symphony (3 times, missing from Daniel 10:7). This is of course the scene with Nebuchadnezzar:
You, O king, you have set up a warrant that all mortals who hear the tone of the horn, the flute, zither, the sackbut, psaltery, symphony, and all kinds of music,
will fall and pay homage to the image of gold.

The four shortest stems of 1 character never occur by themselves and so cannot be counted easily in my data. They are parts of the prefix for some word forms. In Latin characters, they are K כ ך (like, as etc), L ל (for to etc), M מ ם (from etc) and B ב (in etc). I use them as a last resort for words that are composed without a significant stem, e.g. לי mine = prefixed preposition + suffixed pronoun. But something like לדוד would not show under ל but under דוד, itself many words including David, aunt, uncle, mandrake etc.

All prepositions (bar none) are notorious for assuming a host of variations depending on the English context. In grammar class you are taught the dominant gloss but that’s only an approximation of what you need. (It’s a similar story for word forms - especially in poetry.) So anyone who bases an interpretation on an English preposition is showing ignorance of the real translation problem.

Thursday, January 21, 2021

Psalms 57

 Am I becoming predictable in my choices of Psalms to read? Likely not. These psalms in the late 50s seem particularly applicable to today's events. God regretted making Saul king. How about that eh? David describes (verse 5) what is was like to stumble through that period.

One good reason to read the psalms is to note just how applicable they are. Another is described here by Jim Gordon at Living Wittily.

thlim

Psalms

nz

57

almnxk al-twkt ldvid mctm,
bborko mpni-waul bmyrh.
1For the leader. Do not destroy. Of David, a miktam,
when he ran away from the face of Saul in the cave.
bkonni alohim konni ci bç ksih npwi,
ubxl-cnpiç aksh,
yd iybor huot.
2Be gracious to me O God be gracious to me for in you is refuge for my being,
and in the shadow of your wings I make my refuge,
until calamities are passed by.
gaqra lalohim ylion,
lal gomr ylii.
3I will call to God Most High,
to the One who obliterates over me.
diwlk mwmiim viowiyni kirf woapi slh.
iwlk alohim ksdo vamito.
4He will send from heaven and will save me. He reproached the one bearing down on me. Selah.
God will send his kindness and his truth.
hnpwi btoç lbaim awcbh loh'tim,
bni-adm winihm knit vkixim,
ulwonm krb kdh.
5I am among great cats. I lie down with those who are blazing,
the children of humanity, their teeth spears and arrows,
and their tongue a keen sword.
vrumh yl-hwmiim alohim,
yl cl-harx cbodç.
6Be high over the heavens O God,
over all the earth your glory.
zrwt hcinu lpymii cpf npwi.
cru lpnii wikh.
nplu btoch slh.
7A net they have prepared for my footfall. Disturbed is my being.
They have dug facing me a ditch.
They have fallen into the midst of it. Selah.
kncon libi alohim ncon libi.
awirh vazmrh.
8My heart is prepared O God, my heart is prepared.
I will sing and I will sing a psalm.
'tyurh cbodi yurh hnbl vcinor ayirh wkr. 9Be roused my glory. Be roused O lute and harp. I will rouse the dawn.
iaodç bymim adonii.
azmrç blaumim.
10I will give you thanks among the peoples my Lord.
I will sing you a psalm among the tribes.
iaci-gdol yd-wmiim ksdç,
vyd-wkqim amitç.
11For great to the heavens is your kindness,
and to the skies your truth.
ibrumh yl-wmiim alohim,
yl cl-harx cbodç.
12Be high over the heavens, O God,
over all the earth your glory.
Interesting to compare (verse 1 above) Do not destroy with Deuteronomy 9:26, the only other place in the canon outside the four psalms, 57, 58, 59 and 75 where the phrase in the inscription occurs.

Tuesday, January 19, 2021

Psalms 56

The instrumentation or melody of this psalm - I wonder if we could hear a melody for a muted trumpet in the distance. Saying, sing and trust, but don't imagine the violent warfare in your own hands.

Only in this psalm do we see the sequence of words dbr (word) preceded by hll (praise). Tate chose exactly the same glosses I did. What does it signify - to praise a word (Verses 5 and 11)?

For reasons of concordance, I cannot agree with his rendering of konni as mercy. I have confined mercy to ksd. knn is grace. (Once only in Psalm 9, an acrostic, I allowed a long phrase with knn to include 'have mercy' so I could have the h in the English as the first letter in a verse.)

This is how strict my glosses are. I need rules to break the rules, either wordplay, as in an acrostic,  or a real Hebrew synonym to allow multiple glosses for a root, or to make the English read reasonably given our current usage and a best guess as to the intent of the Hebrew.

What is the phrase in verse 3? Only here is lkm followed by a preposition 'l'. It would imply that it does not normally require a preposition. I did a check of a few verses and I see other prepositions used (b, ym) or none. This is a language usage problem. I wonder how I could extend my system to answer such a question: what prepositions or not are used with a verb? This is an extension of the idea I proposed a couple of weeks ago - to have searchable pages of consecutively used words. (All I would need to do is replace the CJB with the Hebrew, or a SimHebrew Bible in the concordance pages - and bingo, you could scan every use in its original context.)

But the real problem word here according to Tate is the last word, mrom. I didn't notice there was a problem. I don't see the need for another m. I have rendered mrom and mmrom identically. I see that other translations vary significantly in their renderings though, some interpreting mrom as a divine name. JB moves the word into the next verse as Raise me up. Verse 4, colon 1 is very short. They have a footnote corr. (I.e. we corrected the text. Of course this is not an explanation of why.) 

Enough meandering - how does reading the psalm mature us? It is the usual questions: who is speaking to whom about what and how do we identify with the speaker or not. It is quite an emotional exploration. Here we have the expression, in God I will trust, in the midst of what might be violent party strife in the nation. But let us not be presumptuous.

thlim

Psalms

nv

56

almnxk yl-iont alm rkoqim ldvid mctm,
bakoz aoto plwtim bgt.
1For the leader. On the dove dumbed by distances. Of David. A miktam,
when the Philistines in Gath grasped him.
bkonni alohim ci-wapni anow.
cl-hiom lokm ilkxni.
2Be gracious to me O God, for a mortal bears down on me.
All the day long fighting grips me.
gwapu worrii cl-hiom,
ci-rbim lokmim li mrom.
3My watchers bear down all the day long,
for many are fighting me from on high.
diom aira.
ani aliç ab'tk.
4Day I fear.
I in you will trust.
hbalohim ahll dbro.
balohim b'tkti la aira.
mh-iywh bwr li?
5In God I will praise his word.
In God I will trust.
I will not fear, What will flesh do to me?
vcl-hiom dbrii iyxbu.
ylii cl-mkwbotm lry.
6All the day long they torture my words.
Over me are all their devices for evil.
ziguru ixponu hmh yqbii iwmoru,
cawr qivu npwi.
7They amass, they treasure, they themselves my footsteps watch,
as they wait for me.
kyl-avvn pl't-lmo?
baf ymim hord alohim.
8Is their security over mischief?
In anger bring peoples down, O God.
'tnodi sprt-ath.
wimh dmyti bnadç.
hloa bsprtç?
9My waverings you yourself book.
You lay up my tears in your bottle.
Are they not in your book?
iaz iwubu aoibii akor biom aqra.
zh-idyti ci-alohim li.
10Then my enemies will turn back in the day I call.
This I know for God is mine.
iabalohim ahll dbr.
bihvh ahll dbr.
11In God I will praise a word.
In Yahweh I will praise a word.
ibbalohim b'tkti la aira.
mh-iywh adm li?
12In God I will trust. I will not fear.
What will an earthling do to me?
igylii alohim ndriç.
awlm todot lç.
13Over me, O God, are your vows.
I will make whole thanksgivings to you.
idci hxlt npwi mmvvt hloa rglii mdki?
lhthlç lpni alohim,
baor hkiim.
14For you deliver me from death. Will you not my feet from tripping?
So I will walk in the presence of God,
in the light of the living.

Monday, January 18, 2021

New form of the concordance

I have moved the concordance to a new blog. It was developed on this site, and now has its own site. It is essentially a search tool and not a blog, but I have implemented it as a set of 401 blog posts and supporting pages and links. 

Have a look here. Enjoy - what else is there to do at home except read (and sing) a concordance. I have named it after the Hebrew Latin Concordance that I was given by my first Hebrew teacher, Giddy Nashon, whom I remember for good every time I see this gift, and every time I walk up the street where he lived, and every time I think of the Synagogue where he taught.

Sunday, January 17, 2021

Psalms 55

Is this how you pray for your enemies? Short answer, Yes. You don't take these actions into your own hands, because vengeance does not belong to you. This is how to learn both self-control and when you have a self, then self-giving. If you are looking for the prophecy of Trump, try verse 21-22.

Hey - just read it!

thlim

Psalms

nh

55

almnxk bnginot mwcil ldvid. 1For the leader. On strings. An insight of David.
bhazinh alohim tpilti,
val-ttylm mtkinti.
2Give ear O God to my prayer,
and do not obscure yourself from my supplication.
ghqwibh li vynni.
arid bwiki vahimh.
3Attend to me and answer me.
I am restless in my pondering and discomfited.
dmqol aoib mpni yqt rwy,
ci-imi'tu ylii avvn ubaf iw'tmuni.
4From the voice of an enemy, from the presence of the pressure of a wicked one,
for they slip mischief upon me and in anger they oppose me.
hlibi ikil bqrbi,
vaimot mvvt nplu ylii.
5My heart is in turmoil within me,
and the horrors of death fall upon me.
virah vryd iboa bi,
vtcsni plxut.
6Fear and trembling come upon me,
and tremors cover me.
zvaomr mi-iitn-li abr cionh ayuph vawconh. 7And I said, Who will give me a pinion like a dove, that I may fly away and find a roost.
khnh arkiq ndod,
alin bmdbr slh.
8Then far off would I flee,
and bide my time in the wilderness. Selah.
'takiwh mpl't li,
mruk soyh msyr.
9I would hurry to my security,
from a storming wind and tempest.
ibly adonii plg lwonm,
ci-raiti kms vrib byir.
10Swallow up, my Lord, entangle their tongue,
for I have seen violence and contention in the city.
iaiomm vlilh isobbuh yl-komotih,
vavvn vyml bqrbh.
11Day and night they surround her upon her ramparts,
and mischief and toil are within her.
ibhuot bqrbh,
vla-imiw mrkobh toç umrmh.
12Calamities are within her,
and unfeeling from her plazas are fraud and deceit.
igci la-aoib ikrpni vawa,
la-mwnai ylii hgdil,
vaistr mmnu,
13For no enemy is reproaching me or I would bear it,
nor someone hating me over me magnifying himself,
or I would hide from him,
idvath anow cyrci,
alupi umiudyi.
14but you, mortal, as one arranged for me,
my captain, and known to me.
'tvawr ikdiv nmtiq sod.
bbit alohim nhlç brgw.
15Together we had sweet intimacy.
In the house of God we walked in the throng.
'tziwia mvvt ylimo iirdu waol kiim,
ci-ryot bmgurm bqrbm.
16Let death lure them. Let them descend alive to the grave,
for the evils in their hospitality within them.
izani al-alohim aqra,
vihvh iowiyni.
17As for me, upon God I will call,
and Yahweh will save me.
ikyrb vboqr vxohriim awikh vahmh,
viwmy qoli.
18Evening and morning and middays I will ponder and murmur,
and he will hear my voice.
i'tpdh bwlom npwi mqrb-li,
ci-brbim hiu yimdi.
19He has ransomed my being in peace from my close combat,
because of the many that are with me.
ciwmy al viynm viowb qdm slh awr ain klipot lmo,
vla irau alohim.
20God will hear and will answer them and the one sitting of old, Selah, that there is no renewal for them,
and they do not fear God.
cawlk idiv bwlomiv kill brito. 21He extended his hands against those at peace with him. He has profaned his covenant.
cbklqu mkmaot piv uqrb-libo,
rcu dbriv mwmn vhmh ptikot.
22Smoother than clotted cream his mouth but close combat in his heart,
his mollifying words oily, but they were swords unsheathed.
cghwlç yl-ihvh ihbç vhua iclclç.
la-iitn lyolm mo't lxdiq.
23Cast your care on Yahweh and he himself will nourish you.
He will never let a righteous one be moved.
cdvath alohim toridm lbar wkt anwi dmim umrmh la-ikxu imihm.
vani ab'tk-bç.
24But you, O God, will make them descend to the well of destruction. Persons of blood and deceit will not reach half their days.
But as for me, I will trust in you.