Monday, October 16, 2017

Isaiah 33

Six hundred and one, chapters done. I got ahead of myself last week and had several chapters pre-scheduled - so my regular posts came out even though I was sort of elsewhere - undergoing nasty medical tests.

Yesterday I started working on Isaiah 33, the chapter at the bottom of my list - one that had the fewest guesses. (There are several chapters of Isaiah further down my list than chapters of Daniel!) Why is this, I thought? Isaiah should be 'normal' ancient Hebrew. And it is. But the usage is different in a way I have not yet fathomed (and may never without another lifetime). There were lots of single guesses and spaces where there were known stems but in a form peculiar to this prophet. But there were few multiple guesses in sequences longer than 2 words. And hardly any even of 2 words, and they mostly wrong. Perhaps there will be more as I do more of Isaiah, seeding the prophet with his own language.

I came across נשגב (set on high), a word very close to משגב, from the same root, שגב. I used retreat for משגב in the Psalms. Retreat has negative connotations in some contexts and positive ones in others. I imagine the lighthearted Mr. Bennet of Jane Austen in his library, a retreat from the hurly-burly of the family. But it is not an impregnable retreat or so set on high that it is unapproachable. Nor is it an ignominious withdrawal. Perhaps it is 'stopping for a moment to reconsider'. This is my wife's first impression of the word, also positive. (She is not Mrs Bennet.)

I see that tradition in the KJV does not use retreat at all. It is a major theme for me in the Psalms (20 uses of the stem, 16 times I render it as retreat, 4 times as set on high). And so it raises the question for me as to what the major themes are for Isaiah (9 uses) and does it share this theme with the Psalms?
Psalms 9 Fn Min Max Syll
וִ֘יהִ֤י יְהוָ֣ה מִשְׂגָּ֣ב לַדָּ֑ךְ
מִ֝שְׂגָּ֗ב לְעִתּ֥וֹת בַּצָּרָֽה
10 ~ And Yahweh will be a retreat for the crushed,
a retreat in times of trouble.
3e 4C 8
Psalms 18 Fn Min Max Syll
יְהוָ֤ה ׀ סַֽלְעִ֥י וּמְצוּדָתִ֗י וּמְפַ֫לְטִ֥י
אֵלִ֣י צ֭וּרִי אֶֽחֱסֶה־בּ֑וֹ
מָֽגִנִּ֥י וְקֶֽרֶן־יִ֝שְׁעִ֗י מִשְׂגַּבִּֽי
3 Yahweh my cliff, and my fortress and my security,
my God my rock. I will take refuge in him.
My shield and the horn of my salvation, my retreat.
3e 4C 11
Psalms 20 Fn Min Max Syll
יַֽעַנְךָ֣ יְ֭הוָה בְּי֣וֹם צָרָ֑ה
יְ֝שַׂגֶּבְךָ֗ שֵׁ֤ם ׀ אֱלֹהֵ֬י יַעֲקֹֽב
2 Yahweh answer you in the day of trouble,
the name of the God of Jacob be your retreat,
3e 4C 9
Psalms 46 Fn Min Max Syll
יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֣וֹת עִמָּ֑נוּ
מִשְׂגָּֽב־לָ֝נוּ אֱלֹהֵ֖י יַעֲקֹ֣ב סֶֽלָה
8 Yahweh of hosts is with us,
our retreat the God of Jacob. Selah.
3e 4B 8
יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֣וֹת עִמָּ֑נוּ
מִשְׂגָּֽב־לָ֝נוּ אֱלֹהֵ֖י יַעֲקֹ֣ב סֶֽלָה
12 Yahweh of hosts is with us,
our retreat the God of Jacob. Selah.
3e 4B 8
Psalms 48 Fn Min Max Syll
אֱלֹהִ֥ים בְּאַרְמְנוֹתֶ֗יהָ נוֹדַ֥ע לְמִשְׂגָּֽב 4 God in her citadels, is made known for a retreat.

3e 3f 14
Psalms 59 Fn Min Max Syll
הַצִּילֵ֖נִי מֵאֹיְבַ֥י ׀ אֱלֹהָ֑י
מִּמִתְקוֹמְמַ֥י תְּשַׂגְּבֵֽנִי
2 Deliver me from my enemies, O my God,
from those arising over me, be my retreat.
3e 4A 10
עֻ֭זּוֹ אֵלֶ֣יךָ אֶשְׁמֹ֑רָה
כִּֽי־אֱ֝לֹהִ֗ים מִשְׂגַּבִּֽי
10 g His strength for you. I keep watch,
for God is my retreat.
3e 4B 8
וַאֲנִ֤י ׀ אָשִׁ֣יר עֻזֶּךָ֮ וַאֲרַנֵּ֥ן לַבֹּ֗קֶר חַ֫סְדֶּ֥ךָ
כִּֽי־הָיִ֣יתָ מִשְׂגָּ֣ב לִ֑י
וּ֝מָנ֗וֹס בְּי֣וֹם צַר־לִֽי
17 But I, I will sing your strength and I will shout for joy to the morning of your kindness,
for you have been a retreat to me,
and a haven in the day of my straits.
3e 4C 18
עֻ֭זִּי אֵלֶ֣יךָ אֲזַמֵּ֑רָה
כִּֽי־אֱלֹהִ֥ים מִ֝שְׂגַּבִּ֗י אֱלֹהֵ֥י חַסְדִּֽי
18 g I in my strength, will sing psalms to you,
for God is my retreat, the God of my kindness.
3e 4B 9
Psalms 62 Fn Min Max Syll
אַךְ־ה֣וּא צ֭וּרִי וִֽישׁוּעָתִ֑י
מִ֝שְׂגַּבִּ֗י לֹא־אֶמּ֥וֹט רַבָּֽה
3 Surely he is my rock and my salvation,
my retreat. I will not be exceedingly moved.
3e 4B 8
אַךְ־ה֣וּא צ֭וּרִי וִֽישׁוּעָתִ֑י
מִ֝שְׂגַּבִּ֗י לֹ֣א אֶמּֽוֹט
7 Surely he is my rock and my salvation,
my retreat. I will not be moved.
3e 4B 8
Psalms 69 Fn Min Max Syll
וַ֭אֲנִי עָנִ֣י וְכוֹאֵ֑ב
יְשׁוּעָתְךָ֖ אֱלֹהִ֣ים תְּשַׂגְּבֵֽנִי
30 g But I poor and in sorrow.
Let your salvation, O God, be my retreat.
3e 4B 8
Psalms 94 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְהִ֬י יְהוָ֣ה לִ֣י לְמִשְׂגָּ֑ב
וֵ֝אלֹהַ֗י לְצ֣וּר מַחְסִֽי
22 But Yahweh will be for me for a retreat,
and my God a rock of refuge.
3e 4B 8
Psalms 144 Fn Min Max Syll
חַסְדִּ֥י וּמְצוּדָתִי֮ מִשְׂגַּבִּ֪י וּֽמְפַלְטִ֫י לִ֥י
מָ֭גִנִּי וּב֣וֹ חָסִ֑יתִי
הָרוֹדֵ֖ד עַמִּ֣י תַחְתָּֽי
2 My kindness and my fortress, my retreat and my security, mine, my shield, and in him I have taken refuge,
subduing my people under me.

3d 4B 13

Where does this word occur in Isaiah? Of the 9 times the stem is used, only 2 require retreat.
Isaiah 25 Fn Min Max
וּמִבְצַ֞ר מִשְׂגַּ֣ב חוֹמֹתֶ֗יךָ הֵשַׁ֥ח הִשְׁפִּ֛יל הִגִּ֥יעַ לָאָ֖רֶץ עַד־עָפָֽר 12 And from the enclosure of the retreat of your ramparts, he will press down, he will abase, he will touch to the earth, even dust. 3d 4B
Isaiah 33 Fn Min Max
ה֚וּא מְרוֹמִ֣ים יִשְׁכֹּ֔ן מְצָד֥וֹת סְלָעִ֖ים מִשְׂגַּבּ֑וֹ
לַחְמ֣וֹ נִתָּ֔ן מֵימָ֖יו נֶאֱמָנִֽים
16 C He from the high ground will dwell, from the fortress of cliffs is his retreat,
his bread given, his waters faithful.
3e 4C

What I think is happening is that I am being forced to conform by my rules to my emerging glossary. But at the same time, anomalies in the glossary make their appearance, saying, You cannot use this here. You need it there! Or, This gloss can't possibly be with the right stem. Or, Why did you ignore this word form?

What impact will the glossary exert as I near the end of the puzzle? I note with appreciation how the algorithm selected a quote from T.S.Eliot for a gloss in this chapter. And it is apt - right at the chapter's focal point. (But it doesn't obey my rules. I left it in as a literary exception.)

Who can tell me of a good book on linguistics so I can see how tongues work to become what they are? 

Here is the next chapter. Some of what is forced on me reveals decisions made by tradition that may need to be questioned. One is always asking, After 3000 years, where has our interpretation got us to?

Isaiah 33 Fn Min Max Syll
ה֣וֹי שׁוֹדֵ֗ד וְאַתָּה֙ לֹ֣א שָׁד֔וּד וּבוֹגֵ֖ד וְלֹא־בָ֣גְדוּ ב֑וֹ
כַּהֲתִֽמְךָ֤ שׁוֹדֵד֙ תּוּשַּׁ֔ד כַּנְּלֹתְךָ֥ לִבְגֹּ֖ד יִבְגְּדוּ־בָֽךְ
1 B Ah devastator, and you not were devastated, and treacherous, and they were not treacherous in it.
As you complete devastation, you will be devastated. As you finish with treachery, they will be treacherous with you.
3e 4C 18
יְהוָ֥ה חָנֵּ֖נוּ לְךָ֣ קִוִּ֑ינוּ
הֱיֵ֤ה זְרֹעָם֙ לַבְּקָרִ֔ים אַף־יְשׁוּעָתֵ֖נוּ בְּעֵ֥ת צָרָֽה
2 Yahweh be gracious to us. For you we have waited.
Be their arm in the morning, indeed our salvation in a time of trouble.
3e 4C 10
מִקּ֣וֹל הָמ֔וֹן נָדְד֖וּ עַמִּ֑ים
מֵר֣וֹמְמֻתֶ֔ךָ נָפְצ֖וּ גּוֹיִֽם
3 From the voice of tumult, peoples fled.
From your exaltation, nations were smashed.
3e 4B 8
וְאֻסַּ֣ף שְׁלַלְכֶ֔ם אֹ֖סֶף הֶֽחָסִ֑יל
כְּמַשַּׁ֥ק גֵּבִ֖ים שׁוֹקֵ֥ק בּֽוֹ
4 And your spoil will be gathered, the gathering of the caterpillar,
as shiftless as great grubs shifting about in it.
3e 4B 11
נִשְׂגָּ֣ב יְהוָ֔ה כִּ֥י שֹׁכֵ֖ן מָר֑וֹם
מִלֵּ֣א צִיּ֔וֹן מִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּצְדָקָֽה
5 Set on high is Yahweh because he dwells on high.
Full is Zion of judgment and righteousness.
3e 4B 9
וְהָיָה֙ אֱמוּנַ֣ת עִתֶּ֔יךָ חֹ֥סֶן יְשׁוּעֹ֖ת חָכְמַ֣ת וָדָ֑עַת
יִרְאַ֥ת יְהוָ֖ה הִ֥יא אוֹצָרֽוֹ
6 And shrewdness and knowledge will be the faithfulness of your time, the invincibility of victories.
The fear of Yahweh, it is its fund.
3e 4B 19
הֵ֚ן אֶרְאֶלָּ֔ם צָעֲק֖וּ חֻ֑צָה
מַלְאֲכֵ֣י שָׁל֔וֹם מַ֖ר יִבְכָּיֽוּן
7 C Lo their lion-hearted will cry out outside.
Messengers of peace bitterly will weep.
3e 4C 9
נָשַׁ֣מּוּ מְסִלּ֔וֹת שָׁבַ֖ת עֹבֵ֣ר אֹ֑רַח
הֵפֵ֤ר בְּרִית֙ מָאַ֣ס עָרִ֔ים לֹ֥א חָשַׁ֖ב אֱנֽוֹשׁ
8 Highways desolated, itinerant ceased,
covenant thwarted, cities refused, he not does consider a mortal.
3e 4C 12
אָבַ֤ל אֻמְלְלָה֙ אָ֔רֶץ הֶחְפִּ֥יר לְבָנ֖וֹן קָמַ֑ל
הָיָ֤ה הַשָּׁרוֹן֙ כָּֽעֲרָבָ֔ה וְנֹעֵ֥ר בָּשָׁ֖ן וְכַרְמֶֽל
9 Earth enfeebled laments, Lebanon festering, is confounded,
the plain becomes as steppe, and tossed are Bashan and Carmel.
3e 4C 14
עַתָּ֥ה אָק֖וּם יֹאמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה
עַתָּה֙ אֵֽרוֹמָ֔ם עַתָּ֖ה אֶנָּשֵֽׂא
10 Now I will arise, says Yahweh.
Now I will be exalted. Now I will be lifted up.
3e 4B 8
תַּהֲר֥וּ חֲשַׁ֖שׁ תֵּ֣לְדוּ קַ֑שׁ
רוּחֲכֶ֕ם אֵ֖שׁ תֹּאכַלְכֶֽם
11 You will be pregnant with hay. You will give birth to stubble.
Your wind will devour you with fire.
3e 4B 8
וְהָי֥וּ עַמִּ֖ים מִשְׂרְפ֣וֹת שִׂ֑יד
קוֹצִ֥ים כְּסוּחִ֖ים בָּאֵ֥שׁ יִצַּֽתּוּ
12 And peoples will become as incinerations of lime.
Brambles cut up in the fire, they will be charred.
3e 4B 9
שִׁמְע֥וּ רְחוֹקִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֑יתִי
וּדְע֥וּ קְרוֹבִ֖ים גְּבֻרָתִֽי
13 Hear, you who are distant, what I have done.
Now set down this, you who are near, I will prevail.
3e 4B 10
פָּחֲד֤וּ בְצִיּוֹן֙ חַטָּאִ֔ים אָחֲזָ֥ה רְעָדָ֖ה חֲנֵפִ֑ים
מִ֣י ׀ יָג֣וּר לָ֗נוּ אֵ֚שׁ אוֹכֵלָ֔ה מִי־יָג֥וּר לָ֖נוּ מוֹקְדֵ֥י עוֹלָֽם
14 Sinners in Zion were in dread. Trembling grasps hypocrites.
Who will guest for us with a consuming fire? Who will guest for us with an everlasting burning mass.
3e 4C 18
הֹלֵ֣ךְ צְדָק֔וֹת וְדֹבֵ֖ר מֵֽישָׁרִ֑ים
מֹאֵ֞ס בְּבֶ֣צַע מַעֲשַׁקּ֗וֹת נֹעֵ֤ר כַּפָּיו֙ מִתְּמֹ֣ךְ בַּשֹּׁ֔חַד אֹטֵ֤ם אָזְנוֹ֙ מִשְּׁמֹ֣עַ דָּמִ֔ים וְעֹצֵ֥ם עֵינָ֖יו מֵרְא֥וֹת בְּרָֽע
15 One walking in righteousness, and who speaks uprightness,
who has refused the extortion of oppression, tossing its palms, retaining a bribe, who plugs its own ear from hearing of blood, and staunches its eyes from seeing evil.
3e 4C 11
ה֚וּא מְרוֹמִ֣ים יִשְׁכֹּ֔ן מְצָד֥וֹת סְלָעִ֖ים מִשְׂגַּבּ֑וֹ
לַחְמ֣וֹ נִתָּ֔ן מֵימָ֖יו נֶאֱמָנִֽים
16 C He from the high ground will dwell, from the fortress of cliffs is his retreat,
his bread given, his waters faithful.
3e 4C 15
מֶ֥לֶךְ בְּיָפְי֖וֹ תֶּחֱזֶ֣ינָה עֵינֶ֑יךָ
תִּרְאֶ֖ינָה אֶ֥רֶץ מַרְחַקִּֽים
17 f A king in his beauty your eyes will gaze on.
They will see the land of those who are far off.
3e 4B 12
לִבְּךָ֖ יֶהְגֶּ֣ה אֵימָ֑ה
אַיֵּ֤ה סֹפֵר֙ אַיֵּ֣ה שֹׁקֵ֔ל אַיֵּ֖ה סֹפֵ֥ר אֶת־הַמִּגְדָּלִֽים
18 Your heart will meditate on horror.
Where is the secretary? Where is the appraiser? Where is the one who counts the great things?
3e 4C 6
אֶת־עַ֥ם נוֹעָ֖ז לֹ֣א תִרְאֶ֑ה
עַ֣ם עִמְקֵ֤י שָׂפָה֙ מִשְּׁמ֔וֹעַ נִלְעַ֥ג לָשׁ֖וֹן אֵ֥ין בִּינָֽה
19 A barbarous people you do not see,
a people of more inscrutable language than you can hear, a derisive indiscernible tongue.
3e 4C 7
חֲזֵ֣ה צִיּ֔וֹן קִרְיַ֖ת מֽוֹעֲדֵ֑נוּ
עֵינֶיךָ֩ תִרְאֶ֨ינָה יְרוּשָׁלִַ֜ם נָוֶ֣ה שַׁאֲנָ֗ן אֹ֤הֶל בַּל־יִצְעָן֙ בַּל־יִסַּ֤ע יְתֵֽדֹתָיו֙ לָנֶ֔צַח וְכָל־חֲבָלָ֖יו בַּל־יִנָּתֵֽקוּ
20 Gaze on Zion, the town of our engagement.
Your eyes will see Jerusalem, home of one without a care, a tent not to be dismantled. Its tent pegs will not be pulled out in perpetuity, and none of its ropes will be snapped.
3e 4C 10
כִּ֣י אִם־שָׁ֞ם אַדִּ֤יר יְהוָה֙ לָ֔נוּ מְקוֹם־נְהָרִ֥ים יְאֹרִ֖ים רַחֲבֵ֣י יָדָ֑יִם
בַּל־תֵּ֤לֶךְ בּוֹ֙ אֳנִי־שַׁ֔יִט וְצִ֥י אַדִּ֖יר לֹ֥א יַעַבְרֶֽנּוּ
21 B In contrast, there, the majesty of Yahweh is for us, a place of rivers, canals, broad of hand.
No ship with oars will go in it, nor majestic galley pass through it.
3e 4C 23
כִּ֤י יְהוָה֙ שֹׁפְטֵ֔נוּ יְהוָ֖ה מְחֹקְקֵ֑נוּ
יְהוָ֥ה מַלְכֵּ֖נוּ ה֥וּא יוֹשִׁיעֵֽנוּ
22 C For Yahweh is our judge. Yahweh is our lawgiver. Yahweh our king, he will save us. 3e 4C 12
נִטְּשׁ֖וּ חֲבָלָ֑יִךְ
בַּל־יְחַזְּק֤וּ כֵן־תָּרְנָם֙ בַּל־פָּ֣רְשׂוּ נֵ֔ס אָ֣ז חֻלַּ֤ק עַֽד־שָׁלָל֙ מַרְבֶּ֔ה פִּסְחִ֖ים בָּ֥זְזוּ בַֽז
23 Abandoned are your ropes.
They do not make resolute as such their mast. They have not spread a spinnaker. Then increased spoil is divided further. The lame will despoil the loot.
3e 4C 6
וּבַל־יֹאמַ֥ר שָׁכֵ֖ן חָלִ֑יתִי
הָעָ֛ם הַיֹּשֵׁ֥ב בָּ֖הּ נְשֻׂ֥א עָוֺֽן
24 Nor will a neighbour say, I am ill.
The people who settle in her, lifted up is iniquity.
3d 4A 9

Joshua 7

I will admit I am not much fond of this book under the name of Joshua. But that's because I have never read it except in translation.
Joshua 7 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיִּמְעֲל֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מַ֖עַל בַּחֵ֑רֶם
וַיִּקַּ֡ח עָכָ֣ן בֶּן־כַּרְמִי֩ בֶן־זַבְדִּ֨י בֶן־זֶ֜רַח לְמַטֵּ֤ה יְהוּדָה֙ מִן־הַחֵ֔רֶם וַיִּֽחַר־אַ֥ף יְהוָ֖ה בִּבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
1 And the children of Israel trespassed a trespass in the ban,
and Akan child of Carmi child of Zavdi child of Zerach of the branch of Judah took from the ban, and the anger of Yahweh burned among the children of Israel.
3c 4C 14
וַיִּשְׁלַח֩ יְהוֹשֻׁ֨עַ אֲנָשִׁ֜ים מִֽירִיח֗וֹ הָעַ֞י אֲשֶׁ֨ר עִם־בֵּ֥ית אָ֙וֶן֙ מִקֶּ֣דֶם לְבֵֽית־אֵ֔ל וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר עֲל֖וּ וְרַגְּל֣וּ אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וַֽיַּעֲלוּ֙ הָאֲנָשִׁ֔ים וַֽיְרַגְּל֖וּ אֶת־הָעָֽי
2 And Joshua sent men from Jericho to the Ai, that is beside Bethaven from the east of Bethel, and he said to them, saying, Go up and survey the land.
And the men went up and they surveyed the Ai.
3e 4C 44
וַיָּשֻׁ֣בוּ אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֗עַ וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ אֵלָיו֮ אַל־יַ֣עַל כָּל־הָעָם֒ כְּאַלְפַּ֣יִם אִ֗ישׁ א֚וֹ כִּשְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֣ים אִ֔ישׁ יַעֲל֖וּ וְיַכּ֣וּ אֶת־הָעָ֑י
אַל־תְּיַגַּע־שָׁ֙מָּה֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֔ם כִּ֥י מְעַ֖ט הֵֽמָּה
3 And they returned to Joshua and they said to him, Let not all the people go up. Let about two thousand men or three thousand men go up and strike the Ai.
Do not labour there with all the people, because they are few.
3e 4C 41
וַיַּעֲל֤וּ מִן־הָעָם֙ שָׁ֔מָּה כִּשְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֖ים אִ֑ישׁ
וַיָּנֻ֕סוּ לִפְנֵ֖י אַנְשֵׁ֥י הָעָֽי
4 So they went up there from the people about three thousand men,
and they withdrew before the soldiers of the Ai.
3e 4C 16
וַיַּכּ֨וּ מֵהֶ֜ם אַנְשֵׁ֣י הָעַ֗י כִּשְׁלֹשִׁ֤ים וְשִׁשָּׁה֙ אִ֔ישׁ וַֽיִּרְדְּפ֞וּם לִפְנֵ֤י הַשַּׁ֙עַר֙ עַד־הַשְּׁבָרִ֔ים וַיַּכּ֖וּם בַּמּוֹרָ֑ד
וַיִּמַּ֥ס לְבַב־הָעָ֖ם וַיְהִ֥י לְמָֽיִם
5 And the soldiers of the Ai struck them, about thirty six men, and pursued them before the gate to the Shattering, and they struck them as they went down.
And the heart of the people melted and it became as water.
3e 4C 35
וַיִּקְרַ֨ע יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ שִׂמְלֹתָ֗יו וַיִּפֹּל֩ עַל־פָּנָ֨יו אַ֜רְצָה לִפְנֵ֨י אֲר֤וֹן יְהוָה֙ עַד־הָעֶ֔רֶב ה֖וּא וְזִקְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיַּעֲל֥וּ עָפָ֖ר עַל־רֹאשָֽׁם
6 And Joshua ripped his habit, and he fell onto his face earthward before the ark of Yahweh till evening, he and the elders of Israel,
and brought up dust on their heads.
3e 4C 35
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ אֲהָ֣הּ ׀ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֗ה לָ֠מָה הֵעֲבַ֨רְתָּ הַעֲבִ֜יר אֶת־הָעָ֤ם הַזֶּה֙ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן לָתֵ֥ת אֹתָ֛נוּ בְּיַ֥ד הָאֱמֹרִ֖י לְהַאֲבִידֵ֑נוּ
וְלוּ֙ הוֹאַ֣לְנוּ וַנֵּ֔שֶׁב בְּעֵ֖בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּֽן
7 And Joshua said, Aye yai yai, my Lord Yahweh, why have you had this people cross over the Jordan to give us into the hand of the Amorites to have us perish?
And should we not have attempted and have settled across the Jordan?
3d 4C 49
בִּ֖י אֲדֹנָ֑י
מָ֣ה אֹמַ֔ר אַ֠חֲרֵי אֲשֶׁ֨ר הָפַ֧ךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל עֹ֖רֶף לִפְנֵ֥י אֹיְבָֽיו
8 g O my Lord,
What will I say after Israel turned tail before its enemies.
3c 4B 4
וְיִשְׁמְע֣וּ הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֗י וְכֹל֙ יֹשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ וְנָסַ֣בּוּ עָלֵ֔ינוּ וְהִכְרִ֥יתוּ אֶת־שְׁמֵ֖נוּ מִן־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וּמַֽה־תַּעֲשֵׂ֖ה לְשִׁמְךָ֥ הַגָּדֽוֹל
9 And the Canaanite will hear and all the inhabitants of the land, and they will surround us and cut off our name from the land,
and what will you do for your great name?
3e 4B 34
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר יְהוָ֛ה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ קֻ֣ם לָ֑ךְ
לָ֣מָּה זֶּ֔ה אַתָּ֖ה נֹפֵ֥ל עַל־פָּנֶֽיךָ
10 And Yahweh said to Joshua, Arise for yourself.
Why is it you are falling on your face?
3c 4B 12
חָטָא֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְגַם֙ עָבְר֣וּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּ֖יתִי אוֹתָ֑ם
וְגַ֤ם לָֽקְחוּ֙ מִן־הַחֵ֔רֶם וְגַ֤ם גָּֽנְבוּ֙ וְגַ֣ם כִּֽחֲשׁ֔וּ וְגַ֖ם שָׂ֥מוּ בִכְלֵיהֶֽם
11 Israel has sinned, and moreover they have crossed over my covenant that I commanded them,
and moreover they took from the ban, and moreover they have stolen, and moreover they have dissimulated, and moreover they have put it in their inner pouches.
3e 4C 20
וְלֹ֨א יֻכְל֜וּ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לָקוּם֙ לִפְנֵ֣י אֹיְבֵיהֶ֔ם עֹ֗רֶף יִפְנוּ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֔ם כִּ֥י הָי֖וּ לְחֵ֑רֶם
לֹ֤א אוֹסִיף֙ לִֽהְי֣וֹת עִמָּכֶ֔ם אִם־לֹ֥א תַשְׁמִ֛ידוּ הַחֵ֖רֶם מִֽקִּרְבְּכֶֽם
12 So the children of Israel were not able to arise before their enemies. They faced nape backwards, in the face of their enemies, because they were of the ban.
I will not again be with you if you do not exterminate the ban from within you.
3d 4C 31
קֻ֚ם קַדֵּ֣שׁ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וְאָמַרְתָּ֖ הִתְקַדְּשׁ֣וּ לְמָחָ֑ר
כִּ֣י כֹה֩ אָמַ֨ר יְהוָ֜ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל חֵ֤רֶם בְּקִרְבְּךָ֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹ֣א תוּכַ֗ל לָקוּם֙ לִפְנֵ֣י אֹיְבֶ֔יךָ עַד־הֲסִירְכֶ֥ם הַחֵ֖רֶם מִֽקִּרְבְּכֶֽם
13 C Arise. Sanctify the people. And you say, Sanctify yourselves for tomorrow.
For thus says Yahweh the God of Israel, A ban is among you. Israel will not be able to arise in the face of your enemies, until you put aside the ban from within you.
3e 4C 16
וְנִקְרַבְתֶּ֥ם בַּבֹּ֖קֶר לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶ֑ם
וְהָיָ֡ה הַשֵּׁבֶט֩ אֲשֶׁר־יִלְכְּדֶ֨נּוּ יְהוָ֜ה יִקְרַ֣ב לַמִּשְׁפָּח֗וֹת וְהַמִּשְׁפָּחָ֞ה אֲשֶֽׁר־יִלְכְּדֶ֤נָּה יְהוָה֙ תִּקְרַ֣ב לַבָּתִּ֔ים וְהַבַּ֙יִת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִלְכְּדֶ֣נּוּ יְהוָ֔ה יִקְרַ֖ב לַגְּבָרִֽים
14 So you will approach in the morning by your sceptres.
And it will happen that the sceptre that Yahweh conquers will approach by family, and the family that Yahweh conquers will approach by house, and the house that Yahweh conquers will approach by man of valour.
3e 4C 11
וְהָיָה֙ הַנִּלְכָּ֣ד בַּחֵ֔רֶם יִשָּׂרֵ֣ף בָּאֵ֔שׁ אֹת֖וֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֑וֹ
כִּ֤י עָבַר֙ אֶת־בְּרִ֣ית יְהוָ֔ה וְכִֽי־עָשָׂ֥ה נְבָלָ֖ה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל
15 And it will happen that he that is conquered with the ban will be incinerated in the fire, he and all that he has,
because he has crossed over the covenant of Yahweh, and because he has done senselessness in Israel.
3e 4C 22
וַיַּשְׁכֵּ֤ם יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ בַּבֹּ֔קֶר וַיַּקְרֵ֥ב אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לִשְׁבָטָ֑יו
וַיִּלָּכֵ֖ד שֵׁ֥בֶט יְהוּדָֽה
16 And Joshua rose up early in the morning, and he had Israel approach by its sceptres,
and he conquered the sceptre of Judah.
3e 4C 20
וַיַּקְרֵב֙ אֶת־מִשְׁפַּ֣חַת יְהוּדָ֔ה וַיִּלְכֹּ֕ד אֵ֖ת מִשְׁפַּ֣חַת הַזַּרְחִ֑י
וַיַּקְרֵ֞ב אֶת־מִשְׁפַּ֤חַת הַזַּרְחִי֙ לַגְּבָרִ֔ים וַיִּלָּכֵ֖ד זַבְדִּֽי
17 And he had the families of Judah approach and he conquered the family of the Zerachites,
and he had the family of the Zerachites approach by man of valour, and he conquered Zavdi.
3e 4C 20
וַיַּקְרֵ֥ב אֶת־בֵּית֖וֹ לַגְּבָרִ֑ים
וַיִּלָּכֵ֗ד עָכָ֞ן בֶּן־כַּרְמִ֧י בֶן־זַבְדִּ֛י בֶּן־זֶ֖רַח לְמַטֵּ֥ה יְהוּדָֽה
18 And he had his house approach by man of valour,
and he conquered Akan child of Carmi child of Zavdi child of Zerach of the branch of Judah.
3c 4A 9
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ אֶל־עָכָ֗ן בְּנִי֙ שִֽׂים־נָ֣א כָב֗וֹד לַֽיהוָ֛ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְתֶן־ל֣וֹ תוֹדָ֑ה
וְהַגֶּד־נָ֥א לִי֙ מֶ֣ה עָשִׂ֔יתָ אַל־תְּכַחֵ֖ד מִמֶּֽנִּי
19 And Joshua said to Akan, My son, render, if you will, the glory to Yahweh the God of Israel, and give him thanksgiving,
and tell me please what have you done. Do not conceal from me.
3d 4B 29
וַיַּ֧עַן עָכָ֛ן אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ וַיֹּאמַ֑ר
אָמְנָ֗ה אָנֹכִ֤י חָטָ֙אתִי֙ לַֽיהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְכָזֹ֥את וְכָזֹ֖את עָשִֽׂיתִי
20 And Akan answered Joshua and said, Truly I myself have sinned to Yahweh the God of Israel,
and like this and like this I have done.
3c 4C 13
וָאֵ֣רֶא בַשָּׁלָ֡ל אַדֶּ֣רֶת שִׁנְעָר֩ אַחַ֨ת טוֹבָ֜ה וּמָאתַ֧יִם שְׁקָלִ֣ים כֶּ֗סֶף וּלְשׁ֨וֹן זָהָ֤ב אֶחָד֙ חֲמִשִּׁ֤ים שְׁקָלִים֙ מִשְׁקָל֔וֹ וָֽאֶחְמְדֵ֖ם וָֽאֶקָּחֵ֑ם
וְהִנָּ֨ם טְמוּנִ֥ים בָּאָ֛רֶץ בְּת֥וֹךְ הָאָֽהֳלִ֖י וְהַכֶּ֥סֶף תַּחְתֶּֽיהָ
21 And I saw in the spoil, one good majestic cape of Shinar, two hundred shekels of silver, and one tongue of gold, fifty shekels its weight, and I coveted them and I took them,
and behold them buried in the earth in the midst of my tent, and the silver is under it.
3c 4C 46
וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ מַלְאָכִ֔ים וַיָּרֻ֖צוּ הָאֹ֑הֱלָה
וְהִנֵּ֧ה טְמוּנָ֛ה בְּאָהֳל֖וֹ וְהַכֶּ֥סֶף תַּחְתֶּֽיהָ
22 And Joshua sent messengers and they raced towards the tent,
and behold, it was buried in his tent and the silver under it.
3c 4C 18
וַיִּקָּחוּם֙ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הָאֹ֔הֶל וַיְבִאוּם֙ אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ וְאֶ֖ל כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיַּצִּקֻ֖ם לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה
23 And they took them away from the midst of the tent and brought them to Joshua and to all the children of Israel,
and dumped them out in the presence of Yahweh.
3e 4B 25
וַיִּקַּ֣ח יְהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ אֶת־עָכָ֣ן בֶּן־זֶ֡רַח וְאֶת־הַכֶּ֣סֶף וְאֶת־הָאַדֶּ֣רֶת וְֽאֶת־לְשׁ֣וֹן הַזָּהָ֡ב וְֽאֶת־בָּנָ֡יו וְֽאֶת־בְּנֹתָ֡יו וְאֶת־שׁוֹרוֹ֩ וְאֶת־חֲמֹר֨וֹ וְאֶת־צֹאנ֤וֹ וְאֶֽת־אָהֳלוֹ֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֔וֹ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עִמּ֑וֹ
וַיַּעֲל֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם עֵ֥מֶק עָכֽוֹר
24 And Joshua took Akan child of Zerach and the silver and the majestic cape and the tongue of gold, and his sons and his daughters, and his bull and his ass and his sheep, and his tent and all that he had, and all Israel with him,
and brought them up the valley of agitation.
3e 4C 71
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ מֶ֣ה עֲכַרְתָּ֔נוּ יַעְכֳּרְךָ֥ יְהוָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה
וַיִּרְגְּמ֨וּ אֹת֤וֹ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶ֔בֶן וַיִּשְׂרְפ֤וּ אֹתָם֙ בָּאֵ֔שׁ וַיִּסְקְל֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם בָּאֲבָנִֽים
25 And Joshua said, Why have you agitated us? Yahweh will agitate you on this day.
And all Israel crowded him with a stone, and they cremated them in the fire and they engulfed them with stones.
3e 4C 21
וַיָּקִ֨ימוּ עָלָ֜יו גַּל־אֲבָנִ֣ים גָּד֗וֹל עַ֚ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה וַיָּ֥שָׁב יְהוָ֖ה מֵחֲר֣וֹן אַפּ֑וֹ
עַל־כֵּ֠ן קָרָ֞א שֵׁ֣ם הַמָּק֤וֹם הַהוּא֙ עֵ֣מֶק עָכ֔וֹר עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה
26 And they placed over him a rubble of great stones to this day, and Yahweh turned from his fierce anger.
Therefore he called the name of that place, the valley of Agitation to this day.
3e 4C 27

There is a clear repetition here of 'the ban', the 'utter destruction' that is required of Israel. In this case it is the ban within themselves that must be destroyed. I emphasize this because the way the traditional translations read, you would think the 'whatever it is that is bad' is only in 'the enemy' or an infection caused by and from the enemy. This is to misread the story. And to misread, unfortunately, is also to mishear and therefore to take the wrong actions in moral self-righteousness. I'm all right, Jack. Thanks very much. It's the others who are the problem.

I am not sure this will solve my problem with the book, but it will mitigate it temporarily as I work my way through the patterns of narrative. Then I can conveniently leave this valley of agitation and forget about it again.

Idiom: two expressions are used to which we might use the words: they turned tail.
Verse 8: אַ֠חֲרֵי אֲשֶׁ֨ר הָפַ֧ךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל עֹ֖רֶף לִפְנֵ֥י אֹיְבָֽיו
after - that - changed - Israel - nape - in the face of - its enemies,

I.e. after Israel turned tail ... But the word isn't tail but the nape of the neck, and it isn't turn either. Then in
verse 12: עֹ֗רֶף יִפְנוּ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֔ם
nape they faced in the face of their enemies (reading word by word backwards).

The verb for face פנה is the same word as the preposition before, or the expression in the face or presence of. Both Hebrew phrases above use nape. Two related English idioms - are there such? I might need to coin one.

But no one in guilt can face an enemy. Isn't that our problem in a nutshell?

Choosing English glosses is both an art and an accident. Another common word in Joshua is עבר, to cross over. In English we could use as a synonym the Latin equivalent transgress, but I have already decided to use transgress for another stem (פשׁע). In fact tradition uses transgress for this Hebrew stem פשׁע also. That breaks my rules. I don't mind breaking my rules for literary or idiomatic reasons, for acrostic reasons, or word games, but for this word, so tightly tied to the concept of sin, I cannot let myself be careless. So you will find I use cross over in the current context. I was going to use interfere, but to do that is to interfere with the word play here.

פשׁע is part of the domain of sin, עבר is generally not part if this domain. Why would one or two uses be sufficient to create a synonym? I don't want to lose the impact of the direct crossing of Yahweh that is described here. (Whether I like this story or not.)

My current domain of sin has many stems and the main synonyms of sin are all present: אשׁם offense, חטא sin, מעל trespass, עון iniquity, פשׁע transgression, and so far I haven't mixed them up with any other stems than these. I have no compunction about translating with these words. The fact of sin and evil pervasive within humanity is one of the most obvious observable facts of life. (Wonder, beauty,and persistence are others.)

The language pointers for dealing with sin are to turn to a power that is good and greater than the power in us that is against us. This is embedded in the word שוב, turn, return. I don't think the English repent gets this idea so I have not used that word. Equally I have not used punish for a similar reason: the consequences of sin are implicit in themselves. They do not require an agent of punishment. Also I have not used soul since the religious associations with this word are incommensurate with the very physical and tangible usage of נפשׁ.

This raises other questions of course like common concepts of justice, payment, and so on. Justice and judgment are part of my vocabulary. So are payment, ransom and so on. But Psalm 49 is clear here: no one can pay his or her own ransom or the ransom of anyone else. Something equally incommensurate is required here. It is in the Old Testament as it is in the New. It has to be a gift. It has to be outside ourselves. I.e. it has to be greater than any human construction or organization, family, community, religion, ideology, nation, or domination. We cannot hear the problem with confused language.

On the gloss front, I do have a problem with words like turn. Turn turns up in all sorts of places. It is like go, put, take, set, come, bring. Many Hebrew stems have these simple concepts as part of their usage. It has been impossible to follow my non-overlap rules in several cases. The places where I let my rules be broken are explicit in the data accumulating within my database. I.e. I can report on them, and control them more tightly or loosely as I proceed.

Sunday, October 15, 2017

Deuteronomy 18

After listing all the things Yahweh does not want from the people, the text is simply this: Complete you will be with Yahweh your God.

Remember how important that word complete was in the Psalms. תם is The End for a film. To be complete in the mystery of God is our end, our tam. Is such a thing the bootstrap of humanity, such that if we threw it out, the software wouldn't even start functioning? We don't have magic, or fate, or special knowledge, but some form of determination that goes by various names, all of which may be misleading. One hopes it is possible for us to function together. Is this microcosm of the ancient world an adequate canon?

How remarkable it is that we have following this succinct summary of faith, the promise of a prophet like Moses. And the invocation of the fear of seeing and hearing God directly. Fathom it. The people refuse to hear and see omnipotence directly. Well done, says the unknowable Power.

Deuteronomy 18 Fn Min Max Syll
לֹֽא־יִ֠הְיֶה לַכֹּהֲנִ֨ים הַלְוִיִּ֜ם כָּל־שֵׁ֧בֶט לֵוִ֛י חֵ֥לֶק וְנַחֲלָ֖ה עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
אִשֵּׁ֧י יְהוָ֛ה וְנַחֲלָת֖וֹ יֹאכֵלֽוּן
1 There will not be for the priests, the Levites, all the band of Levi, a share or inheritance with Israel.
The offerings by fire of Yahweh, and his inheritance, they will eat.
3c 4A 25
וְנַחֲלָ֥ה לֹא־יִֽהְיֶה־לּ֖וֹ בְּקֶ֣רֶב אֶחָ֑יו
יְהוָה֙ ה֣וּא נַחֲלָת֔וֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּר־לֽוֹ
2 So there will not be inheritance for him among his kin.
Yahweh, he is his inheritance, as he spoke to him.
3e 4B 13
וְזֶ֡ה יִהְיֶה֩ מִשְׁפַּ֨ט הַכֹּהֲנִ֜ים מֵאֵ֣ת הָעָ֗ם מֵאֵ֛ת זֹבְחֵ֥י הַזֶּ֖בַח אִם־שׁ֣וֹר אִם־שֶׂ֑ה
וְנָתַן֙ לַכֹּהֵ֔ן הַזְּרֹ֥עַ וְהַלְּחָיַ֖יִם וְהַקֵּבָֽה
3 And this will be judgment for the priests from the people, from the offerings of the sacrifice, whether bull or lamb,
and they will give for the priest the shank and the two cheeks and the viscera.
3d 4B 25
רֵאשִׁ֨ית דְּגָֽנְךָ֜ תִּֽירֹשְׁךָ֣ וְיִצְהָרֶ֗ךָ וְרֵאשִׁ֛ית גֵּ֥ז צֹאנְךָ֖ תִּתֶּן־לּֽוֹ 4 The first of your grain, your new wine, and your fresh oil,
and the first of the fleece of your flock, you will give him.
3d 4B 22
כִּ֣י ב֗וֹ בָּחַ֛ר יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מִכָּל־שְׁבָטֶ֑יךָ
לַעֲמֹ֨ד לְשָׁרֵ֧ת בְּשֵׁם־יְהוָ֛ה ה֥וּא וּבָנָ֖יו כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים
5 B For in him Yahweh your God has chosen from all your bands,
to stand to minister in the name of Yahweh, he and his children, every day.
3c 4B 16
וְכִֽי־יָבֹ֨א הַלֵּוִ֜י מֵאַחַ֤ד שְׁעָרֶ֙יךָ֙ מִכָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־ה֖וּא גָּ֣ר שָׁ֑ם
וּבָא֙ בְּכָל־אַוַּ֣ת נַפְשׁ֔וֹ אֶל־הַמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֥ר יְהוָֽה
6 And when the Levite comes from one of your gates from all Israel where they reside,
and he comes in every intense desire of his very self to the place where Yahweh will choose,
3e 4C 23
וְשֵׁרֵ֕ת בְּשֵׁ֖ם יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֑יו
כְּכָל־אֶחָיו֙ הַלְוִיִּ֔ם הָעֹמְדִ֥ים שָׁ֖ם לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה
7 He will minister in the name of Yahweh his God,
as all his kin, the Levites, those standing there before Yahweh.
3e 4B 10
חֵ֥לֶק כְּחֵ֖לֶק יֹאכֵ֑לוּ
לְבַ֥ד מִמְכָּרָ֖יו עַל־הָאָבֽוֹת
8 f Share as share they will eat,
besides what is from the revenue concerning the fathers.
3e 4A 8
כִּ֤י אַתָּה֙ בָּ֣א אֶל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֣ן לָ֑ךְ
לֹֽא־תִלְמַ֣ד לַעֲשׂ֔וֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹ֖ת הַגּוֹיִ֥ם הָהֵֽם
9 C When you have come into the land that Yahweh your God is giving to you,
you will not learn to do according to the abominations of those nations.
3e 4C 19
לֹֽא־יִמָּצֵ֣א בְךָ֔ מַעֲבִ֥יר בְּנֽוֹ־וּבִתּ֖וֹ בָּאֵ֑שׁ
קֹסֵ֣ם קְסָמִ֔ים מְעוֹנֵ֥ן וּמְנַחֵ֖שׁ וּמְכַשֵּֽׁף
10 Not will be found among you those who make his son or his daughter pass in the fire,
soothsaying of soothsayers, fortunetellers, or augury, or sorcery,
3e 4B 14
וְחֹבֵ֖ר חָ֑בֶר
וְשֹׁאֵ֥ל אוֹב֙ וְיִדְּעֹנִ֔י וְדֹרֵ֖שׁ אֶל־הַמֵּתִֽים
11 Or a charmer of charms,
or an inquirer of necromancy, or those who know or search out to the dead.
3e 4A 5
כִּֽי־תוֹעֲבַ֥ת יְהוָ֖ה כָּל־עֹ֣שֵׂה אֵ֑לֶּה
וּבִגְלַל֙ הַתּוֹעֵבֹ֣ת הָאֵ֔לֶּה יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ מוֹרִ֥ישׁ אוֹתָ֖ם מִפָּנֶֽיךָ
12 For an abomination to Yahweh are all doing these things.
For in rolling with these abominations, Yahweh your God is dispossessing them from your presence.
3e 4B 10
תָּמִ֣ים תִּֽהְיֶ֔ה עִ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ 13 Complete you will be with Yahweh your God. 3e 4B 11
כִּ֣י ׀ הַגּוֹיִ֣ם הָאֵ֗לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתָּה֙ יוֹרֵ֣שׁ אוֹתָ֔ם אֶל־מְעֹנְנִ֥ים וְאֶל־קֹסְמִ֖ים יִשְׁמָ֑עוּ
וְאַתָּ֕ה לֹ֣א כֵ֔ן נָ֛תַן לְךָ֖ יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ
14 B For these nations whom you will possess, to fortunetellers and to soothsayers heeded,
but you, not so did Yahweh your God permit you.
3d 4C 26
נָבִ֨יא מִקִּרְבְּךָ֤ מֵאַחֶ֙יךָ֙ כָּמֹ֔נִי יָקִ֥ים לְךָ֖ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ
אֵלָ֖יו תִּשְׁמָעֽוּן
15 A prophet from within you, from your kin, like me, Yahweh your God will raise up for you.
To him you will pay heed.
3e 4C 23
כְּכֹ֨ל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁאַ֜לְתָּ מֵעִ֨ם יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ בְּחֹרֵ֔ב בְּי֥וֹם הַקָּהָ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר
לֹ֣א אֹסֵ֗ף לִשְׁמֹ֙עַ֙ אֶת־קוֹל֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֔י וְאֶת־הָאֵ֨שׁ הַגְּדֹלָ֥ה הַזֹּ֛את לֹֽא־אֶרְאֶ֥ה ע֖וֹד וְלֹ֥א אָמֽוּת
16 Everything that you have asked from Yahweh your God at Horeb, in the day of the congregation saying,
Not again let me hear the voice of Yahweh my God, nor let me see this great fire any longer, and I will not die.
3d 4C 25
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהוָ֖ה אֵלָ֑י
הֵיטִ֖יבוּ אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֵּֽרוּ
17 And Yahweh said to me,
They have done well in what they have spoken.
3e 4A 7
נָבִ֨יא אָקִ֥ים לָהֶ֛ם מִקֶּ֥רֶב אֲחֵיהֶ֖ם כָּמ֑וֹךָ
וְנָתַתִּ֤י דְבָרַי֙ בְּפִ֔יו וְדִבֶּ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם אֵ֖ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲצַוֶּֽנּוּ
18 A prophet I will raise up for them from within their kin like you,
and I will give my word in his mouth, and he will speak to them all that I command him.
3d 4C 15
וְהָיָ֗ה הָאִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־יִשְׁמַע֙ אֶל־דְּבָרַ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְדַבֵּ֖ר בִּשְׁמִ֑י
אָנֹכִ֖י אֶדְרֹ֥שׁ מֵעִמּֽוֹ
19 And it will be that the person that not will hear my word that he speaks in my name,
I myself will search out in him.
3e 4C 21
אַ֣ךְ הַנָּבִ֡יא אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָזִיד֩ לְדַבֵּ֨ר דָּבָ֜ר בִּשְׁמִ֗י אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־צִוִּיתִיו֙ לְדַבֵּ֔ר וַאֲשֶׁ֣ר יְדַבֵּ֔ר בְּשֵׁ֖ם אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֑ים
וּמֵ֖ת הַנָּבִ֥יא הַהֽוּא
20 B But the prophet that presumes to speak a word in my name that I not have commanded it to speak, or that speaks in the name of other gods,
that prophet will die.
3e 4C 38
וְכִ֥י תֹאמַ֖ר בִּלְבָבֶ֑ךָ
אֵיכָה֙ נֵדַ֣ע אֶת־הַדָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־דִבְּר֖וֹ יְהוָֽה
21 And if you say in your heart,
How do we know the word that Yahweh has not spoken?
3e 4B 8
אֲשֶׁר֩ יְדַבֵּ֨ר הַנָּבִ֜יא בְּשֵׁ֣ם יְהוָ֗ה וְלֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֤ה הַדָּבָר֙ וְלֹ֣א יָב֔וֹא ה֣וּא הַדָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־דִבְּר֖וֹ יְהוָ֑ה
בְּזָדוֹן֙ דִּבְּר֣וֹ הַנָּבִ֔יא לֹ֥א תָג֖וּר מִמֶּֽנּוּ
22 The prophet that speaks in the name of Yahweh and the matter does not happen or does not come, this is the word that Yahweh has not spoken.
With presumption the prophet has spoken it. You will not be in awe of him.
3e 4C 34

Saturday, October 14, 2017

Leviticus 7

We are ploughing through Leviticus because there is a great deal of internal repetition in this operations manual for the temple sacrifices. Every time we do a chapter, it stimulates the guesswork in others. As I start chapter 7, the chapters remaining to do in Leviticus range from 54% (chapter 6) to 27% done (chapter 13). Hmm, why is chapter 13 so different? It's very long. As the work progresses, it will be interesting to see how these chapters translate themselves.

Here's the state before starting chapter 7 (which was 57% guessed to start.)
Ch     Verses % guessed
6 23 54%
14 57 53%
15 33 53%
19 37 53%
5 26 51%
20 27 50%
18 30 48%
11 47 45%
12 8 45%
2 16 45%
27 34 37%
25 55 34%
26 46 34%
13 59 27%

When chapter 7 was at 75%, chapter 14 edged up above chapter 6, and chapter 5 edged up 1% also.
After finishing chapter 7, here are the results. Chapter 13 did not budge much. Chapter 19 moved up 2% as did chapter 5. I note in passing that chapter 19 has 6 times (42) the number of negatives in it compared with chapter 7 (7).
Ch Verses % guessed
19 37 55%
14 57 54%
6 23 54%
15 33 53%
5 26 53%
20 27 50%
18 30 48%
2 16 46%
11 47 45%
12 8 45%
27 34 37%
25 55 34%
26 46 34%
13 59 28%
So there is some additional overlap in phrasing in the remaining chapters compared with chapter 7. And that long chapter 13 is still way down the list. The total of guessed words was slightly higher by 1000 additional words after this chapter (about 500 words) was done.

Once I have decided on glosses, looking at the overall sense and each Hebrew word (which is often a phrase), I manipulate the glosses as little as possible when I form the verse so that the notes and ornaments for the Hebrew in the music will sit as closely as possible on the same words in English as they do in Hebrew. I have only consolidated this strategy over the last 2 years. Translations from the first 10 years of this project are still very close to Hebrew word order because that was always part of my intention and I have always respected the major cadences in the verses.

Word order suggests emphasis that might otherwise be missed. Some verses need no adjustment whatsoever. Verses 1 to 4 below required no word order adjustment. Verses 5 to 8 hardly any. Verse 13 gets a mangled word order in most translations. Simplest is best.

Certain offerings (מלא) have the role of fulfillment. This is translated as consecration (נזר) by some. It relates, I think, to the filling the hand of the priest. I.e. giving them a means of sustenance.

Leviticus 7 Fn Min Max Syll
וְזֹ֥את תּוֹרַ֖ת הָאָשָׁ֑ם
קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים הֽוּא
1 And this is the instruction for the guilt offering.
Holy of holy things it is.
3e 4A 7
בִּמְק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִשְׁחֲטוּ֙ אֶת־הָ֣עֹלָ֔ה יִשְׁחֲט֖וּ אֶת־הָאָשָׁ֑ם
וְאֶת־דָּמ֛וֹ יִזְרֹ֥ק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב
2 In the place where they butcher the burnt offering, they will butcher the guilt offering,
and its blood he will dash on the altar round about.
3d 4C 18
וְאֵ֥ת כָּל־חֶלְבּ֖וֹ יַקְרִ֣יב מִמֶּ֑נּוּ
אֵ֚ת הָֽאַלְיָ֔ה וְאֶת־הַחֵ֖לֶב הַֽמְכַסֶּ֥ה אֶת־הַקֶּֽרֶב
3 And all its gross fat he will bring near from it,
the rump and the gross fat covering the entrails.
3e 4C 10
וְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֙לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵיהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים
וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֙רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָיֹ֖ת יְסִירֶֽנָּה
4 And the two kidneys, and the gross fat that is on them that is by the hips,
and the caudate lobe over the liver with the kidneys, he will put it aside.
3e 4B 23
וְהִקְטִ֨יר אֹתָ֤ם הַכֹּהֵן֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַיהוָ֑ה
אָשָׁ֖ם הֽוּא
5 And the priest will make them burn with smoke toward the altar.
An offering by fire to Yahweh, a guilt offering it is.
3e 4C 16
כָּל־זָכָ֥ר בַּכֹּהֲנִ֖ים יֹאכְלֶ֑נּוּ
בְּמָק֤וֹם קָדוֹשׁ֙ יֵאָכֵ֔ל קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים הֽוּא
6 Every male among the priests will eat of it.
In the holy place it will be eaten. Holy of holy things it is.
3e 4C 10
כַּֽחַטָּאת֙ כָּֽאָשָׁ֔ם תּוֹרָ֥ה אַחַ֖ת לָהֶ֑ם
הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְכַפֶּר־בּ֖וֹ ל֥וֹ יִהְיֶֽה
7 As the sin offering, as the guilt offering, one instruction for them.
The priest who makes the cover-offering for it, his it is.
3d 4A 12
וְהַ֨כֹּהֵ֔ן הַמַּקְרִ֖יב אֶת־עֹ֣לַת אִ֑ישׁ
ע֤וֹר הָֽעֹלָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִקְרִ֔יב לַכֹּהֵ֖ן ל֥וֹ יִהְיֶֽה
8 And the priest, who brought near burnt offerings of each,
the skin of the burnt offering that was brought near for the priest, his it is.
3e 4C 11
וְכָל־מִנְחָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר תֵּֽאָפֶה֙ בַּתַּנּ֔וּר וְכָל־נַעֲשָׂ֥ה בַמַּרְחֶ֖שֶׁת וְעַֽל־מַחֲבַ֑ת
לַכֹּהֵ֛ן הַמַּקְרִ֥יב אֹתָ֖הּ ל֥וֹ תִֽהְיֶֽה
9 And every gift that is baked in an oven, and all made by stirring and on a pan,
for the priest who brought it near, his it will be.
3d 4C 26
וְכָל־מִנְחָ֥ה בְלוּלָֽה־בַשֶּׁ֖מֶן וַחֲרֵבָ֑ה
לְכָל־בְּנֵ֧י אַהֲרֹ֛ן תִּהְיֶ֖ה אִ֥ישׁ כְּאָחִֽיו
10 And every a gift mingled with oil or drained,
for all the children of Aaron it will be, each as its kin.
3c 4A 14
וְזֹ֥את תּוֹרַ֖ת זֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים
אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַקְרִ֖יב לַיהוָֽה
11 And this is the instruction for an offering of the peace offerings,
which he will bring near for Yahweh.
3e 4B 9
אִ֣ם עַל־תּוֹדָה֮ יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ֒ וְהִקְרִ֣יב ׀ עַל־זֶ֣בַח הַתּוֹדָ֗ה חַלּ֤וֹת מַצּוֹת֙ בְּלוּלֹ֣ת בַּשֶּׁ֔מֶן וּרְקִיקֵ֥י מַצּ֖וֹת מְשֻׁחִ֣ים בַּשָּׁ֑מֶן
וְסֹ֣לֶת מֻרְבֶּ֔כֶת חַלֹּ֖ת בְּלוּלֹ֥ת בַּשָּֽׁמֶן
12 B If for thanksgiving he will bring it near, then let him bring near concerning an offering of thanksgiving, cakes of unleavened bread mingled with oil, and wafers of unleavened bread anointed with oil,
and fried fine flour cakes mingled with oil.
3e 4C 38
עַל־חַלֹּת֙ לֶ֣חֶם חָמֵ֔ץ יַקְרִ֖יב קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ
עַל־זֶ֖בַח תּוֹדַ֥ת שְׁלָמָֽיו
13 With cakes of leavened bread, he will bring near his oblation,
with the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offerings.
3e 4B 12
וְהִקְרִ֨יב מִמֶּ֤נּוּ אֶחָד֙ מִכָּל־קָרְבָּ֔ן תְּרוּמָ֖ה לַיהוָ֑ה
לַכֹּהֵ֗ן הַזֹּרֵ֛ק אֶת־דַּ֥ם הַשְּׁלָמִ֖ים ל֥וֹ יִהְיֶֽה
14 And he will bring near from it one from the whole oblation, a contribution for Yahweh,
for the priest who dashes the blood of the peace offerings. His it is.
3d 4C 17
וּבְשַׂ֗ר זֶ֚בַח תּוֹדַ֣ת שְׁלָמָ֔יו בְּי֥וֹם קָרְבָּנ֖וֹ יֵאָכֵ֑ל
לֹֽא־יַנִּ֥יחַ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עַד־בֹּֽקֶר
15 And the flesh of the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offerings, on the day of its oblation, it will be eaten.
He will not leave from it until morning.
3e 4C 17
וְאִם־נֶ֣דֶר ׀ א֣וֹ נְדָבָ֗ה זֶ֚בַח קָרְבָּנ֔וֹ בְּי֛וֹם הַקְרִיב֥וֹ אֶת־זִבְח֖וֹ יֵאָכֵ֑ל
וּמִֽמָּחֳרָ֔ת וְהַנּוֹתָ֥ר מִמֶּ֖נּוּ יֵאָכֵֽל
16 And if a vow or a freewill offering is the offering of his oblation, on the day they bring near his offering, it will be eaten,
and on the morrow, when the remainder from it will be eaten.
3d 4C 24
וְהַנּוֹתָ֖ר מִבְּשַׂ֣ר הַזָּ֑בַח
בַּיּוֹם֙ הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֔י בָּאֵ֖שׁ יִשָּׂרֵֽף
17 And the remainder of the flesh of the sacrifice,
on the third day in the fire will be incinerated.
3e 4B 9
וְאִ֣ם הֵאָכֹ֣ל יֵ֠אָכֵל מִבְּשַׂר־זֶ֨בַח שְׁלָמָ֜יו בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי֮ לֹ֣א יֵרָצֶה֒ הַמַּקְרִ֣יב אֹת֗וֹ לֹ֧א יֵחָשֵׁ֛ב ל֖וֹ פִּגּ֣וּל יִהְיֶ֑ה
וְהַנֶּ֛פֶשׁ הָאֹכֶ֥לֶת מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עֲוֺנָ֥הּ תִּשָּֽׂא
18 And if to be eaten, the flesh of an offering of his peace offerings is eaten on the third day, it will be not accepted. It will not be considered his who brought it near. Fetid it is,
and the self that eats from it, its iniquity will bear.
3c 4B 38
וְהַבָּשָׂ֞ר אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּ֤ע בְּכָל־טָמֵא֙ לֹ֣א יֵֽאָכֵ֔ל בָּאֵ֖שׁ יִשָּׂרֵ֑ף
וְהַ֨בָּשָׂ֔ר כָּל־טָה֖וֹר יֹאכַ֥ל בָּשָֽׂר
19 And the flesh that touches anything unclean will not be eaten. In the fire it will be incinerated.
And the flesh, all who are clean will eat of flesh.
3e 4C 21
וְהַנֶּ֜פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאכַ֣ל בָּשָׂ֗ר מִזֶּ֤בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לַיהוָ֔ה וְטֻמְאָת֖וֹ עָלָ֑יו
וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵעַמֶּֽיהָ
20 But the self that eats the flesh of the sacrifice of the peace offerings which are to Yahweh, and his uncleanness is over him,
then that very self will be cut off from its people.
3d 4C 26
וְנֶ֜פֶשׁ כִּֽי־תִגַּ֣ע בְּכָל־טָמֵ֗א בְּטֻמְאַ֤ת אָדָם֙ א֣וֹ ׀ בִּבְהֵמָ֣ה טְמֵאָ֗ה א֚וֹ בְּכָל־שֶׁ֣קֶץ טָמֵ֔א וְאָכַ֛ל מִבְּשַׂר־זֶ֥בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר לַיהוָ֑ה
וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵעַמֶּֽיהָ
21 And the self that touches anything unclean in the uncleanness of a human, or in the unclean beast, or in any detestable uncleanness, or has eaten from the flesh of an offering of the peace offerings which are for Yahweh,
this very self will be cut off from its people.
3d 4C 42
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 22 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
דַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר
כָּל־חֵ֜לֶב שׁ֥וֹר וְכֶ֛שֶׂב וָעֵ֖ז לֹ֥א תֹאכֵֽלוּ
23 Speak to the children of Israel, saying,
All gross fat of a bull or young lamb or she-goat, you will not eat.
3d 4A 10
וְחֵ֤לֶב נְבֵלָה֙ וְחֵ֣לֶב טְרֵפָ֔ה יֵעָשֶׂ֖ה לְכָל־מְלָאכָ֑ה
וְאָכֹ֖ל לֹ֥א תֹאכְלֻֽהוּ
24 And the gross fat of a corpse, and the gross fat of prey may be used for any line of work,
but eating, you will not eat of it.
3e 4C 20
כִּ֚י כָּל־אֹכֵ֣ל חֵ֔לֶב מִן־הַ֨בְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַקְרִ֥יב מִמֶּ֛נָּה אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַיהוָ֑ה
וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הָאֹכֶ֖לֶת מֵֽעַמֶּֽיהָ
25 C If anyone eats gross fat from the beast that he brings near from an offering by fire to Yahweh,
then the very self who eats will be cut off from its people.
3d 4C 21
וְכָל־דָּם֙ לֹ֣א תֹאכְל֔וּ בְּכֹ֖ל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶ֑ם
לָע֖וֹף וְלַבְּהֵמָֽה
26 And all blood, you will not eat in all your settlements,
of a fowl or of a beast.
3e 4B 12
כָּל־נֶ֖פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאכַ֣ל כָּל־דָּ֑ם
וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵֽעַמֶּֽיהָ
27 Any self that eats any blood,
this very self will be cut off from its people.
3d 4B 9
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 28 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
דַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר
הַמַּקְרִ֞יב אֶת־זֶ֤בַח שְׁלָמָיו֙ לַיהוָ֔ה יָבִ֧יא אֶת־קָרְבָּנ֛וֹ לַיהוָ֖ה מִזֶּ֥בַח שְׁלָמָֽיו
29 Speak to the children of Israel saying,
The one who brings near the offering of his peace offerings for Yahweh, will bring his oblation for Yahweh, the sacrifice of his peace offerings.
3c 4C 10
יָדָ֣יו תְּבִיאֶ֔ינָה אֵ֖ת אִשֵּׁ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
אֶת־הַחֵ֤לֶב עַל־הֶֽחָזֶה֙ יְבִיאֶ֔נּוּ אֵ֣ת הֶחָזֶ֗ה לְהָנִ֥יף אֹת֛וֹ תְּנוּפָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה
30 His hands will bring the offerings by fire of Yahweh.
The gross fat over the torso, he will bring it with the torso, for its elevation, a wave offering in the presence of Yahweh.
3d 4C 11
וְהִקְטִ֧יר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־הַחֵ֖לֶב הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה
וְהָיָה֙ הֶֽחָזֶ֔ה לְאַהֲרֹ֖ן וּלְבָנָֽיו
31 And the priest will make the gross fat burn with smoke toward the altar,
and the torso will be for Aaron and for his children.
3c 4A 14
וְאֵת֙ שׁ֣וֹק הַיָּמִ֔ין תִּתְּנ֥וּ תְרוּמָ֖ה לַכֹּהֵ֑ן
מִזִּבְחֵ֖י שַׁלְמֵיכֶֽם
32 And the right leg you will give, a contribution for the priest,
from the altar of your peace offerings.
3e 4B 14
הַמַּקְרִ֞יב אֶת־דַּ֧ם הַשְּׁלָמִ֛ים וְאֶת־הַחֵ֖לֶב מִבְּנֵ֣י אַהֲרֹ֑ן
ל֧וֹ תִהְיֶ֛ה שׁ֥וֹק הַיָּמִ֖ין לְמָנָֽה
33 The one who brings near the blood of the peace offerings and the gross fat among the children of Aaron,
the right leg will be his for a portion.
3c 4B 18
כִּי֩ אֶת־חֲזֵ֨ה הַתְּנוּפָ֜ה וְאֵ֣ת ׀ שׁ֣וֹק הַתְּרוּמָ֗ה לָקַ֙חְתִּי֙ מֵאֵ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מִזִּבְחֵ֖י שַׁלְמֵיהֶ֑ם
וָאֶתֵּ֣ן אֹ֠תָם לְאַהֲרֹ֨ן הַכֹּהֵ֤ן וּלְבָנָיו֙ לְחָק־עוֹלָ֔ם מֵאֵ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
34 For the torso of the wave offering, and the leg of the contribution, I have taken from the children of Israel from the altar of their peace offerings,
and I have assigned them for Aaron the priest and for his children as a statute forever from the children of Israel.
3e 4C 29
זֹ֣את מִשְׁחַ֤ת אַהֲרֹן֙ וּמִשְׁחַ֣ת בָּנָ֔יו מֵאִשֵּׁ֖י יְהוָ֑ה
בְּיוֹם֙ הִקְרִ֣יב אֹתָ֔ם לְכַהֵ֖ן לַיהוָֽה
35 B This is the anointing of Aaron and the anointing of his children from the fire of Yahweh,
in the day they were brought near to serve as priests for Yahweh,
3e 4C 16
אֲשֶׁר֩ צִוָּ֨ה יְהוָ֜ה לָתֵ֣ת לָהֶ֗ם בְּיוֹם֙ מָשְׁח֣וֹ אֹתָ֔ם מֵאֵ֖ת בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם לְדֹרֹתָֽם
36 Which Yahweh commanded to give for them on the day of his anointing them from the children of Israel,
a statute forever for their generations.
3e 4B 23
זֹ֣את הַתּוֹרָ֗ה לָֽעֹלָה֙ לַמִּנְחָ֔ה וְלַֽחַטָּ֖את וְלָאָשָׁ֑ם
וְלַ֨מִּלּוּאִ֔ים וּלְזֶ֖בַח הַשְּׁלָמִֽים
37 B This is the instruction for a burnt offering, for a gift, and for a sin offering, and for a guilt offering,
and for the fulfillments, and for the sacrifices of the peace offerings,
3e 4B 18
אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֖ה בְּהַ֣ר סִינָ֑י
בְּי֨וֹם צַוֺּת֜וֹ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לְהַקְרִ֧יב אֶת־קָרְבְּנֵיהֶ֛ם לַיהוָ֖ה בְּמִדְבַּ֥ר סִינָֽי
38 Which Yahweh commanded Moses on mount Sinai,
on the day he commanded the children of Israel to bring near their oblations for Yahweh in the wilderness of Sinai.
3c 4B 13