Verse 14 - there is no hard in the text that I can see. This Yahweh understates his becoming. I don't know whether to read it backwards or forwards: will a wonder from Yahweh be something? Or will a word from Yahweh be wonderful?
Verse 19 reads like an interpolation. Yahweh begins the speech and then it shifts to third person. The logic is perplexing. Remember that conjunctions and prepositions, those tongue connectors, are difficult to gloss.Does Yahweh's knowledge of Abraham determine his ability in order that (למען אשׁר) he can be a good father? As a father, I sure hope so. There - that's a bias of mine.
Verse 20 - I guess I should not expect to understand Yahweh when he is musing. This is grammatically strange. appeal (זעק) is probably also an outcry (צעק), but the stems differ. It is not the sense of appealing, i.e. desirable, though it might be that too. Sodom already has a bad rep as we have seen in chapter 14.
Verse 21 - the number of syllables in הכצעקתה is compromised by my elongated English whether ה according כ to her ה outcry צעק.
Verse 23 - the intimacy of נגשׁ is missed with the gloss come close. But it is there. snatch fits everywhere else so far for this gloss, so why not here? And note that the word changes. You would not know this from KJV or JB. NIV is more precise (good for them in this case) and uses sweep away where I presently have snatch.
Verse 25 - so far in my work judgment has always 'meant' good judgement. I have one other gloss for the stem שׁפט, that is astute. But right and justice I have as צדיך. Perhaps I am too generous sometimes with my synonyms.
The word for bear is נשא lift up - but not forgive (footnoted in NIV). Forgive has a specific stem: סלח. It is not necessary to conflate lift up with forgive. It risks being a bit of a short circuit. Real change of heart, new creation, requires participatory work, not just good theory.
|וַיֵּרָ֤א אֵלָיו֙ יְהוָ֔ה בְּאֵלֹנֵ֖י מַמְרֵ֑א |
וְה֛וּא יֹשֵׁ֥ב פֶּֽתַח־הָאֹ֖הֶל כְּחֹ֥ם הַיּֽוֹם
|1||And Yahweh appeared to him by the oak of Mamre, |
and he was sitting at the door of the tent as the day was hot.
|וַיִּשָּׂ֤א עֵינָיו֙ וַיַּ֔רְא וְהִנֵּה֙ שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה אֲנָשִׁ֔ים נִצָּבִ֖ים עָלָ֑יו |
וַיַּ֗רְא וַיָּ֤רָץ לִקְרָאתָם֙ מִפֶּ֣תַח הָאֹ֔הֶל וַיִּשְׁתַּ֖חוּ אָֽרְצָה
|2||And he lifted up his eyes, and he stared and behold, three men stood firm over him, |
and he stared, and he raced to encounter them from the door of the tent, and he prostrated himself to the earth.
אֲדֹנָ֗י אִם־נָ֨א מָצָ֤אתִי חֵן֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ אַל־נָ֥א תַעֲבֹ֖ר מֵעַ֥ל עַבְדֶּֽךָ
|3||And he said, |
My Lord, if please, I have found grace in your eyes, please do not pass by from your servant.
|יֻקַּֽח־נָ֣א מְעַט־מַ֔יִם וְרַחֲצ֖וּ רַגְלֵיכֶ֑ם |
וְהִֽשָּׁעֲנ֖וּ תַּ֥חַת הָעֵֽץ
|4||Receive please a little of the water and wash your feet, |
and relax under the tree.
|וְאֶקְחָ֨ה פַת־לֶ֜חֶם וְסַעֲד֤וּ לִבְּכֶם֙ אַחַ֣ר תַּעֲבֹ֔רוּ כִּֽי־עַל־כֵּ֥ן עֲבַרְתֶּ֖ם עַֽל־עַבְדְּכֶ֑ם |
וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ כֵּ֥ן תַּעֲשֶׂ֖ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּֽרְתָּ
|5||And I will take a fragment of bread, and confirm your hearts. After, do pass by, for so you will have passed by your servant. |
And they said, So do as you have spoken.
|וַיְמַהֵ֧ר אַבְרָהָ֛ם הָאֹ֖הֱלָה אֶל־שָׂרָ֑ה |
וַיֹּ֗אמֶר מַהֲרִ֞י שְׁלֹ֤שׁ סְאִים֙ קֶ֣מַח סֹ֔לֶת ל֖וּשִׁי וַעֲשִׂ֥י עֻגֽוֹת
|6||And Abraham moved swiftly towards the tent to Sarah, |
and said, Swiftly, three bushels of flour, fine flour, kneaded, and make a pancake.
|וְאֶל־הַבָּקָ֖ר רָ֣ץ אַבְרָהָ֑ם |
וַיִּקַּ֨ח בֶּן־בָּקָ֜ר רַ֤ךְ וָטוֹב֙ וַיִּתֵּ֣ן אֶל־הַנַּ֔עַר וַיְמַהֵ֖ר לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת אֹתֽוֹ
|7||And Abraham raced to the herd, |
and he took of the herd, one tender and good, and he gave to a lad, and he was swift to deal with it.
|וַיִּקַּ֨ח חֶמְאָ֜ה וְחָלָ֗ב וּבֶן־הַבָּקָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה וַיִּתֵּ֖ן לִפְנֵיהֶ֑ם |
וְהֽוּא־עֹמֵ֧ד עֲלֵיהֶ֛ם תַּ֥חַת הָעֵ֖ץ וַיֹּאכֵֽלוּ
|8||And he took clotted cream and milk, and the child of the herd that was dealt with, and he put forth before them, |
and he stood by them under the tree, and they ate.
|וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ אֵׄלָׄ֔יׄוׄ אַיֵּ֖ה שָׂרָ֣ה אִשְׁתֶּ֑ךָ |
וַיֹּ֖אמֶר הִנֵּ֥ה בָאֹֽהֶל
|9||And they said to him, Where is Sarah your wife? |
And he said, Behold, in the tent.
|וַיֹּ֗אמֶר שׁ֣וֹב אָשׁ֤וּב אֵלֶ֙יךָ֙ כָּעֵ֣ת חַיָּ֔ה וְהִנֵּה־בֵ֖ן לְשָׂרָ֣ה אִשְׁתֶּ֑ךָ |
וְשָׂרָ֥ה שֹׁמַ֛עַת פֶּ֥תַח הָאֹ֖הֶל וְה֥וּא אַחֲרָֽיו
|10||And he said, To return, I will return to you as is the time of life, and behold, Sarah your wife will have a son. |
And Sarah heard at the door of the tent, and it was behind him.
|וְאַבְרָהָ֤ם וְשָׂרָה֙ זְקֵנִ֔ים בָּאִ֖ים בַּיָּמִ֑ים |
חָדַל֙ לִהְי֣וֹת לְשָׂרָ֔ה אֹ֖רַח כַּנָּשִֽׁים
|11||And Abraham and Sarah were old, having come into a plurality of days. |
Sarah had been given relief from the path according to women.
|וַתִּצְחַ֥ק שָׂרָ֖ה בְּקִרְבָּ֣הּ לֵאמֹ֑ר |
אַחֲרֵ֤י בְלֹתִי֙ הָֽיְתָה־לִּ֣י עֶדְנָ֔ה וַֽאדֹנִ֖י זָקֵֽן
|12||And Sarah made sport within her, saying, |
After I am worn out, will there be enthrallment for me? And my lord is elderly.
|וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־אַבְרָהָ֑ם |
לָ֣מָּה זֶּה֩ צָחֲקָ֨ה שָׂרָ֜ה לֵאמֹ֗ר הַאַ֥ף אֻמְנָ֛ם אֵלֵ֖ד וַאֲנִ֥י זָקַֽנְתִּי
|13||And Yahweh said to Abraham, |
Why this making sport from Sarah, saying, Indeed, truly will I give birth? And myself, I am old.
|הֲיִפָּלֵ֥א מֵיְהוָ֖ה דָּבָ֑ר |
לַמּוֹעֵ֞ד אָשׁ֥וּב אֵלֶ֛יךָ כָּעֵ֥ת חַיָּ֖ה וּלְשָׂרָ֥ה בֵֽן
|14||Will a wonder from Yahweh be something? |
At the appointed time I will return to you, as is the time of life, and Sarah will have a son.
|וַתְּכַחֵ֨שׁ שָׂרָ֧ה ׀ לֵאמֹ֛ר לֹ֥א צָחַ֖קְתִּי כִּ֣י ׀ יָרֵ֑אָה |
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ׀ לֹ֖א כִּ֥י צָחָֽקְתְּ
|15||And Sarah dissimulated, saying, I did not make sport. (Because she feared.) |
And he said, No, but you did make sport.
|וַיָּקֻ֤מוּ מִשָּׁם֙ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים וַיַּשְׁקִ֖פוּ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י סְדֹ֑ם |
וְאַ֨בְרָהָ֔ם הֹלֵ֥ךְ עִמָּ֖ם לְשַׁלְּחָֽם
|16||And from there the men arose and looked down on the face of Sodom, |
and Abraham went with them to send them on.
|וַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אָמָ֑ר |
הַֽמְכַסֶּ֤ה אֲנִי֙ מֵֽאַבְרָהָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר אֲנִ֥י עֹשֶֽׂה
|17||But Yahweh said, |
Will I blindfold from Abraham what I am doing.
|וְאַ֨בְרָהָ֔ם הָי֧וֹ יִֽהְיֶ֛ה לְג֥וֹי גָּד֖וֹל וְעָצ֑וּם |
וְנִ֨בְרְכוּ ב֔וֹ כֹּ֖ל גּוֹיֵ֥י הָאָֽרֶץ
|18||For Abraham will become a great nation and numerous, |
and in him all the nations of the earth will be blessed.
|כִּ֣י יְדַעְתִּ֗יו לְמַעַן֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְצַוֶּ֜ה אֶת־בָּנָ֤יו וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ֙ אַחֲרָ֔יו וְשָֽׁמְרוּ֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ יְהוָ֔ה לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת צְדָקָ֖ה וּמִשְׁפָּ֑ט |
לְמַ֗עַן הָבִ֤יא יְהוָה֙ עַל־אַבְרָהָ֔ם אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֖ר עָלָֽיו
|19||B||For I know him, in order that he will command his children and his house after him, and keep the way of Yahweh, to do righteousness and judgment, |
in order that Yahweh may bring over Abraham what he spoke concerning him.
|וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֔ה זַעֲקַ֛ת סְדֹ֥ם וַעֲמֹרָ֖ה כִּי־רָ֑בָּה |
וְחַ֨טָּאתָ֔ם כִּ֥י כָבְדָ֖ה מְאֹֽד
|20||And Yahweh said, For the appeal of Sodom and Gomorrah is abundant, |
and their sin, for it is very heavy.
|אֵֽרֲדָה־נָּ֣א וְאֶרְאֶ֔ה הַכְּצַעֲקָתָ֛הּ הַבָּ֥אָה אֵלַ֖י עָשׂ֣וּ ׀ כָּלָ֑ה |
|21||I will go down now and I will see, whether according to her outcry that has come to me, they do all of it. |
And if not, I will know.
|וַיִּפְנ֤וּ מִשָּׁם֙ הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים וַיֵּלְכ֖וּ סְדֹ֑מָה |
וְאַ֨בְרָהָ֔ם עוֹדֶ֥נּוּ עֹמֵ֖ד לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה
|22||And the men faced from there and went towards Sodom, |
and Abraham yet stood in the presence of Yahweh.
|וַיִּגַּ֥שׁ אַבְרָהָ֖ם וַיֹּאמַ֑ר |
הַאַ֣ף תִּסְפֶּ֔ה צַדִּ֖יק עִם־רָשָֽׁע
|23||And Abraham came close and said, |
Indeed will you snatch the righteous one with one who is wicked?
|אוּלַ֥י יֵ֛שׁ חֲמִשִּׁ֥ים צַדִּיקִ֖ם בְּת֣וֹךְ הָעִ֑יר |
הַאַ֤ף תִּסְפֶּה֙ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂ֣א לַמָּק֔וֹם לְמַ֛עַן חֲמִשִּׁ֥ים הַצַּדִּיקִ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּקִרְבָּֽהּ
|24||Perhaps there are fifty righteous ones in the midst of the city, |
Indeed will you snatch, and not bear the place for the sake of the fifty righteous ones that are within her?
|חָלִ֨לָה לְּךָ֜ מֵעֲשֹׂ֣ת ׀ כַּדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֗ה לְהָמִ֤ית צַדִּיק֙ עִם־רָשָׁ֔ע וְהָיָ֥ה כַצַּדִּ֖יק כָּרָשָׁ֑ע |
חָלִ֣לָה לָּ֔ךְ הֲשֹׁפֵט֙ כָּל־הָאָ֔רֶץ לֹ֥א יַעֲשֶׂ֖ה מִשְׁפָּֽט
|25||Far be it from you to do such a thing as this, to execute a righteous one with one who is wicked, and that a righteous one should be as one who is wicked. |
Far be it from you. Will not the judge of all the earth do judgment?
|וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֔ה אִם־אֶמְצָ֥א בִסְדֹ֛ם חֲמִשִּׁ֥ים צַדִּיקִ֖ם בְּת֣וֹךְ הָעִ֑יר |
וְנָשָׂ֥אתִי לְכָל־הַמָּק֖וֹם בַּעֲבוּרָֽם
|26||And Yahweh said, If I find in Sodom fifty righteous ones in the midst of the city, |
then I will bear the whole place on their behalf.
|וַיַּ֥עַן אַבְרָהָ֖ם וַיֹּאמַ֑ר |
הִנֵּה־נָ֤א הוֹאַ֙לְתִּי֙ לְדַבֵּ֣ר אֶל־אֲדֹנָ֔י וְאָנֹכִ֖י עָפָ֥ר וָאֵֽפֶר
|27||And Abraham answered and he said, |
Behold if you will, I have attempted to speak to my Lord, and I am dust and ashes.
|א֠וּלַי יַחְסְר֞וּן חֲמִשִּׁ֤ים הַצַּדִּיקִם֙ חֲמִשָּׁ֔ה הֲתַשְׁחִ֥ית בַּחֲמִשָּׁ֖ה אֶת־כָּל־הָעִ֑יר |
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לֹ֣א אַשְׁחִ֔ית אִם־אֶמְצָ֣א שָׁ֔ם אַרְבָּעִ֖ים וַחֲמִשָּֽׁה
|28||~||Perhaps there will lack of the fifty righteous ones, five. Will you destroy for five all the city? |
And he said, I will not destroy, if I find there forty five.
|וַיֹּ֨סֶף ע֜וֹד לְדַבֵּ֤ר אֵלָיו֙ וַיֹּאמַ֔ר אוּלַ֛י יִמָּצְא֥וּן שָׁ֖ם אַרְבָּעִ֑ים |
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לֹ֣א אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֔ה בַּעֲב֖וּר הָאַרְבָּעִֽים
|29||And again further to speak to him, he said, Perhaps forty will be found there. |
And he said, I will not act, on behalf of the forty.
|וַ֠יֹּאמֶר אַל־נָ֞א יִ֤חַר לַֽאדֹנָי֙ וַאֲדַבֵּ֔רָה אוּלַ֛י יִמָּצְא֥וּן שָׁ֖ם שְׁלֹשִׁ֑ים |
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לֹ֣א אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֔ה אִם־אֶמְצָ֥א שָׁ֖ם שְׁלֹשִֽׁים
|30||~||And he said, Please do not let my Lord burn, and I will speak. Perhaps thirty will be found there, |
And he said, I will not act if I find there thirty.
|וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הִנֵּֽה־נָ֤א הוֹאַ֙לְתִּי֙ לְדַבֵּ֣ר אֶל־אֲדֹנָ֔י אוּלַ֛י יִמָּצְא֥וּן שָׁ֖ם עֶשְׂרִ֑ים |
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לֹ֣א אַשְׁחִ֔ית בַּעֲב֖וּר הָֽעֶשְׂרִֽים
|31||And he said, Behold if you will, I have attempted to speak to my Lord. Perhaps twenty will be found there. |
And he said, I will not destroy on behalf of the twenty.
|וַ֠יֹּאמֶר אַל־נָ֞א יִ֤חַר לַֽאדֹנָי֙ וַאֲדַבְּרָ֣ה אַךְ־הַפַּ֔עַם אוּלַ֛י יִמָּצְא֥וּן שָׁ֖ם עֲשָׂרָ֑ה |
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לֹ֣א אַשְׁחִ֔ית בַּעֲב֖וּר הָעֲשָׂרָֽה
|32||~||And he said, Please do not let my Lord burn, and I will speak but this one time. Perhaps ten will be found there. |
And he said, I will not destroy on behalf of the ten.
|וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ יְהוָ֔ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר כִּלָּ֔ה לְדַבֵּ֖ר אֶל־אַבְרָהָ֑ם |
וְאַבְרָהָ֖ם שָׁ֥ב לִמְקֹמֽוֹ
|33||And Yahweh went when he finished speaking to Abraham. |
And Abraham returned to his place.