Friday, December 8, 2017

Leviticus 18

It is not surprising that Leviticus 18 would be 60% guessed after Leviticus 20 was done. It should have been higher but I had some confusion in the stems of chapter 18. After sorting this out I see that the two chapters share 80% of their words.

The subjects are similar and they surround Leviticus 19. [Not the middle chapter of this middle book. I mistakenly thought there were 37 chapters in Leviticus - but I am thankful there are only 27. There are 37 verses in chapter 19 which I was working on at that confused time.] Nonetheless, circular structures like this abound as a feature of Biblical literature.

The first thing I noted when reading the beginning of this chapter (v 5) is the use of a 6 word phrase that we found in Ezekiel 20. (אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה אוֹתָ֛ם הָאָדָ֖ם וָחַ֥י בָּהֶֽם The human that does them will live in them.)

Verse 6 is contorted. The Hebrew word order is very awkward in English. This is because it is more 'natural' (and when was my English ever such?) to phrase it in the negative. And it is third personal indirect speech and then suddenly switches to a direct second person plural verb.

Leviticus 18 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 1 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
דַּבֵּר֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
2 Speak to the children of Israel and say to them,
I am Yahweh your God.
3e 4B 15
8
כְּמַעֲשֵׂ֧ה אֶֽרֶץ־מִצְרַ֛יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְשַׁבְתֶּם־בָּ֖הּ לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֑וּ
וּכְמַעֲשֵׂ֣ה אֶֽרֶץ־כְּנַ֡עַן אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֲנִי֩ מֵבִ֨יא אֶתְכֶ֥ם שָׁ֙מָּה֙ לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֔וּ וּבְחֻקֹּתֵיהֶ֖ם לֹ֥א תֵלֵֽכוּ
3 What is done in the land of Egypt where you were settled you will not do,
and what is done in the land of Canaan where I am bringing you, you will not do, and in their statutes you will not walk.
3c 4B 18
32
אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֧י תַּעֲשׂ֛וּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַ֥י תִּשְׁמְר֖וּ לָלֶ֣כֶת בָּהֶ֑ם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
4 My judgments you will do, and my statutes you will keep to walk in them.
I am Yahweh your God.
3c 4B 20
8
וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֤ם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי֙ וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֔י אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתָ֛ם הָאָדָ֖ם וָחַ֣י בָּהֶ֑ם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
5 And you will keep my statutes and my judgments. (The human that does them will live in them.)
I am Yahweh.
3d 4C 26
4
אִ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ אֶל־כָּל־שְׁאֵ֣ר בְּשָׂר֔וֹ לֹ֥א תִקְרְב֖וּ לְגַלּ֣וֹת עֶרְוָ֑ה
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
6 f No person of you to any near relation of their flesh will approach to uncover nakedness.
I am Yahweh.
3e 4B 18
4
עֶרְוַ֥ת אָבִ֛יךָ וְעֶרְוַ֥ת אִמְּךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
אִמְּךָ֣ הִ֔וא לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽהּ
7 The nakedness of your father and the nakedness of your mother, you will not uncover.
Your mother she is. You will not uncover her nakedness.
3d 4B 14
10
עֶרְוַ֥ת אֵֽשֶׁת־אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
עֶרְוַ֥ת אָבִ֖יךָ הִֽוא
8 The nakedness of the wife of your father you will not uncover.
The nakedness of your father, it is.
3e 4B 11
6
עֶרְוַ֨ת אֲחֽוֹתְךָ֤ בַת־אָבִ֙יךָ֙ א֣וֹ בַת־אִמֶּ֔ךָ מוֹלֶ֣דֶת בַּ֔יִת א֖וֹ מוֹלֶ֣דֶת ח֑וּץ
לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽן
9 The nakedness of your sister, a daughter of your father, or a daughter of your mother, born of the house or born outside,
you will not uncover their nakedness.
3e 4C 24
7
עֶרְוַ֤ת בַּת־בִּנְךָ֙ א֣וֹ בַֽת־בִּתְּךָ֔ לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָ֑ן
כִּ֥י עֶרְוָתְךָ֖ הֵֽנָּה
10 The nakedness of a daughter of your son or a daughter your daughter, you will not uncover their nakedness,
for your nakedness they are.
3e 4C 16
6
עֶרְוַ֨ת בַּת־אֵ֤שֶׁת אָבִ֙יךָ֙ מוֹלֶ֣דֶת אָבִ֔יךָ אֲחוֹתְךָ֖ הִ֑וא
לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽהּ
11 The nakedness of a daughter of the wife of your father born of your father, your sister she is.
You will not uncover her nakedness.
3e 4C 18
7
עֶרְוַ֥ת אֲחוֹת־אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
שְׁאֵ֥ר אָבִ֖יךָ הִֽוא
12 The nakedness of a sister of your father you will not uncover.
A near relation of your father she is.
3e 4B 11
6
עֶרְוַ֥ת אֲחֽוֹת־אִמְּךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
כִּֽי־שְׁאֵ֥ר אִמְּךָ֖ הִֽוא
13 The nakedness of a sister of your mother, you will not uncover,
because a near relation of your mother she is.
3e 4B 10
6
עֶרְוַ֥ת אֲחִֽי־אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
אֶל־אִשְׁתּוֹ֙ לֹ֣א תִקְרָ֔ב דֹּדָֽתְךָ֖ הִֽוא
14 The nakedness of a brother of your father you will not uncover.
To his wife you will not approach. Your aunt she is.
3e 4B 10
10
עֶרְוַ֥ת כַּלָּֽתְךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
אֵ֤שֶׁת בִּנְךָ֙ הִ֔וא לֹ֥א תְגַלֶּ֖ה עֶרְוָתָֽהּ
15 The nakedness of your daughter-in-law you will not uncover.
The wife of your son she is. You will not uncover her nakedness.
3e 4C 9
12
עֶרְוַ֥ת אֵֽשֶׁת־אָחִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
עֶרְוַ֥ת אָחִ֖יךָ הִֽוא
16 The nakedness of the wife of your brother you will not uncover.
The nakedness of your brother it is.
3e 4B 11
6
עֶרְוַ֥ת אִשָּׁ֛ה וּבִתָּ֖הּ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה
אֶֽת־בַּת־בְּנָ֞הּ וְאֶת־בַּת־בִּתָּ֗הּ לֹ֤א תִקַּח֙ לְגַלּ֣וֹת עֶרְוָתָ֔הּ שַׁאֲרָ֥ה הֵ֖נָּה זִמָּ֥ה הִֽוא
17 The nakedness of a woman and her daughter you will not uncover, the daughter of her son, or the daughter of her daughter you will not take to uncover her nakedness.
Her near relation they are. Scheming it is.
3d 4C 11
26
וְאִשָּׁ֥ה אֶל־אֲחֹתָ֖הּ לֹ֣א תִקָּ֑ח
לִצְרֹ֗ר לְגַלּ֧וֹת עֶרְוָתָ֛הּ עָלֶ֖יהָ בְּחַיֶּֽיהָ
18 And a woman with her sister, you will not take,
as an adversary, to uncover her nakedness with her, in her lifetime.
3c 4B 10
15
וְאֶל־אִשָּׁ֖ה בְּנִדַּ֣ת טֻמְאָתָ֑הּ
לֹ֣א תִקְרַ֔ב לְגַלּ֖וֹת עֶרְוָתָֽהּ
19 And to a woman in the segregation of her uncleanness, you will not approach to uncover her nakedness. 3e 4B 10
9
וְאֶל־אֵ֙שֶׁת֙ עֲמִֽיתְךָ֔ לֹא־תִתֵּ֥ן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ֖ לְזָ֑רַע
לְטָמְאָה־בָֽהּ
20 And with the wife of your fellow, you will not give your emission of seed,
to be defiled in it.
3e 4A 16
4
וּמִֽזַּרְעֲךָ֥ לֹא־תִתֵּ֖ן לְהַעֲבִ֣יר לַמֹּ֑לֶךְ
וְלֹ֧א תְחַלֵּ֛ל אֶת־שֵׁ֥ם אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
21 And you will not give from your seed to pass through for Moloch,
and you will not profane the name of your God. I am Yahweh.
3c 4B 14
15
וְאֶ֨ת־זָכָ֔ר לֹ֥א תִשְׁכַּ֖ב מִשְׁכְּבֵ֣י אִשָּׁ֑ה
תּוֹעֵבָ֖ה הִֽוא
22 And with a male you will not lie down as the lying down of a woman.
An abomination it is.
3e 4B 12
4
וּבְכָל־בְּהֵמָ֛ה לֹא־תִתֵּ֥ן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ֖ לְטָמְאָה־בָ֑הּ
וְאִשָּׁ֗ה לֹֽא־תַעֲמֹ֞ד לִפְנֵ֧י בְהֵמָ֛ה לְרִבְעָ֖הּ תֶּ֥בֶל הֽוּא
23 nor in any beast will you give your emission, to be defiled in it.
Nor will a woman stand before a beast to copulate. Mayhem it is.
3c 4A 15
17
אַל־תִּֽטַּמְּא֖וּ בְּכָל־אֵ֑לֶּה
כִּ֤י בְכָל־אֵ֙לֶּה֙ נִטְמְא֣וּ הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִ֥י מְשַׁלֵּ֖חַ מִפְּנֵיכֶֽם
24 Do not become unclean in any of these,
for in all these the nations are unclean that I, I send out from your presence.
3e 4C 8
22
וַתִּטְמָ֣א הָאָ֔רֶץ וָאֶפְקֹ֥ד עֲוֺנָ֖הּ עָלֶ֑יהָ
וַתָּקִ֥א הָאָ֖רֶץ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֶֽיהָ
25 And the land is defiled and I visit its iniquity on it,
and the land vomits those inhabiting it.
3e 4B 15
10
וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֣ם אַתֶּ֗ם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי֙ וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֔י וְלֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֔וּ מִכֹּ֥ל הַתּוֹעֵבֹ֖ת הָאֵ֑לֶּה
הָֽאֶזְרָ֔ח וְהַגֵּ֖ר הַגָּ֥ר בְּתוֹכְכֶֽם
26 And you yourselves will keep my statutes and my judgments, and will not do from any of these abominations,
the native born or the guest residing in your midst.
3e 4B 28
11
כִּ֚י אֶת־כָּל־הַתּוֹעֵבֹ֣ת הָאֵ֔ל עָשׂ֥וּ אַנְשֵֽׁי־הָאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לִפְנֵיכֶ֑ם
וַתִּטְמָ֖א הָאָֽרֶץ
27 C Because all these abominations those of the land have done who were before you,
and the land is defiled.
3e 4C 20
6
וְלֹֽא־תָקִ֤יא הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ אֶתְכֶ֔ם בְּטַֽמַּאֲכֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑הּ
כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר קָאָ֛ה אֶת־הַגּ֖וֹי אֲשֶׁ֥ר לִפְנֵיכֶֽם
28 And the land will not vomit you out when you defile it,
as it vomited out the nation that was before you.
3d 4C 15
14
כִּ֚י כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר יַעֲשֶׂ֔ה מִכֹּ֥ל הַתּוֹעֵב֖וֹת הָאֵ֑לֶּה
וְנִכְרְת֛וּ הַנְּפָשׁ֥וֹת הָעֹשֹׂ֖ת מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמָּֽם
29 C Because anyone that does from any of these abominations,
the groups doing such will be cut off from within their people.
3d 4C 16
15
וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֣ם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּ֗י לְבִלְתִּ֨י עֲשׂ֜וֹת מֵחֻקּ֤וֹת הַתּֽוֹעֵבֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר נַעֲשׂ֣וּ לִפְנֵיכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א תִֽטַּמְּא֖וּ בָּהֶ֑ם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
30 And you will keep my watch, so as not to do from the statutes of the abominations that were done before you, and you will not become unclean by them.
I am Yahweh your God.
3e 4C 34
8
Verse 18 to = in addition to, i.e. with (Milgrom p. 1548). Another preposition where one for one relations between languages is impossible. Here are my results mid way through this chapter for אל as a preposition. To clearly predominates but some English phrases cannot use to for various reasons.

אל about (2) against (43) at (41) by (15) concerning (1) even to (1) for (37) from (1) in (29) into (74) of (8) on (47) onto (9) over (4) over against (1) these (2) those (3) though (2) though to (1) to (3,868) to attention (1) to the god of (1) to those (1) toward (4) untranslated (102) upon (3) with (28)

compare with על. Here on and over predominate, but the spread is greater among all the candidate glosses.

על about (47) above (41) after (9) against (267) along (1) as above (2) as for (1) at (61) away from (14) based on (1) before (3) beside (5) by (92) by ... (1) concerning (88) for (102) for in (1) for over (1) from (108) from above (1) from off (28) from over (16) in (144) into (16) of (5) on (1,012) on something (1) onto (25) out of (5) over (1,108) over above (1) per (3) since (2) the above (1) there for (1) though (2) through (1) to (233) toward (1) towards (2) unto (4) untranslated (166) up to (1) upon (151) with (33) within (2)

curious eh?