Thursday, March 31, 2016

Project status - and The Song in the Night

At the rate I'm going, it will take another 8 years to finish!

So from the chart: words are now at 32%. That's a middle term. It counts words that are translated (some by automation) but the full verse may not have been done. Actual words touched are even higher - nearly 40% or even much higher, but some of the guesses are not so hot so I don't count them. just over 57000 of 304000 approx. (about 1/6th) are completely untouched.

Some 18920 verses are touched word by word, but 16867 verses have no draft. I.e. the words don't add up to sentences etc.

Chapters are at 30% up from 24% 3 months ago.

Over the past 6 months I have only managed about 8 verses a day average. Probably that's the result of staying healthy and getting out on bike or foot and vehicle to the University every day. My average dropped to 5 verses per day when it had been between 13 and 15 per day. Target had been 24! Words per day is very high (over 200) - but that's due to automation and it remains to be seen what the impact will be of my carefully controlled but simple pattern matching look-ahead algorithms. With just over 200,000 words to go, if I keep up the average, the days required to finish are 1000 - just 3 or so years.

But I have been busy these past 3 months. I've done my next book. The working title is Song in the Night.

Ask me if you want to read it. It's about the music. The abstract of the technical sections is similar to that of my paper for the SBL regional conference in May:
This article looks at the cantillation signs (also known as te’amim, or accents) in the Hebrew text of the Bible and how they directly translate into Music according to well-defined and consistent rules. These rules, inferred from the position and use of the accents by Suzanne Haïk-Vantoura in the 20th century, increase transparency of individual verses, reveal inter-verse relationships, complex sentence constructions across multiple verses, inter-chapter and even inter-book connections that cannot be easily understood without the aural component that allows recognition of the musical motifs. Besides the beauty and clarity of the transformation of the Scripture, her work is also confirmed by the similarity of her deciphering of Psalm 114 and the 9th tone of traditional Gregorian chant, tonus peregrinus, still used in Anglican chant for Psalm 114.
 The 5 inner chapters are an overview of the Old Testament story in music.
Chapters 2 through 6 scan the canonical history in five stages: Creation, Escape, Home, Exile, Restoration. They summarize the story of the God of Israel and the people of Israel with many musical examples. Their music is an integral part of the narrative of the book. All the examples are in line and meant to be read and the performance imagined by non-musician or musician in the normal sequential act of reading a book.
Here's part of the preface:
This volume outlines a special beauty of the text of the Hebrew Bible. The music in these pages is derived entirely and consistently from the text of the Hebrew. The compact hand signals embedded syllable by syllable in the text of the Hebrew were transcribed automatically by computer program and the resulting musical scores have not been altered except to add a translated libretto.

The decoding of these signals follows the deciphering key inferred by Suzanne Haïk-Vantoura. Her inductive approach to the musical information structure of the accents from the 20th century has given us a new way of appreciating the ancient Scriptures, both poetry and prose.

One aspect of this new way is that we can now imagine what it might have been like for the ancients to hear and perform their Scripture as an art song. It is as if we seekers, light years away from earth, have reached out, snared, and decoded the equi-tempered frequencies of the golden (snitch) record that led Explorer II into the universe. And, as with Bach, it will take us time to appreciate the depth of the expression of the music.
In my first book on the Bible, I followed the thesis that the book of Psalms is not a random collection of songs but a carefully constructed story. In this second book, it can be seen that the Bible is not only a set of stories to be read but also a carefully constructed and beautiful song to be heard.

There is now a full table of contents:
1. Languages
  • Coded language 
  • Musical language 
  • Extended markup language 
  • Hebrew language 
  • Polemical language 
  • Conclusion 
Preview: Tradition knows that the signs are somehow both exegetical and musical. Tradition also recognizes that the musical meaning has been lost (Wickes 1881 :2n). It then assumes that grammatical analysis or punctuation is the dominant use for the accents (ibid. :3n). If I have to read a complex treatise with 25 or 30 unpronounceable words and contorted simplification about the conjunctive and disjunctive hierarchical roles of diacritics, then I simply won't do it. If I have to listen to transparent, dramatic, and beautiful music and don't have to be told what I am hearing because it catches my ear and spirit, then I will hear and love the result. What you will hear in this book is transparent without all the explanations of how it is done. The rules are easily learned. Sight singing is easily learned. Lessons sung with these instructions are dramatic. The result is beauty and clarity. I hope through the music to focus on greater engagement with the sensibility of the text and its expressiveness.

2. Creation
  • Beginnings 
  • Leviathan 
3. Escape
  • Rescue 
  • Sanctuary 
  • Wandering 
  • Instruction 
  • Commandment 
4. Home
  • Earth 
  • Monarchy 
  • Riddle 
5. Exile
  • Protest 
  • Lament 
  • Servant 
6. Restoration
  • Trust 
  • Returned 
  • Consoled 
  • Redeemed 
  • Praise 
7. Haïk-Vantoura’s system
  • The parts of the text 
  • The deciphering key 
  • Modes 
  • Singing 
  • Pulse 
  • Awkward intervals 
  • Word painting 
  • Arrangements 
  • Translation 
  • The Name 
  • Invocations, selah and other words 
  • The 21 Books and the 3 Books 
  • History 
  • The simplest summary 
  • The location for all the music 
  • Acknowledgements 
  • References 
Appendix 1 Selected Lectionary Components (These are fully singable scores)
  • Deuteronomy 8.6-18, Year A Thanksgiving 
  • 1 Samuel 17.31-49, Year B Season after Pentecost 
  • Psalm 96, Christmas, all years, Year C, proper 4 
  • Psalm 118, Easter, all years 
Appendix 2 Comparing cantillation schemes
  • Jacobson 
  • McKorkle 
  • Behrens 
  • Reuchlin 
  • Weil 
  • Minor deviations 
Appendix 3
  • Statistics 
  • Reconciling names
Figure 1 The Aleppo codex, 2 Samuel 19.1
Figure 2 Highlighting the accents
Figure 3 A portion of 2 Samuel 19.1
Figure 4 Musical terms for the notes of a scale
Figure 5 Interpreting the accents - 1
Figure 6 Interpreting the accents - 2
Figure 7 Tonus peregrinus plainsong
Figure 8 Tonus peregrinus Anglican chant
Figure 9 Accents as kings, lords, emperors
Figure 10 The Aleppo codex, Psalm 96.1
Figure 11 Part of the Leningrad Codex, 2 Samuel 19.1
Figure 12 The deciphering key
Figure 13 Ornaments for the 21 books
Figure 14 Ornaments for the 3 books
Figure 15 Modes as used by Haïk-Vantoura
Figure 16 Traditional Cantillation Zephaniah 3.8
Figure 17 Zephaniah 3.8 Haïk-Vantoura
Figure 18 Reuchlin, Discantus
Figure 19 Reuchlin, Bassus
Figure 20 Ole-veyored, as programmed
Figure 21 Ole-veyored (Mitchell)
Figure 22 Occurrences of ole-veyored by reciting note
Figure 23 Frequency by verse of ornaments in the text of the prose books
Figure 24 Frequency by verse of ornaments in the text of the poetry books
Figure 25 The revia-mugresh
Figure 26 Poetic accent in Nehemiah 13.5, ignored
Figure 27 Ornament pairs that repeat on their own
Figure 28 Ornaments occurring four in a row
Figure 29 Ornaments occurring three in a row on their own
Figure 30 Ornaments occurring in pairs on their own

and there are over 200 interleaved musical examples. (You can tell what my favorite bits are - at least the ones I have translated.)


Torah
  • Genesis 1.1, 1.3, 
  • Exodus 1.1, 3.1, 3.2, 3.13, 3.14, 15.1, 15.2, 15.23, 15.24, 16.2, 16.3, 20.2, 20.2-4, 20.13-16, 25.8, 25.22, 
  • Leviticus 4.4, 4.6, 19.18, 
  • Numbers 11.11-12, 22.30, 23.7, 24.5, 
  • Deuteronomy 5.3, 5.6, 5.31, 6.4, 33, 6.5, 8.6-18, 12.8, 28.63, 32.21-22, 
Prophets
  • Judges 17.6, 
  • 1 Samuel 2.1, 3.11, 12.3, 17.31-49, 17.33, 17.39, 17.40, 17.42, 
  • 2 Samuel 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 19.1, 22.2, 23.1, 
  • 1 Kings 1.39, 8.9, 9.3, 11.4, 
  • Isaiah 1.2, 1.5, 2.4, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.9, 12.1-6, 40.1, 40.2, 40.3, 52.13, 52.14 -53.12, 55.1, 63.3, 65.25, 
  • Ezekiel 20.25, 
  • Hosea 5.14, 
  • Joel 4.2, 4.10, 
  • Zephaniah 3.8, 
  • Zechariah 14.9, 
Writings
  • Proverbs 2.1, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.9, 2.11, 2.12-20, 8.13, 8.23, 8.30, 8.33, 9.10, 
  • Psalms 1.1, 1.2, 4.7, 14.8, 16.1, 6.2, 18.3, 24.7, 31.16, 32.9, 33.3, 42.9, 43.1, 43.2, 44.20, 45.8, 49.5, 49.8, 50.13, 51.6, 51.16, 51.21, 72.1, 74.11, 74.14, 75.9, 80.4, 80.9, 80.13, 84.2, 89.2, 89.40, 90.1, 90.3, 90.8, 90.9, 90.13, 91.2, 91.10, 95.10, 95.11, 96, 102.1, 104.26, 104.34, 105.1, 106.47, 110.6, 111.9, 112.5, 114 mode 1, 114 mode 8, 115.1, 117, 118.1-2,14-24, 118.14, 118.18, 119.1, 120.5, 121.1, 122.6, 123.3, 124.7, 125.4, 126.5, 127.3, 128.6, 129.2, 130.6, 131.1, 132.8, 133.1, 134.3, 135.1-5, 135.4, 135.6-8146.6-10, 150.6, 
  • Job 1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8-9, 3.4, 6.1, 8.1, 14.1-4, 14.15, 19.21, 30.19, 38.41, 41.18, 42.8, 
  • Song 1.4, 2.7, 2.15, 7.1, 
  • Lamentations 1.1-2, 5.21, 
  • Ruth 2.22, 
  • Qohelet 3.1-3, 3.4-8, 
  • Nehemiah 10.40, 
  • 1 Chronicles 16.5, 16.8, 16.23-33, 28.3, 16.35, 
  • 2 Chronicles 7.1, 34.1, 
Finally, these are my objectives:
  • To make the text clearer in intent from the music. 
  • To examine how the music suggests interpretation. 
  • To give a brief on the overall story with musical examples. 

2 Kings 15

Bones make up the body as does the more edible stuff. So we have to have these chapters that document the sequence of the dismal record whatever we think of the history from our point of view.

I haven't pent much time considering how I will translate names. Sometimes I use a transcription, sometimes the common name, and sometimes a wordplay. Isaac, Yitschak is an interesting one in that the name is spelled differently in the Hebrew, once with a sin (ש Psalm 105.9), and several times (so far) with a tsade (צ). Many of the words that my root derivation algorithm fails on are names. But I am down below 58000 total unknowns. And my to-assign list for semantic domains is below 4500 (but there's lots of moot in those assignments that have been made manually or automatically).

There's a shadow of the music of Genesis in verse 12. The spondee rhythm is evident in the English and Hebrew also. The accent is, however, also identical to the refrain of Genesis 1. It is wise to pay attention - this thesis that the accents connect the whole text is a true thesis and a thesis that I have not seen anywhere else in the literature. The classic treatment by Wickes twice expressly denies that the accents connect verses. It seems to me that most of the work I have seen on accents in the 20th century depends on Wickes. His work is very clear, so it can be seen as clearly wrong.

So are there aspects of the music that are of interest here in this rather mundane chapter? Verse 29 (bar 258 ff) has a long list mediated by some interesting ornaments but typical of such a list. You can listen to the midi file too if you want.

2 Kings 15 Fn Min Max Syll
בִּשְׁנַ֨ת עֶשְׂרִ֤ים וָשֶׁ֙בַע֙ שָׁנָ֔ה לְיָרָבְעָ֖ם מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
מָלַ֛ךְ עֲזַרְיָ֥ה בֶן־אֲמַצְיָ֖ה מֶ֥לֶךְ יְהוּדָֽה
1 In the year twenty-seventh of Jeroboam king of Israel,
Azariah reigned, child of Amaziah king of Judah.
3d 4C 18
14
בֶּן־שֵׁ֨שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֤ה שָׁנָה֙ הָיָ֣ה בְמָלְכ֔וֹ וַחֲמִשִּׁ֤ים וּשְׁתַּ֙יִם֙ שָׁנָ֔ה מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וְשֵׁ֣ם אִמּ֔וֹ יְכָלְיָ֖הוּ מִירוּשָׁלִָֽם
2 A child of sixteen years he was when he began to reign, and fifty-two years he reigned in Jerusalem,
and the name of his mother was Yekolyah from Jerusalem.
3e 4C 25
12
וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הַיָּשָׁ֖ר בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֖ה אֲמַצְיָ֥הוּ אָבִֽיו
3 And he did what is upright in the eyes of Yahweh,
according to everything that Amaziah his father had done.
3e 4B 11
12
רַ֥ק הַבָּמ֖וֹת לֹא־סָ֑רוּ
ע֥וֹד הָעָ֛ם מְזַבְּחִ֥ים וּֽמְקַטְּרִ֖ים בַּבָּמֽוֹת
4 f But the high places they did not put aside.
Still the people offered and burnt incense on the high places.
3d 4A 6
12
וַיְנַגַּ֨ע יְהוָ֜ה אֶת־הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וַיְהִ֤י מְצֹרָע֙ עַד־י֣וֹם מֹת֔וֹ וַיֵּ֖שֶׁב בְּבֵ֣ית הַחָפְשִׁ֑ית
וְיוֹתָ֤ם בֶּן־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ עַל־הַבַּ֔יִת שֹׁפֵ֖ט אֶת־עַ֥ם הָאָֽרֶץ
5 And Yahweh touched the king and he was a leper until the day of his death and he settled in a free house.
Jotham, child of the king, was judging over the house the people of the land.
3e 4C 26
18
וְיֶ֛תֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י עֲזַרְיָ֖הוּ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה
הֲלֹא־הֵ֣ם כְּתוּבִ֗ים עַל־סֵ֛פֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י הַיָּמִ֖ים לְמַלְכֵ֥י יְהוּדָֽה
6 And the remaining words of Azariah and all that he undertook,
are they not written in the record of the words of the days of the kings of Judah?
3d 4B 15
20
וַיִּשְׁכַּ֤ב עֲזַרְיָה֙ עִם־אֲבֹתָ֔יו וַיִּקְבְּר֥וּ אֹת֛וֹ עִם־אֲבֹתָ֖יו בְּעִ֣יר דָּוִ֑ד
וַיִּמְלֹ֛ךְ יוֹתָ֥ם בְּנ֖וֹ תַּחְתָּֽיו
7 And Azariah was laid out with his ancestors and they entombed him with his ancestors in the city of David,
and Jotham his son reigned in his stead.
3d 4C 24
9
בִּשְׁנַ֨ת שְׁלֹשִׁ֤ים וּשְׁמֹנֶה֙ שָׁנָ֔ה לַעֲזַרְיָ֖הוּ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה
מָ֠לַךְ זְכַרְיָ֨הוּ בֶן־יָרָבְעָ֧ם עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל בְּשֹׁמְר֖וֹן שִׁשָּׁ֥ה חֳדָשִֽׁים
8 In the year thirty eighth year of Azariah king of Judah,
Zachariah child of Jeroboam reigned over Israel in Samaria, six months.
3c 4C 20
22
וַיַּ֤עַשׂ הָרַע֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשׂ֖וּ אֲבֹתָ֑יו
לֹ֣א סָ֗ר מֵֽחַטֹּאות֙ יָרָבְעָ֣ם בֶּן־נְבָ֔ט אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֶחֱטִ֖יא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
9 And he did evil in the eyes of Yahweh as had done his ancestors.
He did not depart from the sins of Jeroboam child of Nabat who made Israel to sin.
3e 4C 18
21
וַיִּקְשֹׁ֤ר עָלָיו֙ שַׁלֻּ֣ם בֶּן־יָבֵ֔שׁ וַיַּכֵּ֥הוּ קָֽבָלְ־עָ֖ם וַיְמִיתֵ֑הוּ
וַיִּמְלֹ֖ךְ תַּחְתָּֽיו
10 And Shalum child of Jabesh colluded against him and struck him right in front of the people and rendered him lifeless,
and he reigned in his stead.
3e 4C 21
5
וְיֶ֖תֶר דִּבְרֵ֣י זְכַרְיָ֑ה
הִנָּ֣ם כְּתוּבִ֗ים עַל־סֵ֛פֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י הַיָּמִ֖ים לְמַלְכֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
11 And the remaining words of Zachariah,
behold, they are written in the record of the words of the days of the kings of Israel.
3d 4B 8
19
ה֣וּא דְבַר־יְהוָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֤ר אֶל־יֵהוּא֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר בְּנֵ֣י רְבִיעִ֔ים יֵשְׁב֥וּ לְךָ֖ עַל־כִּסֵּ֣א יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַֽיְהִי־כֵֽן
12 B This is the word of Yahweh who spoke to Jehu saying, Your great great grandchildren will sit on the throne of Israel,
and it was so.
3e 4C 29
3
שַׁלּ֤וּם בֶּן־יָבֵישׁ֙ מָלַ֔ךְ בִּשְׁנַ֨ת שְׁלֹשִׁ֤ים וָתֵ֙שַׁע֙ שָׁנָ֔ה לְעֻזִיָּ֖ה מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה
וַיִּמְלֹ֥ךְ יֶֽרַח־יָמִ֖ים בְּשֹׁמְרֽוֹן
13 Shalum child of Jabesh reigned in the thirty ninth year of Uzziah king of Judah,
and he reigned a moon's days in Samaria.
3e 4C 26
10
וַיַּעַל֩ מְנַחֵ֨ם בֶּן־גָּדִ֜י מִתִּרְצָ֗ה וַיָּבֹא֙ שֹׁמְר֔וֹן וַיַּ֛ךְ אֶת־שַׁלּ֥וּם בֶּן־יָבֵ֖ישׁ בְּשֹׁמְר֑וֹן
וַיְמִיתֵ֖הוּ וַיִּמְלֹ֥ךְ תַּחְתָּֽיו
14 And Menahem child of Gadi ascended from Tirzah and entered Samaria and struck Shalum child of Jabesh in Samaria,
and rendered him lifeless and he reigned in his stead.
3d 4A 28
9
וְיֶ֙תֶר֙ דִּבְרֵ֣י שַׁלּ֔וּם וְקִשְׁר֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר קָשָׁ֑ר
הִנָּ֣ם כְּתֻבִ֗ים עַל־סֵ֛פֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י הַיָּמִ֖ים לְמַלְכֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
15 And the remaining words of Shalum and his collusion which he colluded,
behold they are written in the record of the words of the days of the kings of Israel.
3d 4B 14
19
אָ֣ז יַכֶּֽה־מְ֠נַחֵם אֶת־תִּפְסַ֨ח וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֤הּ וְאֶת־גְּבוּלֶ֙יהָ֙ מִתִּרְצָ֔ה כִּ֛י לֹ֥א פָתַ֖ח וַיַּ֑ךְ
אֵ֛ת כָּל־הֶהָ֥רוֹתֶ֖יהָ בִּקֵּֽעַ
16 B Then Menahem struck Tipsah and all who were in her and her borders from Tirzah for not it did open so he struck.
All the pregnant women he split in two.
3d 4C 30
10
בִּשְׁנַ֨ת שְׁלֹשִׁ֤ים וָתֵ֙שַׁע֙ שָׁנָ֔ה לַעֲזַרְיָ֖ה מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה
מָ֠לַךְ מְנַחֵ֨ם בֶּן־גָּדִ֧י עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל עֶ֥שֶׂר שָׁנִ֖ים בְּשֹׁמְרֽוֹן
17 In the thirty-ninth year of Azariah king of Judah,
Menahem child of Gadi reigned over Israel ten years in Samaria.
3c 4C 19
19
וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הָרַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
לֹ֣א סָ֠ר מֵעַ֨ל חַטֹּ֜אות יָרָבְעָ֧ם בֶּן־נְבָ֛ט אֲשֶׁר־הֶחֱטִ֥יא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כָּל־יָמָֽיו
18 And he did evil in the eyes of Yahweh.
He did not depart from over the sins of Jeroboam child of Nabat who made Israel to sin all his days.
3c 4B 10
25
בָּ֣א פ֤וּל מֶֽלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר֙ עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וַיִּתֵּ֤ן מְנַחֵם֙ לְפ֔וּל אֶ֖לֶף כִּכַּר־כָּ֑סֶף
לִהְי֤וֹת יָדָיו֙ אִתּ֔וֹ לְהַחֲזִ֥יק הַמַּמְלָכָ֖ה בְּיָדֽוֹ
19 B And Pul king of Ashur came over the land, and Mehahem gave to Pul a thousand talents of silver,
that his hands might be with him to encourage the kingdom in his hand.
3e 4C 24
17
וַיֹּצֵא֩ מְנַחֵ֨ם אֶת־הַכֶּ֜סֶף עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל עַ֚ל כָּל־גִּבּוֹרֵ֣י הַחַ֔יִל לָתֵת֙ לְמֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֔וּר חֲמִשִּׁ֧ים שְׁקָלִ֛ים כֶּ֖סֶף לְאִ֣ישׁ אֶחָ֑ד
וַיָּ֙שָׁב֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֔וּר וְלֹא־עָ֥מַד שָׁ֖ם בָּאָֽרֶץ
20 And Menahem brought out the silver in Israel in all the prevailing wealthy to give to the king of Ashur fifty shekels of silver for each one,
so the king of Ashur returned and did not keep a foothold there in the land.
3c 4C 41
14
וְיֶ֛תֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י מְנַחֵ֖ם וְכָל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה
הֲלוֹא־הֵ֣ם כְּתוּבִ֗ים עַל־סֵ֛פֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י הַיָּמִ֖ים לְמַלְכֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
21 And the remaining words of Menahem and all that he undertook,
are they not written in the record of the words of the days of the kings of Israel?
3d 4B 14
20
וַיִּשְׁכַּ֥ב מְנַחֵ֖ם עִם־אֲבֹתָ֑יו
וַיִּמְלֹ֛ךְ פְּקַחְיָ֥ה בְנ֖וֹ תַּחְתָּֽיו
22 And Menahem was laid out with his ancestors,
and Pekahiah his son reigned in his stead.
3d 4A 10
10
בִּשְׁנַת֙ חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה לַעֲזַרְיָ֖ה מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה
מָ֠לַךְ פְּקַֽחְיָ֨ה בֶן־מְנַחֵ֧ם עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל בְּשֹׁמְר֖וֹן שְׁנָתָֽיִם
23 In the fiftieth year of Azariah king of Judah,
Pekahiah child of Menahem reigned over Israel in Samaria two years.
3c 4B 16
20
וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הָרַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
לֹ֣א סָ֗ר מֵֽחַטֹּאות֙ יָרָבְעָ֣ם בֶּן־נְבָ֔ט אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֶחֱטִ֖יא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
24 And he did evil in the eyes of Yahweh.
He did not depart from the sins of Jeroboam child of Nabat who made Israel to sin.
3e 4B 10
21
וַיִּקְשֹׁ֣ר עָלָיו֩ פֶּ֨קַח בֶּן־רְמַלְיָ֜הוּ שָׁלִישׁ֗וֹ וַיַּכֵּ֨הוּ בְשֹׁמְר֜וֹן בְּאַרְמ֤וֹן בֵּית־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶת־אַרְגֹּ֣ב וְאֶת־הָאַרְיֵ֔ה וְעִמּ֛וֹ חֲמִשִּׁ֥ים אִ֖ישׁ מִבְּנֵ֣י גִלְעָדִ֑ים
וַיְמִיתֵ֖הוּ וַיִּמְלֹ֥ךְ תַּחְתָּֽיו
25 And Peqach, third child of Remalia, colluded against him and struck him in Samaria in the citadel of the house of the king with Argob and Arieh and with him fifty men of among the children of Gilead,
and rendered him lifeless and he reigned in his stead.
3d 4C 49
9
וְיֶ֛תֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י פְקַחְיָ֖ה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה
הִנָּ֣ם כְּתוּבִ֗ים עַל־סֵ֛פֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י הַיָּמִ֖ים לְמַלְכֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
26 And the remaining words of Peqach and all that he undertook,
behold they are written in the record of the words of the days of the kings of Israel.
3d 4B 14
19
בִּשְׁנַ֨ת חֲמִשִּׁ֤ים וּשְׁתַּ֙יִם֙ שָׁנָ֔ה לַעֲזַרְיָ֖ה מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה
מָ֠לַךְ פֶּ֣קַח בֶּן־רְמַלְיָ֧הוּ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל בְּשֹׁמְר֖וֹן עֶשְׂרִ֥ים שָׁנָֽה
27 In the fifty-second year of Azariah king of Judah,
Peqach child of Remalia reigned over Israel in Samaria twenty years.
3c 4C 18
20
וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הָרַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
לֹ֣א סָ֗ר מִן־חַטֹּאות֙ יָרָבְעָ֣ם בֶּן־נְבָ֔ט אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֶחֱטִ֖יא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
28 And he did evil in the eyes of Yahweh.
He did not depart from the sins of Jeroboam child of Nabat who made Israel to sin.
3e 4B 10
21
בִּימֵ֞י פֶּ֣קַח מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל בָּא֮ תִּגְלַ֣ת פִּלְאֶסֶר֮ מֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁוּר֒ וַיִּקַּ֣ח אֶת־עִיּ֡וֹן וְאֶת־אָבֵ֣ל בֵּֽית־מַעֲכָ֡ה וְאֶת־יָ֠נוֹחַ וְאֶת־קֶ֨דֶשׁ וְאֶת־חָצ֤וֹר וְאֶת־הַגִּלְעָד֙ וְאֶת־הַגָּלִ֔ילָה כֹּ֖ל אֶ֣רֶץ נַפְתָּלִ֑י
וַיַּגְלֵ֖ם אַשּֽׁוּרָה
29 In the days of Peqach king of Israel Tiglath-Pileser the king of Ashur came and he took Ijon and Lament of the house of Makah and Janoah and Qadesh and and Hazor and the Gilead and the Galilee all the land of Naphtali,
and exiled them to Ashur.
3e 4C 63
6
וַיִּקְשָׁר־קֶ֜שֶׁר הוֹשֵׁ֣עַ בֶּן־אֵלָ֗ה עַל־פֶּ֙קַח֙ בֶּן־רְמַלְיָ֔הוּ וַיַּכֵּ֙הוּ֙ וַיְמִיתֵ֔הוּ וַיִּמְלֹ֖ךְ תַּחְתָּ֑יו
בִּשְׁנַ֣ת עֶשְׂרִ֔ים לְיוֹתָ֖ם בֶּן־עֻזִיָּֽה
30 And Hosea child of Eilah colluded against Peqach child of Remalia and struck him and rendered him lifeless and he reigned in his stead,
in the year twentieth of Jotham child of Uzziah.
3e 4B 32
11
וְיֶ֥תֶר דִּבְרֵי־פֶ֖קַח וְכָל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה
הִנָּ֣ם כְּתוּבִ֗ים עַל־סֵ֛פֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י הַיָּמִ֖ים לְמַלְכֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
31 And the remaining words of Paqach and all that he undertook,
behold they are written in the record of the words of the days of the kings of Israel.
3d 4B 12
19
בִּשְׁנַ֣ת שְׁתַּ֔יִם לְפֶ֥קַח בֶּן־רְמַלְיָ֖הוּ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
מָלַ֛ךְ יוֹתָ֥ם בֶּן־עֻזִיָּ֖הוּ מֶ֥לֶךְ יְהוּדָֽה
32 In the second year of Peqach child of Remalia king of Israel,
Jotham reigned, child of Uzziah king of Judah.
3d 4B 17
14
בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִ֨ים וְחָמֵ֤שׁ שָׁנָה֙ הָיָ֣ה בְמָלְכ֔וֹ וְשֵׁשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵ֣ה שָׁנָ֔ה מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וְשֵׁ֣ם אִמּ֔וֹ יְרוּשָׁ֖א בַּת־צָדֽוֹק
33 A child of twenty five years he was when he began to reign, and sixteen years he reigned in Jerusalem.
And the name of his mother was Jerusha the daughter of Zadok.
3e 4C 25
10
וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הַיָּשָׁ֖ר בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
כְּכֹ֧ל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֛ה עֻזִיָּ֥הוּ אָבִ֖יו עָשָֽׂה
34 And he did what is upright in the eyes of Yahweh.
According to everything that Uzziah his father had undertaken he did.
3c 4B 11
14
רַ֤ק הַבָּמוֹת֙ לֹ֣א סָ֔רוּ ע֗וֹד הָעָ֛ם מְזַבְּחִ֥ים וּֽמְקַטְּרִ֖ים בַּבָּמ֑וֹת
ה֗וּא בָּנָ֛ה אֶת־שַׁ֥עַר בֵּית־יְהוָ֖ה הָעֶלְיֽוֹן
35 C But the high places they did not put aside. Still the people offered and burnt incense on the high places.
Himself, he built up the gate of the house of Yahweh the Most High.
3d 4C 19
12
וְיֶ֛תֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י יוֹתָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה
הֲלֹא־הֵ֣ם כְּתוּבִ֗ים עַל־סֵ֛פֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י הַיָּמִ֖ים לְמַלְכֵ֥י יְהוּדָֽה
36 And the remaining matters of Jotham that he undertook,
are not they written in the record of the words of the days of the kings of Judah?
3d 4B 11
20
בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔ם הֵחֵ֣ל יְהוָ֗ה לְהַשְׁלִ֙יחַ֙ בִּֽיהוּדָ֔ה רְצִ֖ין מֶ֣לֶךְ אֲרָ֑ם
וְאֵ֖ת פֶּ֥קַח בֶּן־רְמַלְיָֽהוּ
37 In those days Yahweh started to send against Judah Rezin king of Aram and Peqach child of Remalia. 3e 4B 22
9
וַיִּשְׁכַּ֤ב יוֹתָם֙ עִם־אֲבֹתָ֔יו וַיִּקָּבֵר֙ עִם־אֲבֹתָ֔יו בְּעִ֖יר דָּוִ֣ד אָבִ֑יו
וַיִּמְלֹ֛ךְ אָחָ֥ז בְּנ֖וֹ תַּחְתָּֽיו
38 And Jotham was laid out with his ancestors and was entombed with his ancestors in the city of David his father.
And Ahaz his son reigned in his stead.
3d 4C 23
9

Wednesday, March 30, 2016

Is violence boring?

Is disobedience boring? Is sin banal? Certainly the recital of repeated inter-generational mundane 'he did evil in the sight of ' fill in the blank is less gripping than the David stories. Less musical too?

Whoa - there's a lot of kings and a lot of repetition with slight variations in the verse content. I wonder how many scribes there have been and how many of them were musical?

So how to present the repetition briefly and the musical variations... We could do it with some sort of abbreviated stats.

In 2 Kings, for example, I see 20 instances of this pattern, "and the remaining words/matters of x and all that he undertook" or some such variation. I have glossed עשה as undertake when it refers to a past lifetime so I can find them again easily if necessary... I have also let דברי be matters if there is no following clause and words if there is. These are arbitrary distinctions.

The music: 8 of these kings get dismissed with identical music: e d f g# B A pause then B rev, d f g# f e. These are for Joash 2 Kings 12:20, Azariah 2 Kings 15:6, Peqach 2 Kings 15:26, Jotham 2 Kings 15:36, Ahaz 2 Kings 16:19, Amon 2 Kings 21:25, Josiah 2 Kings 23:28, and Jehoiachim 2 Kings 24:5.

Then there are two whose dismissals get an extra silluq before the first cadence Ahaziah 2 Kings 1:18, and Joram 2 Kings 8:23. And three whose are shorter, Peqach (2 Kings 15:31) dropping the initial d. And Amaziah (2 Kings 14:18) and Zachariah (2 Kings 15:11) dropping the f as well. Not very interesting.

The remaining 7 have more interesting music to celebrate their wars and their valour. Hezekiah (2 Kings 20:20) has commendation for building the blessing pool and supplying the city with water.
The higher recitation notes may even have functional value - creating a description, telling a story.

If you have been to Jerusalem, you can walk by the pool and through the tunnel up the conduit. See my post on Hezekiah's water system here. Posting any more of these results is counter productive at the moment.

But I just discovered I can convert all the XML files to Midi so anyone can play them on the free app Cloud midi player. It's very wooden but hey - it works. So it will take about an hour, but they will all be there, hope I don't run out of Google space. The midi files are minuscule.

Manasseh (2 Kings 21:17) and Joash (2 Kings 13:12) also get stories told about them. Jehoahaz (2 Kings 13:8) has a simple result but with an additional ornament and low c like this: e pas,c d f g# ^A B rev,d f g# f e - by now you can play this on the Cloud mini player if you can figure it out. Here's the link to chapter 13. It is really quite hilarious. It even plays two parts when there is only one. So It looks (er sounds) buggy. (I think I had two midi files playing at once and it got confused.) Playing fine now - but really wooden. The remaining three, Shalum (2 Kings 15:15), Jehoash (2 Kings 14:15), and Jerobam (2 Kings 14:28) all have unique music (like the previous 4).

That 7 kings would have unique music and 8 common music indicates something I suppose. Probably the first 8 had little story to remind the reader of.


Monday, March 28, 2016

Exodus 3

What is holy ground? Is it a primal knowledge?

Note the contrasts in the placement of the atnah. Sometimes very early in the verse, as early as the second word (v 18) and as late as the fourth word from the end.

What is the tone of voice in verse 5?  Note that the recitative after the rest is first on the rest note. Where does this verb קרב, QRB, take us? Remember way back in 2006 (just kidding), a post on Hebrews? One of the key words in this epistle is 'approach'. (Diagrams are available - but needed recovery from an ancient world.)

The rest of the links are here (I think they are complete. This is an example of the work I was doing over 10 years ago - not a very strong foundation - never did learn Greek properly, just a bit by rote.)
קרב is also a keyword in Leviticus (167 times in Leviticus). (And the root behind corban).

How do we approach someone else's holy ground? Or indeed our own? Hopefully not with the violence of disdain or destruction. Chew on that...
Does the resolute hand require a double negative? Is it Pharaoh who will be resolute? The Hebrew does not have a double negative (i.e. not without).

Exodus 3 Fn Min Max Syll
וּמֹשֶׁ֗ה הָיָ֥ה רֹעֶ֛ה אֶת צֹ֛אן יִתְר֥וֹ חֹתְנ֖וֹ כֹּהֵ֣ן מִדְיָ֑ן
וַיִּנְהַ֤ג אֶת הַצֹּאן֙ אַחַ֣ר הַמִּדְבָּ֔ר וַיָּבֹ֛א אֶל הַ֥ר הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים חֹרֵֽבָה
1 And Moses was tending the sheep of Jethro his father-in-law, a priest of Midian,
and he drove the flock behind the wilderness and came to the hill of the gods toward Horeb.
3d 4C 17
23
וַ֠יֵּרָא מַלְאַ֨ךְ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֵלָ֛יו בְּלַבַּת אֵ֖שׁ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַסְּנֶ֑ה
וַיַּ֗רְא וְהִנֵּ֤ה הַסְּנֶה֙ בֹּעֵ֣ר בָּאֵ֔שׁ וְהַסְּנֶ֖ה אֵינֶ֥נּוּ אֻכָּֽל
2 ~ And the messenger of Yahweh to him appeared in a glimmer of fire from the midst of the bush.
And he stared and behold the bush was kindled in the fire but for the bush, it was not devoured.
3d 4C 18
19
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֔ה אָסֻֽרָה נָּ֣א וְאֶרְאֶ֔ה אֶת הַמַּרְאֶ֥ה הַגָּדֹ֖ל הַזֶּ֑ה
מַדּ֖וּעַ לֹא יִבְעַ֥ר הַסְּנֶֽה
3 And Moses said, I will turn aside now and I will see this great sight,
why the bush is not kindled.
3e 4B 21
8
וַיַּ֥רְא יְהוָ֖ה כִּ֣י סָ֣ר לִרְא֑וֹת
וַיִּקְרָא֩ אֵלָ֨יו אֱלֹהִ֜ים מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַסְּנֶ֗ה וַיֹּ֛אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֥ה מֹשֶׁ֖ה וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הִנֵּֽנִי
4 But Yahweh saw that he turned aside to see,
and God called to him from the midst of the bush and he said, Moses Moses. And he said, here am I.
3d 4B 8
25
וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אַל תִּקְרַ֣ב הֲלֹ֑ם
שַׁל נְעָלֶ֙יךָ֙ מֵעַ֣ל רַגְלֶ֔יךָ כִּ֣י הַמָּק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתָּה֙ עוֹמֵ֣ד עָלָ֔יו אַדְמַת קֹ֖דֶשׁ הֽוּא
5 And he said do not approach here.
Take off your sandals from your feet, for the place that you are standing on, it is holy ground.
3e 4C 8
27
וַיֹּ֗אמֶר אָנֹכִי֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י אָבִ֔יךָ אֱלֹהֵ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִצְחָ֖ק וֵאלֹהֵ֣י יַעֲקֹ֑ב
וַיַּסְתֵּ֤ר מֹשֶׁה֙ פָּנָ֔יו כִּ֣י יָרֵ֔א מֵהַבִּ֖יט אֶל הָאֱלֹהִֽים
6 And he said, I am the God of your ancestors, the God of Abraham, the God of Yitschaq, and the God of Jacob.
And hid Moses his face, for he feared to take note at this God.
3c 4C 29
18
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֔ה רָאֹ֥ה רָאִ֛יתִי אֶת עֳנִ֥י עַמִּ֖י אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם
וְאֶת צַעֲקָתָ֤ם שָׁמַ֙עְתִּי֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י נֹֽגְשָׂ֔יו כִּ֥י יָדַ֖עְתִּי אֶת מַכְאֹבָֽיו
7 And Yahweh said, He sees, I have seen the impoverishment of my people that are in Egypt,
and their outcry I have heard in the presence of his taskmasters for I know his sorrow.
3d 4C 21
21
וָאֵרֵ֞ד לְהַצִּיל֣וֹ מִיַּ֣ד מִצְרַ֗יִם וּֽלְהַעֲלֹתוֹ֮ מִן הָאָ֣רֶץ הַהִוא֒ אֶל אֶ֤רֶץ טוֹבָה֙ וּרְחָבָ֔ה אֶל אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָ֑שׁ
אֶל מְק֤וֹם הַֽכְּנַעֲנִי֙ וְהַ֣חִתִּ֔י וְהָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ וְהַפְּרִזִּ֔י וְהַחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִֽי
8 And I have descended to deliver him from the hand of Egypt and to bring him up from that land to a good land and broad, to a land gushing with milk and honey,
to the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.
3d 4C 39
28
וְעַתָּ֕ה הִנֵּ֛ה צַעֲקַ֥ת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בָּ֣אָה אֵלָ֑י
וְגַם רָאִ֙יתִי֙ אֶת הַלַּ֔חַץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר מִצְרַ֖יִם לֹחֲצִ֥ים אֹתָֽם
9 And now behold the outcry of the children of Israel has come to me,
and moreover I have seen the grip with which Egypt grips them.
3d 4B 17
18
וְעַתָּ֣ה לְכָ֔ה וְאֶֽשְׁלָחֲךָ֖ אֶל פַּרְעֹ֑ה
וְהוֹצֵ֛א אֶת עַמִּ֥י בְנֵֽי יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִמִּצְרָֽיִם
10 So now, go, and I will send you to Pharaoh,
and you will bring out my people, the children of Israel, from Egypt.
3d 4B 13
15
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר מֹשֶׁה֙ אֶל הָ֣אֱלֹהִ֔ים מִ֣י אָנֹ֔כִי כִּ֥י אֵלֵ֖ךְ אֶל פַּרְעֹ֑ה
וְכִ֥י אוֹצִ֛יא אֶת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִמִּצְרָֽיִם
11 And said Moses to this God who am I that I should go to Pharaoh,
and that I should bring out the children of Israel from Egypt?
3d 4C 20
14
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ כִּֽי אֶֽהְיֶ֣ה עִמָּ֔ךְ וְזֶה לְּךָ֣ הָא֔וֹת כִּ֥י אָנֹכִ֖י שְׁלַחְתִּ֑יךָ
בְּהוֹצִֽיאֲךָ֤ אֶת הָעָם֙ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם תַּֽעַבְדוּן֙ אֶת הָ֣אֱלֹהִ֔ים עַ֖ל הָהָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה
12 And he said, For I will be with you and this to you is the sign that I have sent you:
when you have brought out the people from Egypt you will serve this God on this hill.
3e 4C 22
24
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֜ה אֶל הָֽאֱלֹהִ֗ים הִנֵּ֨ה אָנֹכִ֣י בָא֮ אֶל בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וְאָמַרְתִּ֣י לָהֶ֔ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י אֲבוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם שְׁלָחַ֣נִי אֲלֵיכֶ֑ם
וְאָֽמְרוּ לִ֣י מַה שְּׁמ֔וֹ מָ֥ה אֹמַ֖ר אֲלֵהֶֽם
13 And Moses said to this God, Behold myself coming to the children of Israel, and I say to them, The God of your ancestors sent me to you.
And they say to me, What is his name? What will I say to them?
3e 4B 42
13
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶל מֹשֶׁ֔ה אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶֽהְיֶ֑ה
וַיֹּ֗אמֶר כֹּ֤ה תֹאמַר֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה שְׁלָחַ֥נִי אֲלֵיכֶֽם
14 And said God to Moses, I will be what I will be.
And he said, Thus you say to the children of Israel, I will be sent me to you.
3e 4C 15
20
וַיֹּאמֶר֩ ע֨וֹד אֱלֹהִ֜ים אֶל מֹשֶׁ֗ה כֹּֽה תֹאמַר֮ אֶל בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ יְהוָ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבֹתֵיכֶ֗ם אֱלֹהֵ֨י אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִצְחָ֛ק וֵאלֹהֵ֥י יַעֲקֹ֖ב שְׁלָחַ֣נִי אֲלֵיכֶ֑ם
זֶה שְּׁמִ֣י לְעֹלָ֔ם וְזֶ֥ה זִכְרִ֖י לְדֹ֥ר דֹּֽר
15 And God said further to Moses, Thus you say to the children of Israel, Yahweh, the God of your ancestors, the God of Abraham, the God of Yitschaq, and the God of Jacob, sent me to you.
This is my name forever and this is my memorial to the generation of the generation.
3d 4B 52
13
לֵ֣ךְ וְאָֽסַפְתָּ֞ אֶת זִקְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְאָמַרְתָּ֤ אֲלֵהֶם֙ יְהוָ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶם֙ נִרְאָ֣ה אֵלַ֔י אֱלֹהֵ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם יִצְחָ֥ק וְיַעֲקֹ֖ב לֵאמֹ֑ר
פָּקֹ֤ד פָּקַ֙דְתִּי֙ אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְאֶת הֶעָשׂ֥וּי לָכֶ֖ם בְּמִצְרָֽיִם
16 B Go and gather the elders of Israel and say to them, Yahweh the God of your ancestors appeared to me, the God of Abraham, Yitschaq, and Jacob, saying,
To visit I have visited you and and what is done to you in Egypt.
3c 4C 45
18
וָאֹמַ֗ר אַעֲלֶ֣ה אֶתְכֶם֮ מֵעֳנִ֣י מִצְרַיִם֒ אֶל אֶ֤רֶץ הַֽכְּנַעֲנִי֙ וְהַ֣חִתִּ֔י וְהָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ וְהַפְּרִזִּ֔י וְהַחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִ֑י
אֶל אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָֽשׁ
17 And I said, I will bring up you from the impoverishment of Egypt to the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite,
to a land of gushing with milk and honey.
3d 4C 41
9
וְשָׁמְע֖וּ לְקֹלֶ֑ךָ
וּבָאתָ֡ אַתָּה֩ וְזִקְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶל מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֗יִם וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֤ם אֵלָיו֙ יְהוָ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י הָֽעִבְרִיִּים֙ נִקְרָ֣ה עָלֵ֔ינוּ וְעַתָּ֗ה נֵֽלֲכָה נָּ֞א דֶּ֣רֶךְ שְׁלֹ֤שֶׁת יָמִים֙ בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר וְנִזְבְּחָ֖ה לַֽיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ
18 Then they will hear your voice,
and you will come, you and the elders of Israel, to the king of Egypt, and you will say to him, Yahweh the God of the Hebrews has come to meet with us so now let us go please a three days journey into the wilderness that we may make an offering to Yahweh our God.
3e 4C 7
63
וַאֲנִ֣י יָדַ֔עְתִּי כִּ֠י לֹֽא יִתֵּ֥ן אֶתְכֶ֛ם מֶ֥לֶךְ מִצְרַ֖יִם לַהֲלֹ֑ךְ
וְלֹ֖א בְּיָ֥ד חֲזָקָֽה
19 And I, I know that the king of Egypt will not permit you to go,
and not with a resolute hand.
3d 4B 19
7
וְשָׁלַחְתִּ֤י אֶת יָדִי֙ וְהִכֵּיתִ֣י אֶת מִצְרַ֔יִם בְּכֹל֙ נִפְלְאֹתַ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֖ה בְּקִרְבּ֑וֹ
וְאַחֲרֵי כֵ֖ן יְשַׁלַּ֥ח אֶתְכֶֽם
20 And I will extend my hand and strike Egypt with all my wonders that I will do within it,
and after such he will set you loose.
3e 4C 28
10
וְנָתַתִּ֛י אֶת חֵ֥ן הָֽעָם הַזֶּ֖ה בְּעֵינֵ֣י מִצְרָ֑יִם
וְהָיָה֙ כִּ֣י תֵֽלֵכ֔וּן לֹ֥א תֵלְכ֖וּ רֵיקָֽם
21 And I will give this people grace in the sight of Egypt,
and it will be that when you go, you will not go empty.
3d 4B 16
12
וְשָׁאֲלָ֨ה אִשָּׁ֤ה מִשְּׁכֶנְתָּהּ֙ וּמִגָּרַ֣ת בֵּיתָ֔הּ כְּלֵי כֶ֛סֶף וּכְלֵ֥י זָהָ֖ב וּשְׂמָלֹ֑ת
וְשַׂמְתֶּ֗ם עַל בְּנֵיכֶם֙ וְעַל בְּנֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וְנִצַּלְתֶּ֖ם אֶת מִצְרָֽיִם
22 And a woman will ask from her neighbour and from the guest in her household, vessels of silver and vessels of gold and shawls,
and you will put them on your sons and on your daughters and you will remove them from Egypt.
3d 4C 26
21

Have you seen the sixteen - the Opera?

Sunday, March 27, 2016

Easter - Exodus 15

Back to translation for a bit I hope. Finding time has been impossible while writing a book and preparing presentations. But these are done and can stew for a while. I don't know what is going on with my blog these days. The stats are confusing. On all my posts I have 5 to 10 times the number of readers compared to last year. But my alexa rating has increased (means less traffic) from c 300,000 to 700,000. These two stats are conflicting.

Hey readers, accidental or not. Make a comment. Criticize these translations. Make me think. I translate too literally, but in order to have something to work with as an English lyric for the music. Exodus 15 is of course a song. And also a locus of the first complaints of freedom.

Note well - Easter signifies that the work of Christ Jesus was successfully completed. In the down up pattern of the Scripture, we are past the Passover (Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us, therefore let us keep the feast.) and we are past the Red Sea (1 Corinthians 10:1) but we have just begun. We do not want to be like those who failed to please God and whose corpses littered the desert (1 Corinthians 10:5). We have the work of obedience to do ourselves. By all means sing the song of the sea. But learn too and not just by memorizing lessons, though that is a start. Sometimes lessons memorized are filled with the prejudice of our culture.

The first downer begins in this chapter, but eventually after their escape, they do find a home. So may each of us find through the wilderness of learning our own obedience to the death of Jesus, and the redemption that is effected through the blood of the Lamb or the doorpost of our house. (There's a lot of incarnational metaphor in that sentence.)

A hint. Such obedience leads to life for us and for all who are near us, both physical propinquity and electronic. Things we would not have imagined worked in a new continuing creation in which we are not alone. His death is 'for the life of the world'. Our 'death in him' is an act of faith that gives life to our own mortal bodies. We can put aside by his emptiness the things that destroy, and in his fullness we will learn a real healing (verse 26) - not just in an imagined future but also now in the present, in the presence of the One who is the Author of life. Imagine then you are even Pharaoh and his host, you are the ones covered over, cast into the sea but instructed by the sea, and you also are pulled from the waters and given a life - in the wilderness(?) Let us learn to walk. Let us learn to love. With the Holy One of Israel.

Enough - let's read this odd translation and look at the music. (And laugh a little. Christ is risen.)

Exodus 15 Fn Min Max Syll
אָ֣ז יָשִֽׁיר־מֹשֶׁה֩ וּבְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָ֤ה הַזֹּאת֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה וַיֹּאמְר֖וּ לֵאמֹ֑ר
אָשִׁ֤ירָה לַֽיהוָה֙ כִּֽי־גָאֹ֣ה גָּאָ֔ה ס֥וּס וְרֹכְב֖וֹ רָמָ֥ה בַיָּֽם
1 B Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this particular song to Yahweh and they said, saying,
I will sing to Yahweh, for pride is proud. Horse and rider he has deceived in the sea.
3e 4C 23
17
עָזִּ֤י וְזִמְרָת֙ יָ֔הּ וַֽיְהִי־לִ֖י לִֽישׁוּעָ֑ה
זֶ֤ה אֵלִי֙ וְאַנְוֵ֔הוּ אֱלֹהֵ֥י אָבִ֖י וַאֲרֹמְמֶֽנְהוּ
2 Yah is my strength and psalm and has become my salvation.
This is my God. I will make him a home, the God of my father, and I will celebrate him.
3e 4C 12
17
יְהוָ֖ה אִ֣ישׁ מִלְחָמָ֑ה
יְהוָ֖ה שְׁמֽוֹ
3 Yahweh is a warrior,
Yahweh is his name.
3e 4B 6
4
מַרְכְּבֹ֥ת פַּרְעֹ֛ה וְחֵיל֖וֹ יָרָ֣ה בַיָּ֑ם
וּמִבְחַ֥ר שָֽׁלִשָׁ֖יו טֻבְּע֥וּ בְיַם־סֽוּף
4 The chariots of Pharaoh and his force were instructed in the sea,
and his chosen third were sunk in the sea of reeds.
3d 4B 12
11
תְּהֹמֹ֖ת יְכַסְיֻ֑מוּ
יָרְד֥וּ בִמְצוֹלֹ֖ת כְּמוֹ־אָֽבֶן
5 Abysses have covered them.
They descend into the depths as a stone.
3e 4A 7
8
יְמִֽינְךָ֣ יְהוָ֔ה נֶאְדָּרִ֖י בַּכֹּ֑חַ
יְמִֽינְךָ֥ יְהוָ֖ה תִּרְעַ֥ץ אוֹיֵֽב
6 Your right hand Yahweh, is majestic in power.
Your right hand Yahweh, scuttles an enemy.
3e 4B 11
9
וּבְרֹ֥ב גְּאוֹנְךָ֖ תַּהֲרֹ֣ס קָמֶ֑יךָ
תְּשַׁלַּח֙ חֲרֹ֣נְךָ֔ יֹאכְלֵ֖מוֹ כַּקַּֽשׁ
7 And in the abundance of your pride you have overthrown those who arise over you.
You set loose your ferocity and it devoured them as stubble.
3e 4B 11
11
וּבְר֤וּחַ אַפֶּ֙יךָ֙ נֶ֣עֶרְמוּ מַ֔יִם נִצְּב֥וּ כְמוֹ־נֵ֖ד נֹזְלִ֑ים
קָֽפְא֥וּ תְהֹמֹ֖ת בְּלֶב־יָֽם
8 And in the wind of of your nostrils waters were piled up. Flows stood firm as a heap.
The abysses were congealed into the heart of the sea.
3e 4C 17
8
אָמַ֥ר אוֹיֵ֛ב אֶרְדֹּ֥ף אַשִּׂ֖יג אֲחַלֵּ֣ק שָׁלָ֑ל
תִּמְלָאֵ֣מוֹ נַפְשִׁ֔י אָרִ֣יק חַרְבִּ֔י תּוֹרִישֵׁ֖מוֹ יָדִֽי
9 An enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil, my being will be full.
I will do away with my sword. My hand will possess them.
3d 4B 13
16
נָשַׁ֥פְתָּ בְרוּחֲךָ֖ כִּסָּ֣מוֹ יָ֑ם
צָֽלֲלוּ֙ כַּֽעוֹפֶ֔רֶת בְּמַ֖יִם אַדִּירִֽים
10 You blew at twilight with your wind. The sea covered them.
They submerged as lead in the majestic waters.
3e 4B 11
12
מִֽי־כָמֹ֤כָה בָּֽאֵלִם֙ יְהוָ֔ה מִ֥י כָּמֹ֖כָה נֶאְדָּ֣ר בַּקֹּ֑דֶשׁ
נוֹרָ֥א תְהִלֹּ֖ת עֹ֥שֵׂה פֶֽלֶא
11 Who is like you among the gods, Yahweh? Who is like you majestic in holiness,
to be feared in praises doing a wonder?
3e 4C 17
9
נָטִ֙יתָ֙ יְמִ֣ינְךָ֔ תִּבְלָעֵ֖מוֹ אָֽרֶץ 12 You stretched out your right hand. You swallowed earth. 3e 4B 12
נָחִ֥יתָ בְחַסְדְּךָ֖ עַם־ז֣וּ גָּאָ֑לְתָּ
נֵהַ֥לְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ֖ אֶל־נְוֵ֥ה קָדְשֶֽׁךָ
13 You guided in your kindness this people that you redeemed.
You refreshed in your strength to your holy home.
3e 4B 12
12
שָֽׁמְע֥וּ עַמִּ֖ים יִרְגָּז֑וּן
חִ֣יל אָחַ֔ז יֹשְׁבֵ֖י פְּלָֽשֶׁת
14 The peoples hear and shudder.
Force holds fast the inhabitants of Philistia.
3e 4B 7
8
אָ֤ז נִבְהֲלוּ֙ אַלּוּפֵ֣י אֱד֔וֹם אֵילֵ֣י מוֹאָ֔ב יֹֽאחֲזֵ֖מוֹ רָ֑עַד
נָמֹ֕גוּ כֹּ֖ל יֹשְׁבֵ֥י כְנָֽעַן
15 C Then vexed are the captains of Edom. The potentates of Moab, trembling will hold them fast.
All the inhabitants of Canaan will soften.
3e 4C 19
9
תִּפֹּ֨ל עֲלֵיהֶ֤ם אֵימָ֙תָה֙ וָפַ֔חַד בִּגְדֹ֥ל זְרוֹעֲךָ֖ יִדְּמ֣וּ כָּאָ֑בֶן
עַד־יַעֲבֹ֤ר עַמְּךָ֙ יְהוָ֔ה עַֽד־יַעֲבֹ֖ר עַם־ז֥וּ קָנִֽיתָ
16 Horror and dread will fall on them by the greatness of your arm. They will be mute as a stone,
till your people have passed through, Yahweh, till have passed through, this people that you purchased.
3e 4C 22
17
תְּבִאֵ֗מוֹ וְתִטָּעֵ֙מוֹ֙ בְּהַ֣ר נַחֲלָֽתְךָ֔ מָכ֧וֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ֛ פָּעַ֖לְתָּ יְהוָ֑ה
מִקְּדָ֕שׁ אֲדֹנָ֖י כּוֹנְנ֥וּ יָדֶֽיךָ
17 You will bring them and plant them on the hill, your legacy, established as your seat, the work of Yahweh.
A sanctuary, my Lord, your hands prepare.
3c 4B 26
10
יְהוָ֥ה ׀ יִמְלֹ֖ךְ לְעֹלָ֥ם וָעֶֽד 18 Yahweh will reign forever and ever. 3e 3g 9
כִּ֣י בָא֩ ס֨וּס פַּרְעֹ֜ה בְּרִכְבּ֤וֹ וּבְפָרָשָׁיו֙ בַּיָּ֔ם וַיָּ֧שֶׁב יְהוָ֛ה עֲלֵהֶ֖ם אֶת־מֵ֣י הַיָּ֑ם
וּבְנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל הָלְכ֥וּ בַיַּבָּשָׁ֖ה בְּת֥וֹךְ הַיָּֽם פ
19 B For the horse of Pharaoh entered with his chariots and his cavaliers into the sea and Yahweh turned over them the waters of the sea,
and the children of Israel walked on dry land in the midst of the sea.
3c 4C 26
16
וַתִּקַּח֩ מִרְיָ֨ם הַנְּבִיאָ֜ה אֲח֧וֹת אַהֲרֹ֛ן אֶת־הַתֹּ֖ף בְּיָדָ֑הּ
וַתֵּצֶ֤אןָ כָֽל־הַנָּשִׁים֙ אַחֲרֶ֔יהָ בְּתֻפִּ֖ים וּבִמְחֹלֹֽת
20 And Miriam the prophetess the sister of Aaron took the timbrel in her hand,
and all the women came out following her with timbrels and with dances.
3c 4C 19
19
וַתַּ֥עַן לָהֶ֖ם מִרְיָ֑ם
שִׁ֤ירוּ לַֽיהוָה֙ כִּֽי־גָאֹ֣ה גָּאָ֔ה ס֥וּס וְרֹכְב֖וֹ רָמָ֥ה בַיָּֽם ס
21 And Miriam answered for them,
Sing to Yahweh, for pride is proud. Horse and rider he has deceived in the sea.
3e 4C 7
17
וַיַּסַּ֨ע מֹשֶׁ֤ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִיַּם־ס֔וּף וַיֵּצְא֖וּ אֶל־מִדְבַּר־שׁ֑וּר
וַיֵּלְכ֧וּ שְׁלֹֽשֶׁת־יָמִ֛ים בַּמִּדְבָּ֖ר וְלֹא־מָ֥צְאוּ מָֽיִם
22 So Moses migrated Israel from the sea of reeds and they went forth to to a wilderness, a barrier.
And they went three days in the wilderness and found no water.
3c 4C 19
17
וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ מָרָ֔תָה וְלֹ֣א יָֽכְל֗וּ לִשְׁתֹּ֥ת מַ֙יִם֙ מִמָּרָ֔ה כִּ֥י מָרִ֖ים הֵ֑ם
עַל־כֵּ֥ן קָרָֽא־שְׁמָ֖הּ מָרָֽה
23 And when they came to Marah and they were not able to imbibe the water at Marah for they were bitter,
therefore he called its name Marah.
3e 4B 20
8
וַיִּלֹּ֧נוּ הָעָ֛ם עַל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹ֖ר מַה־נִּשְׁתֶּֽה 24 And the people grumbled against Moses, saying, What will we imbibe? 3c 3g 14
וַיִּצְעַ֣ק אֶל־יְהוָ֗ה וַיּוֹרֵ֤הוּ יְהוָה֙ עֵ֔ץ וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ֙ אֶל־הַמַּ֔יִם וַֽיִּמְתְּק֖וּ הַמָּ֑יִם
שָׁ֣ם שָׂ֥ם ל֛וֹ חֹ֥ק וּמִשְׁפָּ֖ט וְשָׁ֥ם נִסָּֽהוּ
25 And he cried out to Yahweh and Yahweh instructed him through a tree and he flung to the waters and the waters became sweet.
There he set his statute and judgment and there he proved him.
3d 4C 26
12
וַיֹּאמֶר֩ אִם־שָׁמ֨וֹעַ תִּשְׁמַ֜ע לְק֣וֹל ׀ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ וְהַיָּשָׁ֤ר בְּעֵינָיו֙ תַּעֲשֶׂ֔ה וְהַֽאֲזַנְתָּ֙ לְמִצְוֺתָ֔יו וְשָׁמַרְתָּ֖ כָּל־חֻקָּ֑יו
כָּֽל־הַמַּֽחֲלָ֞ה אֲשֶׁר־שַׂ֤מְתִּי בְמִצְרַ֙יִם֙ לֹא־אָשִׂ֣ים עָלֶ֔יךָ כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה רֹפְאֶֽךָ ס
26 And said, If to hear, you hear the voice of Yahweh your God and you will do what is upright in his eyes and will give ear to his commandments and you will keep all his statutes,
all the illnesses that I defined in Egypt I will not set upon you, for I am Yahweh who heals you.
3d 4C 43
26
וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ אֵילִ֔מָה וְשָׁ֗ם שְׁתֵּ֥ים עֶשְׂרֵ֛ה עֵינֹ֥ת מַ֖יִם וְשִׁבְעִ֣ים תְּמָרִ֑ים
וַיַּחֲנוּ־שָׁ֖ם עַל־הַמָּֽיִם
27 And they came to Elim and there were twelve springs of water and seventy palm-trees.
And they camped there by the waters.
3d 4B 21
9

Saturday, March 26, 2016

The beauty of the inscriptions of the Psalms

If you don't read music, please get someone who does to sing these to you. If you don't read Hebrew, please look up the verses. (I have put the links in - so hover should do it).

In Book 1 (Psalms 1-41) we have several (37 or 38 depending on what you count) Psalms that are inscribed 'of David'. The inscriptions are variable, rarely using the same accent combination for something as simple as mizmor ledavid. But the music is beautiful, so perhaps the formality of a tabular approach to life has not occurred to the poets. The inscriptions make use of both primary (atnah) and secondary (ole-veyored) cadences or for that matter, neither.

Psalms 4:1 and 5:1 are subdued, with neither primary nor secondary cadence.


Psalm 7:1 as a reel may be set in the pronounced chromatic hypodorian mode that gives no sense of rest.
Psalm 9:1 is the first to begin on a note other than the tonic. As such this connects it to the prior psalm. It is the first of the Acrostics, each of which celebrates the psalm that precedes it.
After being so used to cadences on the subdominant or the second, the opening of Psalm 44:1 is striking. Psalms 47:1, 49:9, 85:1 begin identically. Psalms 36:1, 61:1, 69:1, 81:1 are almost identical in accents, but simply with a repeated meteg (silluq) which is not required.

Wickes (1881 :35) complains that these poets are not using the dichotomy consistently. And so they aren’t. They likely had not heard of it. Not one of the corrections that he proposes is required for the music. The idea of continuous dichotomy should be removed from discussion. Music is subject to more nuanced shape than a hierarchy, a concept that is overused in most professions.

Forty-six psalms begin their music on something other than the tonic. What is the reason for each unique beginning? Psalms 1 and 2 are themselves unique as a pair. Psalm 1 begins on an f# perhaps showing that the psalms do not stand alone. 2 begins on a g, implicitly linking it with 1. Psalm 22 is perhaps the cost of being a king (reflecting the prayer and answer of 20-21). Psalm 40:1 begins with an ornament.

The ornament is confirmed in the Aleppo codex as well as in the Leningrad codex. So it stands out in Book 1 at its beginning. Psalm 41 reverts to the simplicity of the early Davidic psalms. 

One could give an excuse for each of these psalms since there are frequent strong connections between psalms, but perhaps this exercise is too subject to imagination. Nonetheless, the inscriptions are integrated with the music. 

And looking further, Psalm 70 imitates the opening of Psalm 40. This is of course suitable since almost all the words (39/47) of Psalm 70 are in Psalm 40. (Psalms 40, 70, and 89 share the same shape in verse 1). 

All the Psalms of Ascent are connected to each other in this sequential way. And the last five psalms 146-150 are joined similarly as a group. Here is Psalm 147:1 beginning on the f#.


This set of examples demonstrates clearly that the statements in Wickes that concern the impact of accents across verses and paragraphs must be rejected:

"Logically, a verse may be closely connected with the one preceding or following it; but musically and accentually no such connection exists." (1881 :23). He is oriented towards his dichotomy model whereby every phrase decomposes itself into two using the disjunctive accents (1887 :20). As such he is stopping in the middle of a musical phrase rather than hearing its completion. Also he is biased toward the dissociation of each verse from any other “Each section or verse was then treated as an independent whole; and, whatever its connection in sense with the verse preceding or the verse following, had its musical division assigned to it, quite irrespectively of them.” (1887 :27).

Reference: Wickes, William. 1881. A treatise on the accentuation of the three so-called poetical books on the Old Testament, Psalms, Proverbs, and Job, with an appendix containing the treatise, assigned to R. Jehuda Ben-Bil'am, on the same subject, in the original Arabic. Second treatise 1887 on the 21 books. Edited and republished together 1970. Two treatises on the accentuation of the Old Testament. Ed. Orlinsky, with a prolegomenon by Aron Dotan.

This post extracted from here with the odd adjustment.

Ctrl-alt-delete, restart

I am ready to restart. When a computer runs for a long time it can be sluggish. I have been running for a long time - at least 10 years - on the Old Testament. Wonderful, engaging, source of obedience, a story that is plentiful with low-hanging fruit suitable for correction of wayward souls. But yesterday's robust singing of the Allegri Psalm 51 (the high C's were fabulous - the chanting in Latin rhythmic - who would have guessed it was possible here). Though out of its liturgical context (Ash Wednesday), this performance on Good Friday reminded me that there is more to the Bible for me than the OT. The word, Christ, was even redeemed for me for inarticulate reasons, perhaps by the singing of the reproaches.

That word Christ (along with words like soul and repent) is so misunderstood in some Christian circles. This is the anointed king of Psalm 2 and the head exceedingly wounded in Psalm 110. This Christ is in evidence in the human Jesus who over the years from dot to Chalcedon will come to be seen as the Son of God. There are no capital letters in Hebrew. Similarly Israel is the son, Israel is the servant, and Israel, all Israel must learn the character of obedience seen in this unique person Jesus who is their kin, our kin, and who is the libation poured out for the life of the world in Jerusalem, on the holy hill of Zion. (Psalm 2)

I am also ready to restart blogging. Next up is a lovely bit of music (extracted from my article), just a line or two at a time, showing how beautiful and transparent the inscriptions of the Psalms are. These words, in the late 20th century assigned by scholars as late additions, are integral to the music of the Psalms.

I will not forget that I must also be a scholar, and sometimes distantly objective. But my objectives will be for opening up the Scriptures and hopefully, not to stand in front of them, so as to obscure the light that comes from the spaces between the words.

Friday, March 25, 2016

Moscow in May

Well, sort of. Moscow Idaho that is. I will be speaking on the music of the accents in the Hebrew Bible in May. My presentation slides are here. My paper is here.

Someone please give it a read if you have any time. It's hard to write a book and a paper on the same subject at the same time. Last weekend I took some time off and had great difficulty getting back on the horse. In fact, I wonder when I will post again. Maybe when I have more time to read. My Uvic fellowship is nearly done so I will get some morning time again, the most productive hours.

Friday, March 11, 2016

1 Chronicles 16

This chapter has considerable interest from a musical point of view. Much of this chapter is duplicated in the Psalms.

[excerpted from a draft of a chapter in my new book, publication date scheduled Nov 2016].
Three psalms are sung. This makes it possible to compare the psalms as they are in the Psalter with three examples pointed with the prose accents. As in 2 Samuel 22 (||Psalm 18), the words and the versification may be different as well as the music. Before the psalms are sung, the generosity of the king is noted as well as his beginning the praises with the choir and its head that he appointed from the Levites.

The parallel of Psalm 105 in 1 Chronicles illustrates the use of prose accents in imitation of the poetic and in this case with a stronger alignment to the sentence structure. 1 Chronicles 16.8 is clearly a tri-colon, but the equivalent Psalm verse is phrased as a bi-colon. The power of the ornaments to divide the line is also illustrated. The atnah seldom occurs in this chapter. In the poetry from verse 7 to 33, it occurs only in verses 29 and 33. This is in contrast to its use in the Psalter in these same poems.

A rendition of 1 Chronicles 16.8-36 from the Letteris edition shows a number of additional meteg accents (=silluq) which are varied from both the Aleppo and the Leningrad codices. Levin (1994: 129) notes a tendency that earlier manuscripts have fewer metegs but here both Aleppo and Leningrad are also different. While the differences are not critical to transparency, they do make me wonder what the rationale was in the scribe’s mind for the additional accents. Were they accents only? I suspect so. But if followed they frequently bring the music down from a C recitation to a low e recitation. As a result, verses that would have had a similar shape in the song now differ.

Some changes are also evident between later editions of Psalm 96. Letteris has added a meteg and again, likely inadvertently, changed the music. Letteris 1946 was not aware of Haïk-Vantoura’s work. The meteg may have been deemed necessary for stress but is not needed for the music, and this particular one is not in the Aleppo or the Leningrad codex. 

But it sounds very rhythmic and suitable in the context. That demonstrates that the text as we have received it may have copying problems that impair or enhance, even if by accident, the effectiveness of the music derived according to Haïk-Vantoura’s key.




1 Chronicles 16 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיָּבִ֙יאוּ֙ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים וַיַּצִּ֣יגוּ אֹת֔וֹ בְּת֣וֹךְ הָאֹ֔הֶל אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָֽטָה־ל֖וֹ דָּוִ֑יד
וַיַּקְרִ֛יבוּ עֹל֥וֹת וּשְׁלָמִ֖ים לִפְנֵ֥י הָאֱלֹהִֽים
1 And they brought the ark of God and exhibited it in the midst of the tent that David had stretched out for it.
And they came near with burnt offerings and peace offerings in the presence of God.
3d 4B 29
15
וַיְכַ֣ל דָּוִ֔יד מֵהַעֲל֥וֹת הָעֹלָ֖ה וְהַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים
וַיְבָ֥רֶךְ אֶת־הָעָ֖ם בְּשֵׁ֥ם יְהוָֽה
2 And David finished offering up the burnt offerings and the peace offerings,
and he blessed the people in the name of Yahweh.
3e 4B 15
10
וַיְחַלֵּק֙ לְכָל־אִ֣ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מֵאִ֖ישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁ֑ה
לְאִישׁ֙ כִּכַּר־לֶ֔חֶם וְאֶשְׁפָּ֖ר וַאֲשִׁישָֽׁה
3 And he divided for every person in Israel from each man and to each woman,
to each a talent of bread and a select portion and a raisin cake.
3e 4B 15
13
וַיִּתֵּ֞ן לִפְנֵ֨י אֲר֧וֹן יְהוָ֛ה מִן־הַלְוִיִּ֖ם מְשָׁרְתִ֑ים
וּלְהַזְכִּיר֙ וּלְהוֹד֣וֹת וּלְהַלֵּ֔ל לַיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
4 And he assigned before the ark of Yahweh from the Levites ministers,
that they would remember and with splendour to render praise to Yahweh, the God of Israel.
3c 4B 16
17
אָסָ֥ף הָרֹ֖אשׁ וּמִשְׁנֵ֣הוּ זְכַרְיָ֑ה
יְעִיאֵ֡ל וּשְׁמִֽירָמ֡וֹת וִֽיחִיאֵ֡ל וּמַתִּתְיָ֡ה וֶאֱלִיאָ֡ב וּבְנָיָהוּ֩ וְעֹבֵ֨ד אֱדֹ֜ם וִֽיעִיאֵ֗ל בִּכְלֵ֤י נְבָלִים֙ וּבְכִנֹּר֔וֹת וְאָסָ֖ף בַּֽמְצִלְתַּ֥יִם מַשְׁמִֽיעַ
5 Asaph the head and second to him Zekariah,
Jeiel, and Shemiramoth, and Jechiel and Mattithiah and Eliab and Benaiah and Obed Edom and Jeiel with instruments, lutes and harps, and Asaph with cymbals, broadcast.
3e 4C 11
48
וּבְנָיָ֥הוּ וְיַחֲזִיאֵ֖ל הַכֹּהֲנִ֑ים
בַּחֲצֹצְר֣וֹת תָּמִ֔יד לִפְנֵ֖י אֲר֥וֹן בְּרִית־הָאֱלֹהִֽים
6 And Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests,
with the trumpets continually before the ark of the covenant of the God.
3e 4B 13
16
בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא אָ֣ז נָתַ֤ן דָּוִיד֙ בָּרֹ֔אשׁ לְהֹד֖וֹת לַיהוָ֑ה
בְּיַד־אָסָ֖ף וְאֶחָֽיו
7 B On that day then, David chanted as the beginning of thanksgiving to Yahweh,
by the hand of Asaph and his kin.
3e 4C 16
7
הוֹד֤וּ לַֽיהוָה֙ קִרְא֣וּ בִשְׁמ֔וֹ הוֹדִ֥יעוּ בָעַמִּ֖ים עֲלִילֹתָֽיו 8 Give thanks to Yahweh. Call in his name. Make known among the peoples his prodigality. 3e 4C 18
שִׁ֤ירוּ לוֹ֙ זַמְּרוּ־ל֔וֹ שִׂ֖יחוּ בְּכָל־נִפְלְאֹתָֽיו 9 C Sing to him. Sing a psalm to him. Ponder on all his wonders. 3e 4C 13
הִֽתְהַֽלְלוּ֙ בְּשֵׁ֣ם קָדְשׁ֔וֹ יִשְׂמַ֕ח לֵ֖ב מְבַקְשֵׁ֥י יְהוָֽה 10 Praise in the name of his holiness. The heart of those who seek Yahweh will be glad. 3e 4B 15
דִּרְשׁ֤וּ יְהוָה֙ וְעֻזּ֔וֹ בַּקְּשׁ֥וּ פָנָ֖יו תָּמִֽיד 11 Enquire of Yahweh and his strength. Seek his face continually. 3e 4C 13
זִכְר֗וּ נִפְלְאֹתָיו֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה מֹפְתָ֖יו וּמִשְׁפְּטֵי־פִֽיהוּ 12 Remember his wonders that he did, his portents and the judgments of his mouth. 3e 4B 17
זֶ֚רַע יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל עַבְדּ֔וֹ בְּנֵ֥י יַעֲקֹ֖ב בְּחִירָֽיו 13 C O seed of Israel his servant, children of Jacob his chosen. 3e 4C 15
ה֚וּא יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ בְּכָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ מִשְׁפָּטָֽיו 14 C He is Yahweh our God. In all the earth are his judgments. 3e 4C 15
זִכְר֤וּ לְעוֹלָם֙ בְּרִית֔וֹ דָּבָ֥ר צִוָּ֖ה לְאֶ֥לֶף דּֽוֹר 15 Remember forever his covenant, the word he commanded to a thousand generations, 3e 4C 16
אֲשֶׁ֤ר כָּרַת֙ אֶת־אַבְרָהָ֔ם וּשְׁבוּעָת֖וֹ לְיִצְחָֽק 16 which he cut with Abraham, and his oath to Isaac. 3e 4C 15
וַיַּעֲמִידֶ֤הָ לְיַעֲקֹב֙ לְחֹ֔ק לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּרִ֥ית עוֹלָֽם 17 And stood by it to Jacob as a statute, for Israel a covenant ever. 3e 4C 20
לֵאמֹ֗ר לְךָ֙ אֶתֵּ֣ן אֶֽרֶץ־כְּנָ֔עַן חֶ֖בֶל נַחֲלַתְכֶֽם 18 Saying, To you I will give the land of Canaan, the pledge of your inheritance. 3e 4B 17
בִּֽהְיֽוֹתְכֶם֙ מְתֵ֣י מִסְפָּ֔ר כִּמְעַ֖ט וְגָרִ֥ים בָּֽהּ 19 When they were men counted as few, and guests in it. 3e 4B 13
וַיִּֽתְהַלְּכוּ֙ מִגּ֣וֹי אֶל־גּ֔וֹי וּמִמַּמְלָכָ֖ה אֶל־עַ֥ם אַחֵֽר 20 And they were meandering from nation to nation, from a kingdom to another people. 3e 4B 19
לֹא־הִנִּ֤יחַ לְאִישׁ֙ לְעָשְׁקָ֔ם וַיּ֥וֹכַח עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם מְלָכִֽים 21 He did not allow anyone to oppress them and he reproved kings over them. 3e 4C 17
אַֽל־תִּגְּעוּ֙ בִּמְשִׁיחָ֔י וּבִנְבִיאַ֖י אַל־תָּרֵֽעוּ 22 Do not touch my anointed and to my prophets do no evil. 3e 3g 14
שִׁ֤ירוּ לַֽיהוָה֙ כָּל־הָאָ֔רֶץ בַּשְּׂר֥וּ מִיּֽוֹם־אֶל־י֖וֹם יְשׁוּעָתֽוֹ 23 C Sing to Yahweh all the earth. Publish from day to day his salvation. 3e 4C 18
סַפְּר֤וּ בַגּוֹיִם֙ אֶת־כְּבוֹד֔וֹ בְּכָל־הָעַמִּ֖ים נִפְלְאֹתָֽיו 24 Recount in the nations his glory, to all the peoples his wonders. 3e 4C 18
כִּי֩ גָד֨וֹל יְהוָ֤ה וּמְהֻלָּל֙ מְאֹ֔ד וְנוֹרָ֥א ה֖וּא עַל־כָּל־אֱלֹהִֽים 25 ~ For great is Yahweh and much to be praised. He is to be feared above all gods. 3e 4C 19
כִּ֠י כָּל־אֱלֹהֵ֤י הָעַמִּים֙ אֱלִילִ֔ים וַיהוָ֖ה שָׁמַ֥יִם עָשָֽׂה 26 ~ For all the gods of the peoples are good for nothing, but Yahweh made the heavens. 3e 4C 17
ה֤וֹד וְהָדָר֙ לְפָנָ֔יו עֹ֥ז וְחֶדְוָ֖ה בִּמְקֹמֽוֹ 27 C Splendour and honour are in his presence. Strength and cheer are in his place. 3e 4C 14
הָב֤וּ לַֽיהוָה֙ מִשְׁפְּח֣וֹת עַמִּ֔ים הָב֥וּ לַיהוָ֖ה כָּב֥וֹד וָעֹֽז 28 C Ascribe to Yahweh families of the peoples, ascribe to Yahweh glory and strength. 3e 4C 17
הָב֥וּ לַיהוָ֖ה כְּב֣וֹד שְׁמ֑וֹ
שְׂא֤וּ מִנְחָה֙ וּבֹ֣אוּ לְפָנָ֔יו הִשְׁתַּחֲו֥וּ לַיהוָ֖ה בְּהַדְרַת־קֹֽדֶשׁ
29 f Ascribe to Yahweh the glory of his name. Bear a gift and come into his presence. Worship Yahweh in the honour of holiness. 3e 4C 8
20
חִ֤ילוּ מִלְּפָנָיו֙ כָּל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אַף־תִּכּ֥וֹן תֵּבֵ֖ל בַּל־תִּמּֽוֹט 30 C Let all the earth be brought to birth from his presence. Indeed the world is established so it will not move. 3e 4C 17
יִשְׂמְח֤וּ הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ וְתָגֵ֣ל הָאָ֔רֶץ וְיֹאמְר֥וּ בַגּוֹיִ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה מָלָֽךְ 31 Let the heavens be glad and let the earth rejoice, and let them say in the nations, Yahweh reigns. 3e 4C 22
יִרְעַ֤ם הַיָּם֙ וּמְלוֹא֔וֹ יַעֲלֹ֥ץ הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־בּֽוֹ 32 Let the sea thunder and its fullness. let the field be elated and all that are in it. 3e 4C 18
אָ֥ז יְרַנְּנ֖וּ עֲצֵ֣י הַיָּ֑עַר
מִלִּפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה כִּי־בָ֖א לִשְׁפּ֥וֹט אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ
33 f Then the trees of the forest will shout for joy,
from the presence of Yahweh, for he comes to judge the earth.
3e 4B 9
12
הוֹד֤וּ לַיהוָה֙ כִּ֣י ט֔וֹב כִּ֥י לְעוֹלָ֖ם חַסְדּֽוֹ 34 Give thanks to Yahweh for it is good, for his kindness is forever. 3e 4C 12
וְאִמְר֕וּ הוֹשִׁיעֵ֙נוּ֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׁעֵ֔נוּ וְקַבְּצֵ֥נוּ וְהַצִּילֵ֖נוּ מִן־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם
לְהֹדוֹת֙ לְשֵׁ֣ם קָדְשֶׁ֔ךָ לְהִשְׁתַּבֵּ֖חַ בִּתְהִלָּתֶֽךָ
35 And say, Save us, O God of our salvation, and collect us and deliver us from the nations,
to give thanks to your holy name, to commend your praises.
3e 4B 26
18
בָּר֤וּךְ יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מִן־הָעוֹלָ֖ם וְעַ֣ד הָעֹלָ֑ם
וַיֹּאמְר֤וּ כָל־הָעָם֙ אָמֵ֔ן וְהַלֵּ֖ל לַֽיהוָֽה
36 C Bless Yahweh the God of Israel from the everlasting and unto the everlasting,
and let all the people say amen and praise Yahweh.
3e 4C 19
13
וַיַּֽעֲזָב־שָׁ֗ם לִפְנֵי֙ אֲר֣וֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָ֔ה לְאָסָ֖ף וּלְאֶחָ֑יו
לְשָׁרֵ֞ת לִפְנֵ֧י הָאָר֛וֹן תָּמִ֖יד לִדְבַר־י֥וֹם בְּיוֹמֽוֹ
37 So he deferred there before the ark of the covenant of Yahweh to Asaph and his kin,
to minister before the ark continually for the word day by day.
3c 4B 19
16
וְעֹבֵ֥ד אֱדֹ֛ם וַאֲחֵיהֶ֖ם שִׁשִּׁ֣ים וּשְׁמוֹנָ֑ה
וְעֹבֵ֨ד אֱדֹ֧ם בֶּן־יְדִית֛וּן וְחֹסָ֖ה לְשֹׁעֲרִֽים
38 And Obed Edom and their kin sixty eight,
and Obed Edom, child of Jeduthun, and Hosah as gatekeepers.
3c 4B 14
16
וְאֵ֣ת ׀ צָד֣וֹק הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְאֶחָיו֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים לִפְנֵ֖י מִשְׁכַּ֣ן יְהוָ֑ה
בַּבָּמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּגִבְעֽוֹן
39 And Zadok the priest and his kin the priests before the dwelling-place of Yahweh,
in the high place that was Gibeon,
3e 4B 20
8
לְֽהַעֲלוֹת֩ עֹל֨וֹת לַיהוָ֜ה עַל־מִזְבַּ֧ח הָעֹלָ֛ה תָּמִ֖יד לַבֹּ֣קֶר וְלָעָ֑רֶב
וּלְכָל־הַכָּתוּב֙ בְּתוֹרַ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֖ה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
40 to offer up burnt offerings to Yahweh upon the altar of the burnt offering continually in the morning and in the evening,
and for all that is written in the instruction of Yahweh which he commanded concerning Israel.
3c 4B 23
18
וְעִמָּהֶם֙ הֵימָ֣ן וִֽידוּת֔וּן וּשְׁאָר֙ הַבְּרוּרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִקְּב֖וּ בְּשֵׁמ֑וֹת
לְהֹדוֹת֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה כִּ֥י לְעוֹלָ֖ם חַסְדּֽוֹ
41 And with them Heman and Jeduthun and the purified extras that were drilled by name,
to give thanks to Yahweh for his kindness is forever.
3e 4B 21
11
וְעִמָּהֶם֩ הֵימָ֨ן וִֽידוּת֜וּן חֲצֹצְר֤וֹת וּמְצִלְתַּ֙יִם֙ לְמַשְׁמִיעִ֔ים וּכְלֵ֖י שִׁ֣יר הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים
וּבְנֵ֥י יְדוּת֖וּן לַשָּֽׁעַר
42 And with them Heman and Jeduthun with trumpets and cymbals and those who make music and instruments of the song of God.
And the children of Jeduthun were gatekeepers.
3e 4C 26
8
וַיֵּלְכ֥וּ כָל־הָעָ֖ם אִ֣ישׁ לְבֵית֑וֹ
וַיִּסֹּ֥ב דָּוִ֖יד לְבָרֵ֥ךְ אֶת־בֵּיתֽוֹ
43 And went all the people each to his own house.
And David circled around to bless his house.
3e 4B 10
11