In this chapter we have the rationale for clean and unclean: differentiation בדל, the ability to distinguish things that are different. This reflects the language of Genesis 1. The sequence is: perception of the differentiation, holiness since Yahweh is holy, and finally belonging, verse 26, that you would be mine. (So reflecting the Song.)
חסד occurs in verse 17. Milgrom (Leviticus p. 1754) allows three instances of this homonym, disgrace, for the word. Here Proverbs 14:34 and Proverbs 25:9-10. This seems to me to be too few occurrences to justify a homonym. Proverbs 25:10 perhaps can allow the gloss reprimand. Here in Leviticus I am struck by the usage in verse 17, and reminded of a suggestion to render חסד as reproof. I ran this by another Hebraist this morning and he simply said, No. I had already removed any use of this gloss for kindness some months ago. But there are puzzles here. Not least are the differences of opinion I find among those who know the tongue far better than I. I started this project very late in life and I had learned in my early lives by the most tortuous of paths. (Perhaps there are no paths that are straightforward. We live and learn in a jungle.)
I hope to do more work with Milgrom over the next 4 months. This will probably result in some changes. But in this case I have refused the homonym for the moment and probably for ever. With the power and the distortion of sexuality in humanity, it is not surprising that the ultimate gift is confused. Mercy and kindness are not confused. Nonetheless exploitation, self-interest, and unequal relationships are deadly in this area as in others.
V 25 Milgrom: you will not defile your throats. (נפשׁ)
Scheming, there is an inequality here and in a multi dimensional household, scheming (זמם) might well be an appropriate translation. No need to impose a homonym. (This my original thought process is supported by Milgrom p 1548.) I am not as far off as I might think.
|וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר||1||And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,||3e||3g||10|
|וְאֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֘ל תֹּאמַר֒ אִ֣ישׁ אִישׁ֩ מִבְּנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל וּמִן־הַגֵּ֣ר ׀ הַגָּ֣ר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֧ן מִזַּרְע֛וֹ לַמֹּ֖לֶךְ מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֑ת |
עַ֥ם הָאָ֖רֶץ יִרְגְּמֻ֥הוּ בָאָֽבֶן
|2||And to the children of Israel you will say, Any person among the children of Israel or from the guest residing in Israel, who will give from his seed to Moloch will be put to death. |
The people of the land will crowd him with stone.
|וַאֲנִ֞י אֶתֵּ֤ן אֶת־פָּנַי֙ בָּאִ֣ישׁ הַה֔וּא וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י אֹת֖וֹ מִקֶּ֣רֶב עַמּ֑וֹ |
כִּ֤י מִזַּרְעוֹ֙ נָתַ֣ן לַמֹּ֔לֶךְ לְמַ֗עַן טַמֵּא֙ אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁ֔י וּלְחַלֵּ֖ל אֶת־שֵׁ֥ם קָדְשִֽׁי
|3||And I, I will position my face against that person and I will cut him off from near his people, |
for from his seed he gave to Moloch in order to defile my sanctuary and to profane my holy name.
|וְאִ֡ם הַעְלֵ֣ם יַעְלִימֽוּ֩ עַ֨ם הָאָ֜רֶץ אֶת־עֵֽינֵיהֶם֙ מִן־הָאִ֣ישׁ הַה֔וּא בְּתִתּ֥וֹ מִזַּרְע֖וֹ לַמֹּ֑לֶךְ |
לְבִלְתִּ֖י הָמִ֥ית אֹתֽוֹ
|4||And if to obscure, the people of the land obscure their eyes from this man, this very one, who has given from his seed to Moloch, |
so as not to put him to death,
|וְשַׂמְתִּ֨י אֲנִ֧י אֶת־פָּנַ֛י בָּאִ֥ישׁ הַה֖וּא וּבְמִשְׁפַּחְתּ֑וֹ |
וְהִכְרַתִּ֨י אֹת֜וֹ וְאֵ֣ת ׀ כָּל־הַזֹּנִ֣ים אַחֲרָ֗יו לִזְנ֛וֹת אַחֲרֵ֥י הַמֹּ֖לֶךְ מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמָּֽם
|5||Then I myself will set my face against that person and against his family, |
and I will cut him off and all playing the harlot after him to play the harlot after the Moloch from within their people.
|וְהַנֶּ֗פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּפְנֶ֤ה אֶל־הָֽאֹבֹת֙ וְאֶל־הַיִּדְּעֹנִ֔ים לִזְנ֖וֹת אַחֲרֵיהֶ֑ם |
וְנָתַתִּ֤י אֶת־פָּנַי֙ בַּנֶּ֣פֶשׁ הַהִ֔וא וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י אֹת֖וֹ מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמּֽוֹ
|6||And the self that faces to the necromancer and to the wizards, to play the harlot after them, |
I will position my face against that very self and I will cut him off from within his people.
|וְהִ֨תְקַדִּשְׁתֶּ֔ם וִהְיִיתֶ֖ם קְדֹשִׁ֑ים |
כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
|7||So you will sanctify yourselves, and you will become holy, |
because I am Yahweh your God.
|וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם֙ אֶת־חֻקֹּתַ֔י וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑ם |
אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶֽם
|8||And you will keep my statutes and do them. |
I am Yahweh who sanctifies you.
|כִּֽי־אִ֣ישׁ אִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְקַלֵּ֧ל אֶת־אָבִ֛יו וְאֶת־אִמּ֖וֹ מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֑ת |
אָבִ֧יו וְאִמּ֛וֹ קִלֵּ֖ל דָּמָ֥יו בּֽוֹ
|9||For any person that makes light of his father or his mother will be put to death. |
His father or his mother he slighted. His blood is on himself.
|וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִנְאַף֙ אֶת־אֵ֣שֶׁת אִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִנְאַ֖ף אֶת־אֵ֣שֶׁת רֵעֵ֑הוּ |
מֽוֹת־יוּמַ֥ת הַנֹּאֵ֖ף וְהַנֹּאָֽפֶת
|10||And anyone that commits adultery with the wife of another, that commits adultery with the wife of his associate, |
the adulterer and the adulteress will be put to death.
|וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִשְׁכַּב֙ אֶת־אֵ֣שֶׁת אָבִ֔יו עֶרְוַ֥ת אָבִ֖יו גִּלָּ֑ה |
מֽוֹת־יוּמְת֥וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֖ם דְּמֵיהֶ֥ם בָּֽם
|11||And anyone that lies down with the wife of his father, the nakedness of his father he has uncovered. |
To die they will die, the two of them. Their blood is on them.
|וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִשְׁכַּב֙ אֶת־כַּלָּת֔וֹ מ֥וֹת יוּמְת֖וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֑ם |
תֶּ֥בֶל עָשׂ֖וּ דְּמֵיהֶ֥ם בָּֽם
|12||And anyone that lies down with his daughter-in-law, to die they will die, the two of them. |
Mayhem they have done. Their blood is on them.
|וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִשְׁכַּ֤ב אֶת־זָכָר֙ מִשְׁכְּבֵ֣י אִשָּׁ֔ה תּוֹעֵבָ֥ה עָשׂ֖וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֑ם |
מ֥וֹת יוּמָ֖תוּ דְּמֵיהֶ֥ם בָּֽם
|13||And anyone that lies down with a male as the lying down of a woman, an abomination they have done, the two of them. |
To die they will die. Their blood is on them.
|וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִקַּ֧ח אֶת־אִשָּׁ֛ה וְאֶת־אִמָּ֖הּ זִמָּ֣ה הִ֑וא |
בָּאֵ֞שׁ יִשְׂרְפ֤וּ אֹתוֹ֙ וְאֶתְהֶ֔ן וְלֹא־תִהְיֶ֥ה זִמָּ֖ה בְּתוֹכְכֶֽם
|14||And anyone that took a wife and her mother, scheming it is. |
In the fire they will be incinerated, him and them. And such scheming will not be in your midst.
|וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֧ן שְׁכָבְתּ֛וֹ בִּבְהֵמָ֖ה מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֑ת |
|15||And anyone that will give his emission into a beast will be put to death, |
and the beast you will slay.
|וְאִשָּׁ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּקְרַ֤ב אֶל־כָּל־בְּהֵמָה֙ לְרִבְעָ֣ה אֹתָ֔הּ וְהָרַגְתָּ֥ אֶת־הָאִשָּׁ֖ה וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָ֑ה |
מ֥וֹת יוּמָ֖תוּ דְּמֵיהֶ֥ם בָּֽם
|16||And a woman who approaches to any beast to copulate with it, you will slay the woman and the beast. |
To die they will die. Their blood is on them.
|וְאִ֣ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִקַּ֣ח אֶת־אֲחֹת֡וֹ בַּת־אָבִ֣יו א֣וֹ בַת־אִ֠מּוֹ וְרָאָ֨ה אֶת־עֶרְוָתָ֜הּ וְהִֽיא־תִרְאֶ֤ה אֶת־עֶרְוָתוֹ֙ חֶ֣סֶד ה֔וּא וְנִ֨כְרְת֔וּ לְעֵינֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י עַמָּ֑ם |
עֶרְוַ֧ת אֲחֹת֛וֹ גִּלָּ֖ה עֲוֺנ֥וֹ יִשָּֽׂא
|17||And anyone that took his sister, the daughter of his father or the daughter of his mother, and sees her nakedness and she sees his nakedness . Mercy it is that they will be cut off in the sight of the children of their people. |
The nakedness of his sister he has uncovered. His iniquity he will bear.
|וְ֠אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּ֨ב אֶת־אִשָּׁ֜ה דָּוָ֗ה וְגִלָּ֤ה אֶת־עֶרְוָתָהּ֙ אֶת־מְקֹרָ֣הּ הֶֽעֱרָ֔ה וְהִ֕יא גִּלְּתָ֖ה אֶת־מְק֣וֹר דָּמֶ֑יהָ |
וְנִכְרְת֥וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֖ם מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמָּֽם
|18||~||And anyone that lies down with a wife, infirm, and uncovers her nakedness , her fountain he has exposed, and she has uncovered the fountain of her blood, |
and the two of them will be cut off from within their people.
|וְעֶרְוַ֨ת אֲח֧וֹת אִמְּךָ֛ וַאֲח֥וֹת אָבִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תְגַלֵּ֑ה |
כִּ֧י אֶת־שְׁאֵר֛וֹ הֶעֱרָ֖ה עֲוֺנָ֥ם יִשָּֽׂאוּ
|19||And the nakedness of a sister of your mother, or a sister of your father you will not uncover, |
because he exposes his near relation. Their iniquity they will bear.
|וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִשְׁכַּב֙ אֶת־דֹּ֣דָת֔וֹ עֶרְוַ֥ת דֹּד֖וֹ גִּלָּ֑ה |
חֶטְאָ֥ם יִשָּׂ֖אוּ עֲרִירִ֥ים יָמֻֽתוּ
|20||And anyone that lies down with his aunt, the nakedness of his uncle he has uncovered. |
Their sin they will bear. Childless they will die.
|וְאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִקַּ֛ח אֶת־אֵ֥שֶׁת אָחִ֖יו נִדָּ֣ה הִ֑וא |
עֶרְוַ֥ת אָחִ֛יו גִּלָּ֖ה עֲרִירִ֥ים יִהְיֽוּ
|21||And anyone that took the wife of his brother, segregation it is. |
The nakedness of his brother he has uncovered. Childless they will be.
|וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֤ם אֶת־כָּל־חֻקֹּתַי֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפָּטַ֔י וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑ם |
וְלֹא־תָקִ֤יא אֶתְכֶם֙ הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֲנִ֜י מֵבִ֥יא אֶתְכֶ֛ם שָׁ֖מָּה לָשֶׁ֥בֶת בָּֽהּ
|22||And you will keep all my statutes and all my judgments and do them, |
and the land will not vomit you out that I am bringing you toward to settle in it.
|וְלֹ֤א תֵֽלְכוּ֙ בְּחֻקֹּ֣ת הַגּ֔וֹי אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִ֥י מְשַׁלֵּ֖חַ מִפְּנֵיכֶ֑ם |
כִּ֤י אֶת־כָּל־אֵ֙לֶּה֙ עָשׂ֔וּ וָאָקֻ֖ץ בָּֽם
|23||But you will not walk in the statutes of the nation that I, I sent out from your presence. |
Because all these things they have done, I bristle at them.
|וָאֹמַ֣ר לָכֶ֗ם אַתֶּם֮ תִּֽירְשׁ֣וּ אֶת־אַדְמָתָם֒ וַאֲנִ֞י אֶתְּנֶ֤נָּה לָכֶם֙ לָרֶ֣שֶׁת אֹתָ֔הּ אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָ֑שׁ |
אֲנִי֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הִבְדַּ֥לְתִּי אֶתְכֶ֖ם מִן־הָֽעַמִּֽים
|24||So I said to you, You are those who will possess their ground, and I, I will give it to you to possess it, a land gushing with milk and honey. |
I am Yahweh your God who differentiated you from the peoples.
|וְהִבְדַּלְתֶּ֞ם בֵּֽין־הַבְּהֵמָ֤ה הַטְּהֹרָה֙ לַטְּמֵאָ֔ה וּבֵין־הָע֥וֹף הַטָּמֵ֖א לַטָּהֹ֑ר |
וְלֹֽא־תְשַׁקְּצ֨וּ אֶת־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶ֜ם בַּבְּהֵמָ֣ה וּבָע֗וֹף וּבְכֹל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּרְמֹ֣שׂ הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־הִבְדַּ֥לְתִּי לָכֶ֖ם לְטַמֵּֽא
|25||So you will differentiate between the beast, clean to unclean, and between the fowl, unclean to clean, |
and you will not make yourselves detestable by beast or by fowl, or by all that creep of the ground that I have differentiated for you to be unclean.
|וִהְיִ֤יתֶם לִי֙ קְדֹשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י קָד֖וֹשׁ אֲנִ֣י יְהוָ֑ה |
וָאַבְדִּ֥ל אֶתְכֶ֛ם מִן־הָֽעַמִּ֖ים לִהְי֥וֹת לִֽי
|26||Then you will be holy to me because I, Yahweh, am holy, |
and I have differentiated you from the peoples that you would be mine.
|וְאִ֣ישׁ אֽוֹ־אִשָּׁ֗ה כִּֽי־יִהְיֶ֨ה בָהֶ֥ם א֛וֹב א֥וֹ יִדְּעֹנִ֖י מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֑תוּ |
בָּאֶ֛בֶן יִרְגְּמ֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם דְּמֵיהֶ֥ם בָּֽם
|27||And a man or a woman that has in them necromancy or wizardry, to die they will die. |
With stone you will crowd them. Their blood is on them.