Monday, August 14, 2017

2 Chronicles 22

With a chapter from Kings one might expect a chapter of Chronicles to pop to the top of my list. And this short one did. A fascinating battle. The roles and actions of the women are key.

In these chapters it is always difficult to keep the actors distinct in one's mind. How does Azariah get into this chapter? It is an error in the text. It should be corrected to Achaziah. Azariah was a son of Jehoshaphat, Achaziah his grandson by Jehoram. It appears that Joram and Jehoram are also easily confused. (Clearly there are two Jehorams, and Joram appears to be short for Jehoram as well!) It is not something that interests me sufficiently to get distracted. There is lots of information including a colourful post here.

The antecedent of the pronoun in the first verse is the unlamented Jehoram, child of Jehoshaphat, father of Achaziah. Chapter 21 is not far down my to do list.
2 Chronicles 22 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיַּמְלִיכוּ֩ יוֹשְׁבֵ֨י יְרוּשָׁלִַ֜ם אֶת־אֲחַזְיָ֨הוּ בְנ֤וֹ הַקָּטֹן֙ תַּחְתָּ֔יו כִּ֤י כָל־הָרִאשֹׁנִים֙ הָרַ֣ג הַגְּד֔וּד הַבָּ֥א בָֽעַרְבִ֖ים לַֽמַּחֲנֶ֑ה
וַיִּמְלֹ֛ךְ אֲחַזְיָ֥הוּ בֶן־יְהוֹרָ֖ם מֶ֥לֶךְ יְהוּדָֽה
1 And the inhabitants of Jerusalem made Achaziah, his youngest son, king in his stead, for all those first in line, the raiding party that came with the Arabians to the camp, had slain.
And Achaziah reigned, child of Jehoram king of Judah.
3d 4C 41
16
בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִ֨ים וּשְׁתַּ֤יִם שָׁנָה֙ אֲחַזְיָ֣הוּ בְמָלְכ֔וֹ וְשָׁנָ֣ה אַחַ֔ת מָלַ֖ךְ בִּֽירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וְשֵׁ֣ם אִמּ֔וֹ עֲתַלְיָ֖הוּ בַּת־עָמְרִֽי
2 A child of forty two years was Achaziah when he began to reign, and one year he reigned in Jerusalem,
and the name of his mother was Ataliah, the daughter of Omri.
3e 4C 26
11
גַּם־ה֣וּא הָלַ֔ךְ בְּדַרְכֵ֖י בֵּ֣ית אַחְאָ֑ב
כִּ֥י אִמּ֛וֹ הָיְתָ֥ה יֽוֹעַצְתּ֖וֹ לְהַרְשִֽׁיעַ
3 Also he walked in the ways of the house of Ahab,
because his mother was his counselor to do wickedly.
3d 4B 10
12
וַיַּ֧עַשׂ הָרַ֛ע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה כְּבֵ֣ית אַחְאָ֑ב
כִּי־הֵ֜מָּה הָֽיוּ־ל֣וֹ יֽוֹעֲצִ֗ים אַחֲרֵ֛י מ֥וֹת אָבִ֖יו לְמַשְׁחִ֥ית לֽוֹ
4 And he did evil in the eyes of Yahweh like the house of Ahab,
because they were his counselors after the death of his father, to his destruction.
3c 4B 14
17
גַּ֣ם בַּעֲצָתָם֮ הָלַךְ֒ וַיֵּלֶךְ֩ אֶת־יְהוֹרָ֨ם בֶּן־אַחְאָ֜ב מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לַמִּלְחָמָ֛ה עַל־חֲזָאֵ֥ל מֶֽלֶךְ־אֲרָ֖ם בְּרָמ֣וֹת גִּלְעָ֑ד
וַיַּכּ֥וּ הָֽרַמִּ֖ים אֶת־יוֹרָֽם
5 B Also with their counsel he walked, and he went with Jehoram, child of Ahab king of Israel, to war against Hazael king of Aram on the high ground of Gilead,
and the Aramaeans struck Joram.
3d 4B 39
9
וַיָּ֜שָׁב לְהִתְרַפֵּ֣א בְיִזְרְעֶ֗אל כִּ֤י הַמַּכִּים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִכֻּ֣הוּ בָֽרָמָ֔ה בְּהִלָּ֣חֲמ֔וֹ אֶת־חֲזָהאֵ֖ל מֶ֣לֶךְ אֲרָ֑ם
וַעֲזַרְיָ֨הוּ בֶן־יְהוֹרָ֜ם מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֗ה יָרַ֡ד לִרְא֞וֹת אֶת־יְהוֹרָ֧ם בֶּן־אַחְאָ֛ב בְּיִזְרְעֶ֖אל כִּי־חֹלֶ֥ה הֽוּא
6 And he returned to be healed in Jezreel for the defeats that struck him on the high ground when they fought with Hazael king of Aram.
And Azariah, child of Jehoram king of Judah, went down to see Jehoram child of Ahab in Jezreel, for he was ill.
3c 4C 37
33
וּמֵֽאֱלֹהִ֗ים הָיְתָה֙ תְּבוּסַ֣ת אֲחַזְיָ֔הוּ לָב֖וֹא אֶל־יוֹרָ֑ם
וּבְבֹא֗וֹ יָצָ֤א עִם־יְהוֹרָם֙ אֶל־יֵה֣וּא בֶן־נִמְשִׁ֔י אֲשֶׁ֣ר מְשָׁח֣וֹ יְהוָ֔ה לְהַכְרִ֖ית אֶת־בֵּ֥ית אַחְאָֽב
7 But from God was the treading down of Achaziah that he came to Joram.
And when he had come, he went forth with Jehoram to Jehu child of Nimshi, whom Yahweh had anointed to cut off the house of Ahab.
3e 4C 19
29
וַיְהִ֕י כְּהִשָּׁפֵ֥ט יֵה֖וּא עִם־בֵּ֣ית אַחְאָ֑ב
וַיִּמְצָא֩ אֶת־שָׂרֵ֨י יְהוּדָ֜ה וּבְנֵ֨י אֲחֵ֧י אֲחַזְיָ֛הוּ מְשָׁרְתִ֥ים לַאֲחַזְיָ֖הוּ וַיַּהַרְגֵֽם
8 And it happened as the judgment of Jehu with the house of Ahab.
And he found the nobility of Judah and the children of the brothers of Achaziah ministering to Achaziah, and he slew them.
3c 4B 12
29
וַיְבַקֵּשׁ֩ אֶת־אֲחַזְיָ֨הוּ וַֽיִּלְכְּדֻ֜הוּ וְה֧וּא מִתְחַבֵּ֣א בְשֹֽׁמְר֗וֹן וַיְבִאֻ֣הוּ אֶל־יֵהוּא֮ וַיְמִתֻהוּ֒ וַֽיִּקְבְּרֻ֔הוּ כִּ֤י אָֽמְרוּ֙ בֶּן־יְהוֹשָׁפָ֣ט ה֔וּא אֲשֶׁר־דָּרַ֥שׁ אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה בְּכָל־לְבָב֑וֹ
וְאֵין֙ לְבֵ֣ית אֲחַזְיָ֔הוּ לַעְצֹ֥ר כֹּ֖חַ לְמַמְלָכָֽה
9 And he sought out Achaziah, and they caught him, (he was camouflaged in Samaria), and brought him to Jehu, and they put him to death and entombed him, for they said, Child of Jehoshaphat is he, who searched out Yahweh with all his heart.
And there was none of the house of Achaziah to coerce power for his kingdom.
3c 4C 58
16
וַעֲתַלְיָ֙הוּ֙ אֵ֣ם אֲחַזְיָ֔הוּ רָאֲתָ֖ה כִּ֣י מֵ֣ת בְּנָ֑הּ
וַתָּ֗קָם וַתְּדַבֵּ֛ר אֶת־כָּל־זֶ֥רַע הַמַּמְלָכָ֖ה לְבֵ֥ית יְהוּדָֽה
10 Ataliah, the mother of Achaziah, saw that her son was dead,
and she arose and she spoke with all the seed of the kingdom to the house of Judah,
3d 4B 17
19
וַתִּקַּח֩ יְהוֹשַׁבְעַ֨ת בַּת־הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶת־יוֹאָ֣שׁ בֶּן־אֲחַזְיָ֗הוּ וַתִּגְנֹ֤ב אֹתוֹ֙ מִתּ֤וֹךְ בְּנֵֽי־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ הַמּ֣וּמָתִ֔ים וַתִּתֵּ֥ן אֹת֛וֹ וְאֶת־מֵֽינִקְתּ֖וֹ בַּחֲדַ֣ר הַמִּטּ֑וֹת
וַתַּסְתִּירֵ֡הוּ יְהוֹשַׁבְעַ֣ת בַּת־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ יְהוֹרָ֡ם אֵשֶׁת֩ יְהוֹיָדָ֨ע הַכֹּהֵ֜ן כִּ֣י הִיא֩ הָיְתָ֨ה אֲח֧וֹת אֲחַזְיָ֛הוּ מִפְּנֵ֥י עֲתַלְיָ֖הוּ וְלֹ֥א הֱמִיתָֽתְהוּ
11 But Yehushabaet, the daughter of the king, took Joash child of Achaziah, and stole him from among children of the king that were put to death, and she consigned him and his nanny in the inner room of the couches,
and Yehushabaet, the daughter of the king Jehoram, the wife of Jehoiada the priest, (for she was a sister of Achaziah), hid him from the presence of Ataliah, and they did not put him to death.
3c 4C 50
47
וַיְהִ֤י אִתָּם֙ בְּבֵ֣ית הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים מִתְחַבֵּ֖א שֵׁ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֖ים וַעֲתַלְיָ֖ה מֹלֶ֥כֶת עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ 12 And he was with them in the house of God, camouflaged, six years.
And Ataliah reigned over the land.
3e 4C 27

2 Kings 8

I could have been speaking to my shrink, and she said to me, Bob, where did you begin to go wrong that you wanted to change all the glosses in the English of the Hebrew Bible?
And I answered, It was all the smiting.
So now, she asked, you have all that striking
And I replied, It does look as if I have simply changed one for the other. But I have sorted some of the violence...

The Latin was the original culprit. Let's find נכה and הלם and see. There are 16 Latin roots for נכה and 8 for הלם, three of which overlap. And I wondered, smite being a touch archaic anyway, if it were possible to translate without overlapping different roots. I have traded the archaic for the awkward. And for these two words, there is no overlap at all and each has only one gloss in English.

הלם smite(2), smiting(1), smitten(2)
נכה more strikes(1), Neko(5), stricken(4), strike(60), striker(1), strikes(14), striking(5), struck(164)

I am mildly surprised. Words that are more or less straightforward.

2 Kings 8 Fn Min Max Syll
וֶאֱלִישָׁ֡ע דִּבֶּ֣ר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה֩ אֲשֶׁר־הֶחֱיָ֨ה אֶת־בְּנָ֜הּ לֵאמֹ֗ר ק֤וּמִי וּלְכִי֙ אַ֣תְּ וּבֵיתֵ֔ךְ וְג֖וּרִי בַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר תָּג֑וּרִי
כִּֽי־קָרָ֤א יְהוָה֙ לָֽרָעָ֔ב וְגַם־בָּ֥א אֶל־הָאָ֖רֶץ שֶׁ֥בַע שָׁנִֽים
1 And Elisha spoke to the woman whose son he had made live, saying, Arise and come away, you and your house, and reside wherever you can reside,
because Yahweh has called for famine, and moreover, it will come to the land seven years.
3e 4C 37
18
וַתָּ֙קָם֙ הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה וַתַּ֕עַשׂ כִּדְבַ֖ר אִ֣ישׁ הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים
וַתֵּ֤לֶךְ הִיא֙ וּבֵיתָ֔הּ וַתָּ֥גָר בְּאֶֽרֶץ־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים שֶׁ֥בַע שָׁנִֽים
2 And the woman arose and she did according to the word of the man of God,
and she went, she and her house, and she resided in the land of the Philistines seven years.
3e 4C 16
20
וַיְהִ֗י מִקְצֵה֙ שֶׁ֣בַע שָׁנִ֔ים וַתָּ֥שָׁב הָאִשָּׁ֖ה מֵאֶ֣רֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים
וַתֵּצֵא֙ לִצְעֹ֣ק אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֶל־בֵּיתָ֖הּ וְאֶל־שָׂדָֽהּ
3 And it was at the culmination of seven years, and the woman returned from the land of the Philistines,
and she went forth to cry out to the king for her house and for her field.
3e 4B 20
16
וְהַמֶּ֗לֶךְ מְדַבֵּר֙ אֶל־גֵּ֣חֲזִ֔י נַ֥עַר אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים לֵאמֹ֑ר
סַפְּרָה־נָּ֣א לִ֔י אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַגְּדֹל֖וֹת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה אֱלִישָֽׁע
4 And the king was speaking to Gehazi, a lad of the man of God, saying,
Recount, please, for me all the great things that Elisha has done.
3e 4B 20
16
וַ֠יְהִי ה֥וּא מְסַפֵּ֣ר לַמֶּלֶךְ֮ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־הֶחֱיָ֣ה אֶת־הַמֵּת֒ וְהִנֵּ֨ה הָאִשָּׁ֜ה אֲשֶׁר־הֶחֱיָ֤ה אֶת־בְּנָהּ֙ צֹעֶ֣קֶת אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ עַל־בֵּיתָ֖הּ וְעַל־שָׂדָ֑הּ
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר גֵּֽחֲזִי֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ זֹ֚את הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה וְזֶה־בְּנָ֖הּ אֲשֶׁר־הֶחֱיָ֥ה אֱלִישָֽׁע
5 ~ And as he was himself recounting to the king that he had made live what was dead, that behold, the woman whose son he had made live was crying out to the king concerning her house and concerning her field,
and Gehazi said, my Lord the king, This is the woman and this her son that Elisha made live.
3e 4C 46
28
וַיִּשְׁאַ֥ל הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ לָאִשָּׁ֖ה וַתְּסַפֶּר־ל֑וֹ
וַיִּתֶּן־לָ֣הּ הַמֶּלֶךְ֩ סָרִ֨יס אֶחָ֜ד לֵאמֹ֗ר הָשֵׁ֤יב אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לָהּ֙ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־תְּבוּאֹ֣ת הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה מִיּ֛וֹם עָזְבָ֥ה אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ וְעַד־עָֽתָּה
6 And the king asked the woman, and she recounted to him.
So the king assigned to her one eunuch, saying, Restore all that is hers and all the income of the field from the day she forsook the land and till now.
3d 4C 13
41
וַיָּבֹ֤א אֱלִישָׁע֙ דַּמֶּ֔שֶׂק וּבֶן־הֲדַ֥ד מֶֽלֶךְ־אֲרָ֖ם חֹלֶ֑ה
וַיֻּגַּד־ל֣וֹ לֵאמֹ֔ר בָּ֛א אִ֥ישׁ הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים עַד־הֵֽנָּה
7 And Elisha came to Damascus and Benhadad, king of Aram, was ill,
and it was told him, saying, The man of God is come. Just look.
3d 4C 19
15
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶל־חֲזָהאֵ֗ל קַ֤ח בְּיָֽדְךָ֙ מִנְחָ֔ה וְלֵ֕ךְ לִקְרַ֖את אִ֣ישׁ הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים
וְדָרַשְׁתָּ֨ אֶת־יְהוָ֤ה מֵֽאוֹתוֹ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הַאֶחְיֶ֖ה מֵחֳלִ֥י זֶֽה
8 And the king to said Hazael, Take by your hand a gift, and go to call on the man of God.
And you search out Yahweh through him, saying, Will I survive this illness?
3e 4C 25
19
וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ חֲזָאֵל֮ לִקְרָאתוֹ֒ וַיִּקַּ֨ח מִנְחָ֤ה בְיָדוֹ֙ וְכָל־ט֣וּב דַּמֶּ֔שֶׂק מַשָּׂ֖א אַרְבָּעִ֣ים גָּמָ֑ל
וַיָּבֹא֙ וַיַּעֲמֹ֣ד לְפָנָ֔יו וַיֹּ֗אמֶר בִּנְךָ֨ בֶן־הֲדַ֤ד מֶֽלֶךְ־אֲרָם֙ שְׁלָחַ֤נִי אֵלֶ֙יךָ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הַאֶחְיֶ֖ה מֵחֳלִ֥י זֶֽה
9 And Hazael went to encounter him, and he took a gift in his hand of everything good in Damascus, the load of forty camels.
And he came and he stood before him and said, Your child, Benhadad, king of Aram, sent me to you to say, Will I survive this illness?
3e 4C 30
38
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ אֱלִישָׁ֔ע לֵ֥ךְ אֱמָר־ל֖וֹ חָיֹ֣ה תִחְיֶ֑ה
וְהִרְאַ֥נִי יְהוָ֖ה כִּֽי־מ֥וֹת יָמֽוּת
10 And Elisha said to him, Go. Say to him, To live, you will live,
but Yahweh has showed me that to die, he will die.
3e 4C 16
10
וַיַּעֲמֵ֥ד אֶת־פָּנָ֖יו וַיָּ֣שֶׂם עַד־בֹּ֑שׁ
וַיֵּ֖בְךְּ אִ֥ישׁ הָאֱלֹהִֽים
11 And he steadied his countenance and set until he was ashamed,
and the man of God wept.
3e 4B 12
8
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר חֲזָאֵ֔ל מַדּ֖וּעַ אֲדֹנִ֣י בֹכֶ֑ה
וַיֹּ֡אמֶר כִּֽי־יָדַ֡עְתִּי אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־תַּעֲשֶׂה֩ לִבְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל רָעָ֗ה מִבְצְרֵיהֶ֞ם תְּשַׁלַּ֤ח בָּאֵשׁ֙ וּבַחֻֽרֵיהֶם֙ בַּחֶ֣רֶב תַּהֲרֹ֔ג וְעֹלְלֵיהֶ֣ם תְּרַטֵּ֔שׁ וְהָרֹתֵיהֶ֖ם תְּבַקֵּֽעַ
12 And said Hazael, Why, my Lord, weep?
And he said, Because I know that will you do evil to the children of Israel. Their enclosures you will send into the fire, and their chosen by the sword you will slay, and their infants you will dash in pieces, and their pregnant women you will split in two.
3e 4C 14
55
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר חֲזָהאֵ֔ל כִּ֣י מָ֤ה עַבְדְּךָ֙ הַכֶּ֔לֶב כִּ֣י יַעֲשֶׂ֔ה הַדָּבָ֥ר הַגָּד֖וֹל הַזֶּ֑ה
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלִישָׁ֔ע הִרְאַ֧נִי יְהוָ֛ה אֹתְךָ֖ מֶ֥לֶךְ עַל־אֲרָֽם
13 And Hazael said, For what? Is your servant a dog that he will deal with this great thing?
And said Elisha, Yahweh showed me. You will be king over Aram.
3c 4C 26
18
וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ ׀ מֵאֵ֣ת אֱלִישָׁ֗ע וַיָּבֹא֙ אֶל־אֲדֹנָ֔יו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ מָֽה־אָמַ֥ר לְךָ֖ אֱלִישָׁ֑ע
וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אָ֥מַר לִ֖י חָיֹ֥ה תִחְיֶֽה
14 And he went from Elisha, and he came to his master. And he said to him, What did Elisha say to you?
And he said said to me, To live, you will live.
3e 4B 27
10
וַיְהִ֣י מִֽמָּחֳרָ֗ת וַיִּקַּ֤ח הַמַּכְבֵּר֙ וַיִּטְבֹּ֣ל בַּמַּ֔יִם וַיִּפְרֹ֥שׂ עַל־פָּנָ֖יו וַיָּמֹ֑ת
וַיִּמְלֹ֥ךְ חֲזָהאֵ֖ל תַּחְתָּֽיו
15 And it happened afterwards that he took fabric that he had dipped in the water to spread on his face, and he died.
And Hazael reigned in his stead.
3e 4C 26
8
וּבִשְׁנַ֣ת חָמֵ֗שׁ לְיוֹרָ֤ם בֶּן־אַחְאָב֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וִיהוֹשָׁפָ֖ט מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה
מָלַ֛ךְ יְהוֹרָ֥ם בֶּן־יְהוֹשָׁפָ֖ט מֶ֥לֶךְ יְהוּדָֽה
16 And in the fifth year of Joram, child of Ahab king of Israel, when Jehoshaphat was king of Judah,
Jehoram, child of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, reigned.
3d 4C 25
15
בֶּן־שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים וּשְׁתַּ֛יִם שָׁנָ֖ה הָיָ֣ה בְמָלְכ֑וֹ
וּשְׁמֹנֶ֣ה שָׁנִ֔ים מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם
17 A child of thirty two years he was when he began to reign,
and eight years he reigned in Jerusalem.
3d 4B 13
11
וַיֵּ֜לֶךְ בְּדֶ֣רֶךְ ׀ מַלְכֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשׂוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית אַחְאָ֔ב כִּ֚י בַּת־אַחְאָ֔ב הָֽיְתָה־לּ֖וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֑ה
וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הָרַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהוָֽה
18 And he walked in the way of the kings of Israel as had done the house of Ahab, because the daughter of Ahab was his wife.
And he did evil in the eyes of Yahweh.
3e 4C 29
10
וְלֹֽא־אָבָ֤ה יְהוָה֙ לְהַשְׁחִ֣ית אֶת־יְהוּדָ֔ה לְמַ֖עַן דָּוִ֣ד עַבְדּ֑וֹ
כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר אָֽמַר־ל֗וֹ לָתֵ֨ת ל֥וֹ נִ֛יר לְבָנָ֖יו כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים
19 But Yahweh did not consent to destroy Judah for the sake of David his servant,
as he had promised to him to permit for him a lamp for his children every day.
3d 4C 19
17
בְּיָמָיו֙ פָּשַׁ֣ע אֱד֔וֹם מִתַּ֖חַת יַד־יְהוּדָ֑ה
וַיַּמְלִ֥כוּ עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם מֶֽלֶךְ
20 In his days Edom transgressed from under the hand of Judah,
and they made a king reign over them.
3e 4B 14
9
וַיַּעֲבֹ֤ר יוֹרָם֙ צָעִ֔ירָה וְכָל־הָרֶ֖כֶב עִמּ֑וֹ
וַֽיְהִי־ה֞וּא קָ֣ם לַ֗יְלָה וַיַּכֶּ֨ה אֶת־אֱד֜וֹם הַסֹּבֵ֤יב אֵלָיו֙ וְאֵת֙ שָׂרֵ֣י הָרֶ֔כֶב וַיָּ֥נָס הָעָ֖ם לְאֹהָלָֽיו
21 So Joram crossed over to Zair and every charioteer with him.
And he arose by night and struck Edom round about him and the chief charioteers. And the people withdrew to their tents.
3e 4C 16
32
וַיִּפְשַׁ֣ע אֱד֗וֹם מִתַּ֙חַת֙ יַד־יְהוּדָ֔ה עַ֖ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה
אָ֛ז תִּפְשַׁ֥ע לִבְנָ֖ה בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִֽיא
22 And Edom has transgressed from under the hand of Judah to this day.
Then Livnah transgressed at that same time.
3d 4B 17
9
וְיֶ֛תֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י יוֹרָ֖ם וְכָל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה
הֲלֽוֹא־הֵ֣ם כְּתוּבִ֗ים עַל־סֵ֛פֶר דִּבְרֵ֥י הַיָּמִ֖ים לְמַלְכֵ֥י יְהוּדָֽה
23 And the remaining words of Joram and all that he undertook,
are they not written in the record of the words of the days of the kings of Judah?
3d 4B 13
20
וַיִּשְׁכַּ֤ב יוֹרָם֙ עִם־אֲבֹתָ֔יו וַיִּקָּבֵ֥ר עִם־אֲבֹתָ֖יו בְּעִ֣יר דָּוִ֑ד
וַיִּמְלֹ֛ךְ אֲחַזְיָ֥הוּ בְנ֖וֹ תַּחְתָּֽיו
24 And Joram was laid out with his ancestors, and was entombed with his ancestors in the city of David,
and Achaziah his son reigned in his stead.
3d 4C 21
11
בִּשְׁנַת֙ שְׁתֵּים־עֶשְׂרֵ֣ה שָׁנָ֔ה לְיוֹרָ֥ם בֶּן־אַחְאָ֖ב מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
מָלַ֛ךְ אֲחַזְיָ֥הוּ בֶן־יְהוֹרָ֖ם מֶ֥לֶךְ יְהוּדָֽה
25 In the twelfth year of the years of Joram, child of Ahab king of Israel,
Achaziah reigned, child of Jehoram king of Judah.
3d 4B 19
15
בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִ֨ים וּשְׁתַּ֤יִם שָׁנָה֙ אֲחַזְיָ֣הוּ בְמָלְכ֔וֹ וְשָׁנָ֣ה אַחַ֔ת מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וְשֵׁ֤ם אִמּוֹ֙ עֲתַלְיָ֔הוּ בַּת־עָמְרִ֖י מֶ֥לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
26 A child of twenty two years was Achaziah when he began to reign, and one year he reigned in Jerusalem.
And the name of his mother was Ataliah, the daughter of Omri king of Israel.
3e 4C 25
16
וַיֵּ֗לֶךְ בְּדֶ֙רֶךְ֙ בֵּ֣ית אַחְאָ֔ב וַיַּ֧עַשׂ הָרַ֛ע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה כְּבֵ֣ית אַחְאָ֑ב
כִּ֛י חֲתַ֥ן בֵּית־אַחְאָ֖ב הֽוּא
27 And he walked in the way of the house of Ahab, and he did evil in the eyes of Yahweh as the house of Ahab,
because son-in-law of the house of Ahab was he.
3c 4B 23
7
וַיֵּ֜לֶךְ אֶת־יוֹרָ֣ם בֶּן־אַחְאָ֗ב לַמִּלְחָמָ֛ה עִם־חֲזָהאֵ֥ל מֶֽלֶךְ־אֲרָ֖ם בְּרָמֹ֣ת גִּלְעָ֑ד
וַיַּכּ֥וּ אֲרַמִּ֖ים אֶת־יוֹרָֽם
28 And he went with Joram child of Ahab to war with Hazael king of Aram on the high ground of Gilead,
and the Aramaeans struck Joram.
3d 4B 26
9
וַיָּשָׁב֩ יוֹרָ֨ם הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ לְהִתְרַפֵּ֣א בְיִזְרְעֶ֗אל מִן־הַמַּכִּים֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַכֻּ֤הוּ אֲרַמִּים֙ בָּֽרָמָ֔ה בְּהִלָּ֣חֲמ֔וֹ אֶת־חֲזָהאֵ֖ל מֶ֣לֶךְ אֲרָ֑ם
וַאֲחַזְיָ֨הוּ בֶן־יְהוֹרָ֜ם מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֗ה יָרַ֡ד לִרְא֞וֹת אֶת־יוֹרָ֧ם בֶּן־אַחְאָ֛ב בְּיִזְרְעֶ֖אל כִּֽי־חֹלֶ֥ה הֽוּא
29 And Joram the king returned to be healed in Jezreel from the defeats that the Aramaeans struck on the high ground when they fought with Hazael king of Aram.
And Achaziah child of Jehoram king of Judah went down to see Joram child of Ahab in Jezreel, for he was ill.
3c 4C 45
32

Friday, August 11, 2017

Status of my reading project

This is translation and it teaches me myriad lessons about languages, but I still think of it as a 'reading' project.

We are now at the significant milestone of 555 chapters (out of 929) and so by this measure nearly 60% complete. Words in completed chapters are just under 50% and verses about 53%, but words to do are just under 40% since there is quite a bit of work in process based on the guessing algorithm. Here are the percentages complete by major section of the Hebrew Bible.
Books Chapters Verses by vs Chapters 'Done' Verses compl ch Words compl ch weeks rem. % 'done' by ch
1 Torah 187 5843 25% 90 2721 38225 26.0 48.1%
2 Former Prophets 147 4297 19% 50 1439 23190 23.8 34.0%
3 Later Prophets 166 3928 17% 70 1475 22860 20.4 42.2%
4 The 12 67 1050 5% 67 1050 14357 0.0 100.0%
5 Books of Truth 223 4502 19% 217 4331 33401 1.4 97.3%
6 The 5 Scrolls 39 745 3% 39 745 10118 0.0 100.0%
7 Other 100 2791 12% 22 493 7450 19.2 22.0%
Totals 929 23156 100% 555 12,254 149,601 90.9

Every chapter I do results in changes to other chapters. Just looking at completed verses, in the first 11 days of August, there have been 9 chapters (185 verses) published on the blog, but as it happens 39 verses outside these chapters were also changed because chapters I work on reach into my phrasing or glossing of other chapters. Of these 30 were in completed chapters and so were also changed on the blog if required. The blog is a partial backup so I keep it up to date. My main backup is an extract from the Oracle database which I can fully operate off the web. It seems odd, but over 64,000 individual gloss records in the database have been changed in these 11 days. No way I could manage this degree of control manually.

Estimated time left in the project (90 weeks above) is debatable. It depends on my reading speed and the number of hours I spend. This will change over the next year since my son's family is arriving in a few weeks to stay in Victoria with a permanent position here. So we will have a different life-style and different demands on our time. 'Done' is also a relative word as you can tell from the 20% impact of 9 new chapters on the 546 that had already been done as at the end of July. 

The pattern of development has been this. The first book completed was the Psalms. Then I did Job, Jonah, Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, and Qohelet. These provided the seed bed of glosses for the remaining chapters as I gradually developed the computer algorithms to automate my concordance rules. Now I generally translate first those chapters which have been 'guessed at' by the algorithms. At the moment there are 73 chapters that are more than half translated when I start reading them. Sometimes all I have to do is press one button to confirm the guesses. Those that are comprised of guesses based on 3 to 6 words in sequence usually require little or no change. This process has evolved into a reading strategy. I do about 10 of these, then I take a break into some of the lesser guessed chapters wherever I choose. When the book of Proverbs is finished, I will probably choose a latter prophet as my respite. (Or I may work on the Aramaic seed chapters).

I think I chose right to translate the Psalms first. So if anyone asks me what to read first in the 'Old Testament', my answer is Psalms. The impact on the words of the Psalms on the chapters I have done over the last 18 months is about 10%. The style is not different from my explorations in Seeing the Psalter, but there have been changes in gloss, some of which I have noted specifically on the blog. The Psalms are key to interpretation, and a key must be ground to the right shape to fit in the lock and turn easily.

The following table shows the status of each book. You can see from the last changed date that completed sections are all impacted by the work in process. It seems I at least can't do one book in the puzzle without doing the whole puzzle at once. Books that are not complete are changing every time I rerun the guessing algorithm, so their dates would all be today.

Changed Books % (words) complete
GENESIS 51.3%
EXODUS 67.8%
LEVITICUS 47.1%
NUMBERS 51.4%
DEUTERONOMY 85.8%
JOSHUA 54.0%
JUDGES 32.0%
1 SAMUEL 44.9%
2 SAMUEL 37.9%
1 KINGS 54.4%
2 KINGS 67.8%
ISAIAH 48.9%
JEREMIAH 67.9%
EZEKIEL 36.8%
2017-08-07 HOSEA 100.0%
2017-07-29 JOEL 100.0%
2017-08-11 AMOS 100.0%
2017-07-07 OBADIAH 100.0%
2017-07-09 JONAH 100.0%
2017-07-10 MICAH 100.0%
2017-08-07 NAHUM 100.0%
2017-08-07 HABAKKUK 100.0%
2017-07-09 ZEPHANIAH 100.0%
2017-05-21 HAGGAI 100.0%
2017-07-09 ZECHARIAH 100.0%
2017-08-03 MALACHI 100.0%
2017-08-08 PSALMS 100.0%
PROVERBS 81.1%
2017-08-09 JOB 100.0%
2017-07-25 SONG 100.0%
2017-07-09 RUTH 100.0%
2017-08-07 LAMENTATIONS 100.0%
2017-08-03 QOHELET 100.0%
2017-07-19 ESTHER 100.0%
DANIEL 15.2%
EZRA 22.3%
NEHEMIAH 25.7%
1 CHRONICLES 30.5%
2 CHRONICLES 50.3%

1 Samuel 7

I suppose The House of the Butting Lamb is a neighborhood pub in the Mizpah.

1 Samuel 7 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ אַנְשֵׁ֣י ׀ קִרְיַ֣ת יְעָרִ֗ים וַֽיַּעֲלוּ֙ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן יְהוָ֔ה וַיָּבִ֣אוּ אֹת֔וֹ אֶל־בֵּ֥ית אֲבִינָדָ֖ב בַּגִּבְעָ֑ה
וְאֶת־אֶלְעָזָ֤ר בְּנוֹ֙ קִדְּשׁ֔וּ לִשְׁמֹ֖ר אֶת־אֲר֥וֹן יְהוָֽה
1 And the men of the town of Yearim came and they brought up the ark of Yahweh, and they brought it to the house of Abinadab on the hillock,
and Eleazar his son they sanctified to keep the ark of Yahweh.
3e 4C 34
16
וַיְהִ֗י מִיּ֞וֹם שֶׁ֤בֶת הָֽאָרוֹן֙ בְּקִרְיַ֣ת יְעָרִ֔ים וַיִּרְבּוּ֙ הַיָּמִ֔ים וַיִּֽהְי֖וּ עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה
וַיִּנָּה֛וּ כָּל־בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אַחֲרֵ֥י יְהוָֽה
2 And it happened from the day the ark settled in the town of Yearim, the days increased and they became twenty years,
and all the house of Israel moaned after Yahweh.
3d 4C 28
14
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל אֶל־כָּל־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵל֮ לֵאמֹר֒ אִם־בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶ֗ם אַתֶּ֤ם שָׁבִים֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה הָסִ֜ירוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵ֧י הַנֵּכָ֛ר מִתּוֹכְכֶ֖ם וְהָעַשְׁתָּר֑וֹת
וְהָכִ֨ינוּ לְבַבְכֶ֤ם אֶל־יְהוָה֙ וְעִבְדֻ֣הוּ לְבַדּ֔וֹ וְיַצֵּ֥ל אֶתְכֶ֖ם מִיַּ֥ד פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים
3 And Samuel said to all the house of Israel, saying, If with all your heart you return to Yahweh, put aside the alien gods from your midst, and the Ashtaroth,
and prepare your heart to Yahweh and serve him, him alone, and he will deliverer you from the hand of the Philistines.
3c 4C 45
27
וַיָּסִ֙ירוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֶת־הַבְּעָלִ֖ים וְאֶת־הָעַשְׁתָּרֹ֑ת
וַיַּעַבְד֥וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה לְבַדּֽוֹ
4 And the children of Israel put aside the Baalim and the Ashtaroth,
and they served Yahweh, him alone.
3e 4B 19
10
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל קִבְצ֥וּ אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל הַמִּצְפָּ֑תָה
וְאֶתְפַּלֵּ֥ל בַּעַדְכֶ֖ם אֶל־יְהוָֽה
5 And Samuel said, Collect all Israel to Mizpah,
and I will pray for you to Yahweh.
3e 4B 17
10
וַיִּקָּבְצ֣וּ הַ֠מִּצְפָּתָה וַיִּֽשְׁאֲבוּ־מַ֜יִם וַֽיִּשְׁפְּכ֣וּ ׀ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֗ה וַיָּצ֙וּמוּ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא וַיֹּ֣אמְרוּ שָׁ֔ם חָטָ֖אנוּ לַיהוָ֑ה
וַיִּשְׁפֹּ֧ט שְׁמוּאֵ֛ל אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בַּמִּצְפָּֽה
6 And they collected themselves to Mizpah, and they drew water, and they poured out in the presence of Yahweh, and fasted in that day, and said, There we have sinned against Yahweh.
And Samuel judged the children of Israel in Mizpah.
3c 4B 38
15
וַיִּשְׁמְע֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים כִּֽי־הִתְקַבְּצ֤וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ הַמִּצְפָּ֔תָה וַיַּעֲל֥וּ סַרְנֵֽי־פְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַֽיִּשְׁמְעוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיִּֽרְא֖וּ מִפְּנֵ֥י פְלִשְׁתִּֽים
7 When the Philistines heard that the children of Israel had collected themselves to Mizpah, the chieftains of the Philistines went up to Israel.
When the children of Israel heard, they feared from the presence of Philistines.
3e 4C 33
17
וַיֹּאמְר֤וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵ֔ל אַל־תַּחֲרֵ֣שׁ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ מִזְּעֹ֖ק אֶל־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ
וְיֹשִׁעֵ֖נוּ מִיַּ֥ד פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים
8 And the children of Israel said to Samuel, Do not be silent about us, to appeal to Yahweh our God,
and he will save us from the hand of the Philistines.
3e 4C 28
10
וַיִּקַּ֣ח שְׁמוּאֵ֗ל טְלֵ֤ה חָלָב֙ אֶחָ֔ד וַיַּעֲלֵ֧הוּ עוֹלָ֛ה כָּלִ֖יל לַֽיהוָ֑ה
וַיִּזְעַ֨ק שְׁמוּאֵ֤ל אֶל־יְהוָה֙ בְּעַ֣ד יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַֽיַּעֲנֵ֖הוּ יְהוָֽה
9 And Samuel took one milking lambkin and offered it as a burnt offering, a whole offering to Yahweh,
and Samuel appealed to Yahweh about Israel, and Yahweh answered him.
3c 4C 23
21
וַיְהִ֤י שְׁמוּאֵל֙ מַעֲלֶ֣ה הָעוֹלָ֔ה וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֣ים נִגְּשׁ֔וּ לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיַּרְעֵ֣ם יְהוָ֣ה ׀ בְּקוֹל־גָּ֠דוֹל בַּיּ֨וֹם הַה֤וּא עַל־פְּלִשְׁתִּים֙ וַיְהֻמֵּ֔ם וַיִּנָּגְפ֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
10 And Samuel was offering up the burnt offering, and the Philistines made overture to battle against Israel,
and Yahweh thundered with a great voice in that day over the Philistines, and confused them, and they were plagued in the face of Israel.
3e 4C 24
29
וַיֵּ֨צְא֜וּ אַנְשֵׁ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִן־הַמִּצְפָּ֔ה וַֽיִּרְדְּפ֖וּ אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים
וַיַּכּ֕וּם עַד־מִתַּ֖חַת לְבֵ֥ית כָּֽר
11 And the soldiers of Israel went forth from Mizpah and pursued the Philistines,
and they struck them till they were under The House of the Butting Lamb.
3e 4C 20
10
וַיִּקַּ֨ח שְׁמוּאֵ֜ל אֶ֣בֶן אַחַ֗ת וַיָּ֤שֶׂם בֵּֽין־הַמִּצְפָּה֙ וּבֵ֣ין הַשֵּׁ֔ן וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמָ֖הּ אֶ֣בֶן הָעָ֑זֶר
וַיֹּאמַ֕ר עַד־הֵ֖נָּה עֲזָרָ֥נוּ יְהוָֽה
12 And Samuel took one stone to set between Mizpah and Ivory, and he called its name Stone of Help,
and he said, Till now Yahweh has helped us.
3e 4C 32
12
וַיִּכָּֽנְעוּ֙ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וְלֹא־יָסְפ֣וּ ע֔וֹד לָב֖וֹא בִּגְב֣וּל יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַתְּהִ֤י יַד־יְהוָה֙ בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֥י שְׁמוּאֵֽל
13 And the Philistines were brought to heel and no longer repeatedly entered the border of Israel.
So it was that the hand of Yahweh was against the Philistines all the days of Samuel.
3e 4C 19
14
וַתָּשֹׁ֣בְנָה הֶעָרִ֡ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר לָֽקְחוּ־פְלִשְׁתִּים֩ מֵאֵ֨ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל ׀ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מֵעֶקְר֣וֹן וְעַד־גַּ֔ת וְאֶ֨ת־גְּבוּלָ֔ן הִצִּ֥יל יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִיַּ֣ד פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים
וַיְהִ֣י שָׁל֔וֹם בֵּ֥ין יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וּבֵ֥ין הָאֱמֹרִֽי
14 And the cities that took the Philistines from Israel were restored to Israel from Eqron and to Gath, and Israel delivered its borders from the hand of the Philistines,
and there was peace between Israel and the Amorite.
3e 4C 44
14
וַיִּשְׁפֹּ֤ט שְׁמוּאֵל֙ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֥י חַיָּֽיו 15 And Samuel judged Israel all the days of his life. 3e 4C 15
וְהָלַ֗ךְ מִדֵּ֤י שָׁנָה֙ בְּשָׁנָ֔ה וְסָבַב֙ בֵּֽית־אֵ֔ל וְהַגִּלְגָּ֖ל וְהַמִּצְפָּ֑ה
וְשָׁפַט֙ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַמְּקוֹמ֖וֹת הָאֵֽלֶּה
16 And he walked as often as year by year and he circled around Bethel and Gilgal and Mizpeh,
and he judged Israel in all these places.
3e 4C 23
15
וּתְשֻׁבָת֤וֹ הָרָמָ֙תָה֙ כִּֽי־שָׁ֣ם בֵּית֔וֹ וְשָׁ֖ם שָׁפָ֣ט אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיִּֽבֶן־שָׁ֥ם מִזְבֵּ֖חַ לַֽיהוָֽה
17 And his return was towards Ramah, for there his house was, and there he judged Israel.
And he built there an altar to Yahweh.
3e 4C 20
9

Thursday, August 10, 2017

Joshua 20

A short chapter but not without difficulty. Repeats aspects of the establishment of the cities differentiated for asylum (קלט). The word is  not refuge, חסה, a stem rarely used in Torah but frequent in the Psalms, where my gloss is the traditional refuge.

Joshua 20 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ לֵאמֹֽר 1 And Yahweh spoke to Joshua, saying, 3e 4B 12
דַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר
תְּנ֤וּ לָכֶם֙ אֶת־עָרֵ֣י הַמִּקְלָ֔ט אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּ֥רְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶ֖ם בְּיַד־מֹשֶֽׁה
2 Speak to the children of Israel, saying,
Assign for yourselves the cities of asylum, as I spoke to you by the hand of Moses.
3d 4C 10
22
לָנ֥וּס שָׁ֙מָּה֙ רוֹצֵ֔חַ מַכֵּה־נֶ֥פֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָ֖ה בִּבְלִי־דָ֑עַת
וְהָי֤וּ לָכֶם֙ לְמִקְלָ֔ט מִגֹּאֵ֖ל הַדָּֽם
3 To let a murderer withdraw there who struck someone inadvertently without knowledge,
that they might become for you as an asylum from the redeemer of blood.
3e 4C 17
13
וְנָ֞ס אֶל־אַחַ֣ת ׀ מֵהֶעָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה וְעָמַד֙ פֶּ֚תַח שַׁ֣עַר הָעִ֔יר וְדִבֶּ֛ר בְּאָזְנֵ֛י זִקְנֵ֥י־הָעִֽיר הַהִ֖יא אֶת־דְּבָרָ֑יו
וְאָסְפ֨וּ אֹת֤וֹ הָעִ֙ירָה֙ אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם וְנָתְנוּ־ל֥וֹ מָק֖וֹם וְיָשַׁ֥ב עִמָּֽם
4 When such withdraws to one out of those cities, and stands at the door of the gate of the city, and speaks in the ears of the elders of that city his words,
then they will gather him to the city to themselves, and they will assign him a place that he may settle with them.
3d 4C 36
21
וְכִ֨י יִרְדֹּ֜ף גֹּאֵ֤ל הַדָּם֙ אַֽחֲרָ֔יו וְלֹֽא־יַסְגִּ֥רוּ אֶת־הָרֹצֵ֖חַ בְּיָד֑וֹ
כִּ֤י בִבְלִי־דַ֙עַת֙ הִכָּ֣ה אֶת־רֵעֵ֔הוּ וְלֹֽא־שֹׂנֵ֥א ה֛וּא ל֖וֹ מִתְּמ֥וֹל שִׁלְשֽׁוֹם
5 And if the one redeeming the blood pursues after him, then they will not imprison the murderer by his hand,
because without knowledge he struck his associate, and he had not hated him previously.
3d 4C 24
19
וְיָשַׁ֣ב ׀ בָּעִ֣יר הַהִ֗יא עַד־עָמְד֞וֹ לִפְנֵ֤י הָֽעֵדָה֙ לַמִּשְׁפָּ֔ט עַד־מוֹת֙ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּד֔וֹל אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִהְיֶ֖ה בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֑ם
אָ֣ז ׀ יָשׁ֣וּב הָרוֹצֵ֗חַ וּבָ֤א אֶל־עִירוֹ֙ וְאֶל־בֵּית֔וֹ אֶל־הָעִ֖יר אֲשֶׁר־נָ֥ס מִשָּֽׁם
6 And he will settle in that city until he stands before the assembly for judgment, until the death of the great priest that will be in those days,
then the murderer will return and will come to his city and his house, to the city where he withdrew from.
3e 4C 35
24
וַיַּקְדִּ֜שׁוּ אֶת־קֶ֤דֶשׁ בַּגָּלִיל֙ בְּהַ֣ר נַפְתָּלִ֔י וְאֶת־שְׁכֶ֖ם בְּהַ֣ר אֶפְרָ֑יִם
וְאֶת־קִרְיַ֥ת אַרְבַּ֛ע הִ֥יא חֶבְר֖וֹן בְּהַ֥ר יְהוּדָֽה
7 So they sanctified Qedesh in Galilee in mount Naphtali, and Shechem in mount Ephraim,
and the town of four (this is Hebron) in the hills of Judah.
3d 4C 24
14
וּמֵעֵ֜בֶר לְיַרְדֵּ֤ן יְרִיחוֹ֙ מִזְרָ֔חָה נָתְנ֞וּ אֶת־בֶּ֧צֶר בַּמִּדְבָּ֛ר בַּמִּישֹׁ֖ר מִמַּטֵּ֣ה רְאוּבֵ֑ן
וְאֶת־רָאמֹ֤ת בַּגִּלְעָד֙ מִמַּטֵּה־גָ֔ד וְאֶת־גּוֹלָ֥ן בַּבָּשָׁ֖ן מִמַּטֵּ֥ה מְנַשֶּֽׁה
8 And across Jordan, Jericho toward the sunrise, they assigned Bezar in the wilderness in the level place from the branch of Reuben,
and Ramoth in Gilead from the branch of Gad, and Golan in Bashan from the branch of Manasseh.
3c 4C 30
24
אֵ֣לֶּה הָיוּ֩ עָרֵ֨י הַמּֽוּעָדָ֜ה לְכֹ֣ל ׀ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְלַגֵּר֙ הַגָּ֣ר בְּתוֹכָ֔ם לָנ֣וּס שָׁ֔מָּה כָּל־מַכֵּה־נֶ֖פֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָ֑ה
וְלֹ֣א יָמ֗וּת בְּיַד֙ גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּ֔ם עַד־עָמְד֖וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י הָעֵדָֽה
9 B These are the cities engaged for all the children of Israel and for the guest residing among them, to let anyone withdraw there who struck someone inadvertently,
and he will not die by the hand of the one redeeming the blood until he has stood before the assembly.
3e 4B 37
18

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Hear hear

Hear, hear, is a commonplace phrase in the English of the town crier. I wonder if its provenance is from the Hebrew repetition of roots?

Hebrew has frequent repetition of two identical roots in succession, usually in the form to do x you will do x. Sometimes it is translated as if the repetition meant emphasis. So translations may add a modifier like thoroughly, or utterly, or diligently do x. Is this what the idiom means? I don't know. Sometimes I ignore the repetition since the sense is carried without it. And sometimes I make it explicit because the phrase is unique.

In the case of hear, hear, we find this duplication several times and in varying forms.

אם־שמוע תשמע Exodus 15:26 and 23:22, Deuteronomy 15:5 and 28:1. If to hear, you (singular) hear.

So the invitation in the Torah is a conditional statement. And it occurs also addressed to the plural you in Deuteronomy 11:13 and Exodus 19:5.
אם־שמע תשמעו

Such hearing is promised by God in Exodus 22:22 if the orphan is ignored.

The phrase occurs 4 times in Deuteronomy, 4 times in Exodus, 4 times in Job, 4 times in Jeremiah, 3 times in Isaiah. And once alone, for Isaiah, the doubling of see, see. Hearing and seeing are thematic in Isaiah, but hearing in the sense of hearing and doing, i.e. the full action of comprehension and obedience, is clearly important in Torah (as has been noted in recent chapters from Deuteronomy) and the prophets.

Isaiah 6 v9
And he said. Go, and you will say to this people,
You hear, to hear, and you have no discernment. And you see, to see, and you have no knowledge.

Isaiah 55 v2 balances Isaiah 6 v9.
Why would you spend money for no bread? and your labour for no satisfaction?
You hear, to hear me, and eat what is good and delight yourself exquisitely in fatness.

The form here is imperative followed by infinitive. This accounts for three of the instances in Job: two appeals from Job, and one from Elihu. (This raises Elihu's stature, for those who doubt it.) The fourth instance in Job is a unique form, from chapter 28: speaking of wisdom,

Abaddon and death say,
With our ears we have heard of her fame.

In Deuteronomy and Exodus the order is reversed and is conditioned.

And it will happen that if to hear, you will hear with the voice of Yahweh your God to keep and to do all his commandments that I am commanding you today, then Yahweh your God will give you the highest status over all the nations of the earth.

Hear by itself is very common, occurring 1290 times. But these others stand out as framing both Torah and the Prophets, and reflected in the commentary on Deuteronomy that is the book of Job.

Several more examples need drawing in. 23 others. Possibly all finding their common root in Deuteronomy?

Proverbs 21

Is Proverbs only second best poetry? Second best? to what? the Psalms? Job? It's an odd question. The three books of poetry are each unique in themselves. I admit that reading the traditional translations of Proverbs has generally left me cold apart from chapters 8 and perhaps 31. But as examples of speech, I suspect they are critical to the understanding of this ancient tongue. So I have set a number of puzzling renditions to consider.

They still make me laugh, one terse sentence at a time. Like all good poetry, it must be read slowly. Juxtaposition is key. Filling in the blanks is also key for the reader. The interpreter who fills in the blanks for others will fail. Such will make the text seem like story or completed sentences. Many of them are not.

These fragments are way down my list because my automation can only guess the words one at a time unless there is repetition in Proverbs itself (which there is of course, and we should note it - might be accidental or might be an internal frame for the book as a whole). But many of my software's single guesses have been right on. 8 words in row were readable in verse 16 without modification and the English and Hebrew word order are identical.

Surrounding this comment, in verses 15 and 17, there is a key recurring word. שמחה, gladness (simcha). In the KJV one proverb was considered 'good' advice in the eyes of the translators, so they rendered שמחה by joy (this is misleading, in my opinion, since the KJV has joy for other roots as well) and the second proverb had a usage that was considered as 'bad' in the eyes of the translators, and so שמחה was rendered by pleasure (this is doubly misleading and, in my opinion, absolutely wrong). The KJV translation has interpreted more than necessary, and obscured a needed word repetition to guard the warning in the verse that is contained, verse 16. (Even love can be abused.) I use gladness for this root שמח (and rarely mirth, Psalms 51 and 137 only, oh my aching hapaxes). I am going to leave mirth where it is, unless I discover another root in Hebrew in this domain that demands mirth.

Get some שמחה from this chapter...

Proverbs 21 Fn Min Max Syll
פַּלְגֵי־מַ֣יִם לֶב־מֶ֭לֶךְ בְּיַד־יְהוָ֑ה
עַֽל־כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֖ר יַחְפֹּ֣ץ יַטֶּֽנּוּ
1 Streams of water, the heart of a sovereign in the hand of Yahweh.
To all that he delights in, he bends it.
3e 4B 10
9
כָּֽל־דֶּרֶךְ־אִ֭ישׁ יָשָׁ֣ר בְּעֵינָ֑יו
וְתֹכֵ֖ן לִבּ֣וֹת יְהוָֽה
2 Every way of a person is upright in its own eyes,
but Yahweh balances hearts.
3e 4B 9
7
עֲ֭שֹׂה צְדָקָ֣ה וּמִשְׁפָּ֑ט
נִבְחָ֖ר לַיהוָ֣ה מִזָּֽבַח
3 g To do righteousness and judgment,
is the choice of Yahweh over sacrifice.
3e 4B 8
7
רוּם־עֵ֭ינַיִם וּרְחַב־לֵ֑ב
נִ֖ר רְשָׁעִ֣ים חַטָּֽאת
4 Exalted eyes and a bloated heart,
the lamp of the wicked, sin.
3e 4B 6
6
מַחְשְׁב֣וֹת חָ֭רוּץ אַךְ־לְמוֹתָ֑ר
וְכָל־אָ֝֗ץ אַךְ־לְמַחְסֽוֹר
5 The devices of the diligent surely are an advantage,
but all importuning surely is to deprivation.
3e 4B 9
7
פֹּ֣עַל א֭וֹצָרוֹת בִּלְשׁ֣וֹן שָׁ֑קֶר
הֶ֥בֶל נִ֝דָּ֗ף מְבַקְשֵׁי־מָֽוֶת
6 B Funded work with a false tongue,
futility, wind-blown, seeking death.
3e 4B 9
8
שֹׁד־רְשָׁעִ֥ים יְגוֹרֵ֑ם
כִּ֥י מֵ֝אֲנ֗וּ לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת מִשְׁפָּֽט
7 The devastation of the wicked, their gullets,
for they would not do judgment.
3e 4A 7
9
הֲפַכְפַּ֬ךְ דֶּ֣רֶךְ אִ֣ישׁ וָזָ֑ר
וְ֝זַ֗ךְ יָשָׁ֥ר פָּעֳלֽוֹ
8 The wayward way of a person and passing strange,
but the clear, upright is its work.
3e 4B 8
7
ט֗וֹב לָשֶׁ֥בֶת עַל־פִּנַּת־גָּ֑ג
מֵאֵ֥שֶׁת מִ֝דְיָנִ֗ים וּבֵ֥ית חָֽבֶר
9 ~ Good that you may inhabit the corner of a roof,
than a wife of dissension and a house of stripes.
3e 4A 8
10
נֶ֣פֶשׁ רָ֭שָׁע אִוְּתָה־רָ֑ע
לֹא־יֻחַ֖ן בְּעֵינָ֣יו רֵעֵֽהוּ
10 B Wicked self desires evil.
Its associate is not gracious in its own eyes.
3e 4B 7
8
בַּעְנָשׁ־לֵ֭ץ יֶחְכַּם־פֶּ֑תִי
וּבְהַשְׂכִּ֥יל לְ֝חָכָ֗ם יִקַּח־דָּֽעַת
11 When the scornful is fined, simplicity is made wise,
and when the wise has insight, it receives knowledge.
3e 4A 7
10
מַשְׂכִּ֣יל צַ֭דִּיק לְבֵ֣ית רָשָׁ֑ע
מְסַלֵּ֖ף רְשָׁעִ֣ים לָרָֽע
12 A righteous one has insight into the house of wickedness,
and undermines the wicked of the evil.
3e 4B 8
8
אֹטֵ֣ם אָ֭זְנוֹ מִזַּעֲקַת־דָּ֑ל
גַּֽם־ה֥וּא יִ֝קְרָ֗א וְלֹ֣א יֵעָנֶֽה
13 Who plugs its own ear over the appeal of the weak,
also itself, it will call and not be answered.
3e 4B 9
9
מַתָּ֣ן בַּ֭סֵּתֶר יִכְפֶּה־אָ֑ף
וְשֹׁ֥חַד בַּ֝חֵ֗ק חֵמָ֥ה עַזָּֽה
14 Graft in secret may pacify anger,
and a bribe to the chest strong heat.
3e 4B 8
9
שִׂמְחָ֣ה לַ֭צַּדִּיק עֲשׂ֣וֹת מִשְׁפָּ֑ט
וּ֝מְחִתָּ֗ה לְפֹ֣עֲלֵי אָֽוֶן
15 Gladness to the righteous one, to do judgment,
but disarray for the workers of mischief.
3e 4B 9
9
אָדָ֗ם תּ֭וֹעֶה מִדֶּ֣רֶךְ הַשְׂכֵּ֑ל
בִּקְהַ֖ל רְפָאִ֣ים יָנֽוּחַ
16 Earthling wandering from the way of insight,
in the congregation of the shades will rest.
3e 4B 9
8
אִ֣ישׁ מַ֭חְסוֹר אֹהֵ֣ב שִׂמְחָ֑ה
אֹהֵ֥ב יַֽיִן־וָ֝שֶׁ֗מֶן לֹ֣א יַעֲשִֽׁיר
17 B Each will be lacking who loves gladness.
The lover of wine and oil will not be rich.
3e 4B 7
10
כֹּ֣פֶר לַצַּדִּ֣יק רָשָׁ֑ע
וְתַ֖חַת יְשָׁרִ֣ים בּוֹגֵֽד
18 B A cover for one who is righteous is one who is wicked,
and instead of the upright, treachery.
3e 4B 7
8
ט֗וֹב שֶׁ֥בֶת בְּאֶֽרֶץ־מִדְבָּ֑ר
מֵאֵ֖שֶׁת מִדְיָנִ֣ים וָכָֽעַס
19 ~ Good to inhabit a land of wilderness,
than a wife of dissension and grief.
3e 4B 8
9
אוֹצָ֤ר ׀ נֶחְמָ֣ד וָ֭שֶׁמֶן בִּנְוֵ֣ה חָכָ֑ם
וּכְסִ֖יל אָדָ֣ם יְבַלְּעֶֽנּוּ
20 A fund is attractive and oil, in the home of one who is wise,
but a dullard earthling swallows it.
3e 4C 11
8
רֹ֭דֵף צְדָקָ֣ה וָחָ֑סֶד
יִמְצָ֥א חַ֝יִּ֗ים צְדָקָ֥ה וְכָבֽוֹד
21 g Pursuing righteousness and kindness,
one finds life, righteousness, and glory.
3e 4B 8
10
עִ֣יר גִּ֭בֹּרִים עָלָ֣ה חָכָ֑ם
וַ֝יֹּ֗רֶד עֹ֣ז מִבְטֶחָֽה
22 B To a city of the valiant, one who is wise ascends,
and brings down strength and its confidence.
3e 4B 8
7
שֹׁמֵ֣ר פִּ֭יו וּלְשׁוֹנ֑וֹ
שֹׁמֵ֖ר מִצָּר֣וֹת נַפְשֽׁוֹ
23 One keeping its mouth and its tongue,
keeps from troubles, its integrity.
3e 4B 6
7
זֵ֣ד יָ֭הִיר לֵ֣ץ שְׁמ֑וֹ
ע֝וֹשֶׂ֗ה בְּעֶבְרַ֥ת זָדֽוֹן
24 B Overweening presumption, scornful is its name,
dealing in presumptuous fury.
3e 4B 6
7
תַּאֲוַ֣ת עָצֵ֣ל תְּמִיתֶ֑נּוּ
כִּֽי־מֵאֲנ֖וּ יָדָ֣יו לַעֲשֽׂוֹת
25 The desire of a sluggard renders it lifeless,
for its hands are unwilling to deal.
3e 4B 9
8
כָּל־הַ֭יּוֹם הִתְאַוָּ֣ה תַאֲוָ֑ה
וְצַדִּ֥יק יִ֝תֵּ֗ן וְלֹ֣א יַחְשֹֽׂךְ
26 All the day long it desires desire,
but the righteous one gives and does not keep back.
3e 4B 9
9
זֶ֣בַח רְ֭שָׁעִים תּוֹעֵבָ֑ה
אַ֝֗ף כִּֽי־בְזִמָּ֥ה יְבִיאֶֽנּוּ
27 B The offering of the wicked is an abomination indeed,
for with an agenda, it brings it.
3e 4B 8
9
עֵד־כְּזָבִ֥ים יֹאבֵ֑ד
וְאִ֥ישׁ שׁ֝וֹמֵ֗עַ לָנֶ֥צַח יְדַבֵּֽר
28 A lying witness will perish,
but a person who hears, speaks in perpetuity.
3e 4A 6
11
הֵעֵ֬ז אִ֣ישׁ רָשָׁ֣ע בְּפָנָ֑יו
וְ֝יָשָׁ֗ר ה֤וּא ׀ יָבִ֬ין דַּרְכּֽוֹ
29 A wicked person strengthens its face,
but one who is upright will discern its way.
3e 4C 8
8
אֵ֣ין חָ֭כְמָה וְאֵ֣ין תְּבוּנָ֑ה
וְאֵ֥ין עֵ֝צָ֗ה לְנֶ֣גֶד יְהוָֽה
30 B There is no wisdom, and there is no discernment,
and there is no counsel. Yahweh to make clear.
3e 4B 8
9
ס֗וּס מ֭וּכָן לְי֣וֹם מִלְחָמָ֑ה
וְ֝לַֽיהוָ֗ה הַתְּשׁוּעָֽה
31 ~ A horse prepared for the day of war,
and to Yahweh is salvation.
3e 4B 8
6

Tuesday, August 8, 2017

Deuteronomy 19

Three chapters from the same book in a row! And not so easy either. I have been reduced to a sort of dynamic equivalence in one or two verses since the phrase from yesterday three [days], a somewhat common idiom (7 occurrences in Torah and Joshua) which seems to mean previously, even exceeds my tolerance for strange constructions in English (which is after all my native tongue). The one other occurrence may well be literal in 1 Samuel 21. Here in Deuteronomy, and in Joshua, it must be idiomatic. Plenty of people can keep a feud over a three day period. It is a curious phrase using the numeral three in the form שׁלשׁם or שׁלשׁום. This is one of those places where sound and language structure will disappear in translation.

The damage this exercise does to my sense of absoluteness of prepositions is interminable. Just look at the prefixed ב in the last famous verse. And you might have been taught that ב means in.

Here are the glosses I have used for the two most common prefixed prepositions.

ב  about(8), against(122), among(278), as(11), at(135), because(1), by(292), for(43), from(23), her(14), him(8), his(16), in(3692), into(215), its(7), my(3), of(24), on(277), over(8), their(5), through(19), to(49), under(3), when(134), with(509), your(5)
ל about(7), against(35), among(6), as(84), at(34), by(12), for(1704), from(32), her(19), hers(2), him(65), his(40), if(2), in(153), into(21), its(23), mine(19), my(61), of(546), on(31), our(9), ours(2), over(7), their(43), to(2599), under(1), when(1), with(25), your(59), yours(17)

The preposition ל frequently disappears. Mostly it 'means' for or to in the attributive sense. Hence the frequency of the possessive pronouns. But you can see at a glance that there are several cross-mapped English prepositions. This is because verbs often imply or invite a particular preposition in English.

This list is incomplete and only includes about the 60% of words that have been done or guessed. It does not include complex prefixes simply because I haven't coded them into the query. But it includes enough to give me plenty of questions about how to validate my work.

I can run queries like this and investigate the ones that appear odd. If I only used a gloss once I can see if it should have been used more often or not at all. I continuously test for cross-linked glosses of nouns and verbs and I have a table of exceptions I have allowed so far. Some of these too will be reexamined. Endless. But prepositions require book length treatment and I am not at all sure I will write it.

Deuteronomy 19 Fn Min Max Syll
כִּֽי־יַכְרִ֞ית יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֶת־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ אֶת־אַרְצָ֑ם
וִֽירִשְׁתָּ֕ם וְיָשַׁבְתָּ֥ בְעָרֵיהֶ֖ם וּבְבָתֵּיהֶֽם
1 When Yahweh your God has cut off the nations whose land Yahweh your God is giving to you,
and you dispossess them, and you have settled in their cities and in their houses,
3e 4C 28
15
שָׁל֥וֹשׁ עָרִ֖ים תַּבְדִּ֣יל לָ֑ךְ
בְּת֣וֹךְ אַרְצְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ
2 Three cities you will differentiate for yourself,
in the midst of your land that Yahweh your God is giving to you to possess.
3e 4B 7
20
תָּכִ֣ין לְךָ֮ הַדֶּרֶךְ֒ וְשִׁלַּשְׁתָּ֙ אֶת־גְּב֣וּל אַרְצְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַנְחִֽילְךָ֖ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ
וְהָיָ֕ה לָנ֥וּס שָׁ֖מָּה כָּל־רֹצֵֽחַ
3 You will establish for yourselves the way, and you will trisect the border of your land that Yahweh your God has made you inherit,
that anyone who has murdered may withdraw there.
3e 4B 28
11
וְזֶה֙ דְּבַ֣ר הָרֹצֵ֔חַ אֲשֶׁר־יָנ֥וּס שָׁ֖מָּה וָחָ֑י
אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַכֶּ֤ה אֶת־רֵעֵ֙הוּ֙ בִּבְלִי־דַ֔עַת וְה֛וּא לֹא־שֹׂנֵ֥א ל֖וֹ מִתְּמֹ֥ל שִׁלְשֹֽׁם
4 And this is the matter of the murderer who will withdraw there that he might live,
who strikes his associate without knowledge, and he had not hated him previously.
3d 4C 16
20
וַאֲשֶׁר֩ יָבֹ֨א אֶת־רֵעֵ֥הוּ בַיַּעַר֮ לַחְטֹ֣ב עֵצִים֒ וְנִדְּחָ֨ה יָד֤וֹ בַגַּרְזֶן֙ לִכְרֹ֣ת הָעֵ֔ץ וְנָשַׁ֤ל הַבַּרְזֶל֙ מִן־הָעֵ֔ץ וּמָצָ֥א אֶת־רֵעֵ֖הוּ וָמֵ֑ת
ה֗וּא יָנ֛וּס אֶל־אַחַ֥ת הֶעָרִים־הָאֵ֖לֶּה וָחָֽי
5 (That someone enters with an associate into the forest to cut the trees, and his hand is impelled with the adze to cut the tree, and the iron bounces from the tree and finds the associate, who then dies.
He will withdraw to one of these cities and will live.)
3d 4C 46
14
פֶּן־יִרְדֹּף֩ גֹּאֵ֨ל הַדָּ֜ם אַחֲרֵ֣י הָרֹצֵ֗חַ כִּי־יֵחַם֮ לְבָבוֹ֒ וְהִשִּׂיג֛וֹ כִּֽי־יִרְבֶּ֥ה הַדֶּ֖רֶךְ וְהִכָּ֣הוּ נָ֑פֶשׁ
וְלוֹ֙ אֵ֣ין מִשְׁפַּט־מָ֔וֶת כִּ֠י לֹ֣א שֹׂנֵ֥א ה֛וּא ל֖וֹ מִתְּמ֥וֹל שִׁלְשֽׁוֹם
6 Lest the one redeeming the blood pursues after the murderer, for his heart is heated, and overtakes him, because of the extent of the way, and he strikes him,
but for him there was no judgment of death, for he had not hated him previously.
3d 4B 35
17
עַל־כֵּ֛ן אָנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ לֵאמֹ֑ר
שָׁלֹ֥שׁ עָרִ֖ים תַּבְדִּ֥יל לָֽךְ
7 Therefore I am commanding you, saying,
Three cities you will differentiate for yourself.
3d 4A 10
7
וְאִם־יַרְחִ֞יב יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֶת־גְּבֻ֣לְךָ֔ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֖ע לַאֲבֹתֶ֑יךָ
וְנָ֤תַן לְךָ֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֶּ֖ר לָתֵ֥ת לַאֲבֹתֶֽיךָ
8 And if Yahweh your God will enlarge your borders, as he has sworn to your ancestors,
and give to you all the land that is the word given to your ancestors,
3e 4C 24
21
כִּֽי־תִשְׁמֹר֩ אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָ֨ה הַזֹּ֜את לַעֲשֹׂתָ֗הּ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָנֹכִ֣י מְצַוְּךָ֮ הַיּוֹם֒ לְאַהֲבָ֞ה אֶת־יְהוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ וְלָלֶ֥כֶת בִּדְרָכָ֖יו כָּל־הַיָּמִ֑ים
וְיָסַפְתָּ֨ לְךָ֥ עוֹד֙ שָׁלֹ֣שׁ עָרִ֔ים עַ֖ל הַשָּׁלֹ֥שׁ הָאֵֽלֶּה
9 (For you will keep all this commandment to do it which I am commanding you today: to love Yahweh your God and to walk in his ways every day,
and you will add for yourselves three more cities beside these three),
3c 4B 46
18
וְלֹ֤א יִשָּׁפֵךְ֙ דָּ֣ם נָקִ֔י בְּקֶ֣רֶב אַרְצְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַחֲלָ֑ה
וְהָיָ֥ה עָלֶ֖יךָ דָּמִֽים
10 Then innocent blood will not be poured out within your land that Yahweh your God is giving to you as inheritance,
and there be against you, blood.
3e 4C 29
8
וְכִֽי־יִהְיֶ֥ה אִישׁ֙ שֹׂנֵ֣א לְרֵעֵ֔הוּ וְאָ֤רַב לוֹ֙ וְקָ֣ם עָלָ֔יו וְהִכָּ֥הוּ נֶ֖פֶשׁ וָמֵ֑ת
וְנָ֕ס אֶל־אַחַ֖ת הֶעָרִ֥ים הָאֵֽל
11 But when there is a person hating his associate, and lying in wait for him, and he arises against him, and he strikes him, and he dies,
and he withdraws to one those cities,
3e 4C 27
10
וְשָֽׁלְחוּ֙ זִקְנֵ֣י עִיר֔וֹ וְלָקְח֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ מִשָּׁ֑ם
וְנָתְנ֣וּ אֹת֗וֹ בְּיַ֛ד גֹּאֵ֥ל הַדָּ֖ם וָמֵֽת
12 Then the elders of his city will send, and they will take him from there,
and they will give him into the hand of the one redeeming the blood, and he will die.
3d 4B 14
13
לֹא־תָח֥וֹס עֵֽינְךָ֖ עָלָ֑יו
וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֧ דַֽם־הַנָּקִ֛י מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְט֥וֹב לָֽךְ
13 Your eye will not spare him,
and you will shrive the blood of the innocent from Israel, and good for you.
3c 4A 6
15
לֹ֤א תַסִּיג֙ גְּב֣וּל רֵֽעֲךָ֔ אֲשֶׁ֥ר גָּבְל֖וּ רִאשֹׁנִ֑ים
בְּנַחֲלָֽתְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּנְחַ֔ל בָּאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ
14 C You will not reposition the border of your associate that they of former times set as border,
in your inheritance that you will inherit in the land that Yahweh your God is giving to you to possess.
3e 4C 15
27
לֹֽא־יָקוּם֩ עֵ֨ד אֶחָ֜ד בְּאִ֗ישׁ לְכָל־עָוֺן֙ וּלְכָל־חַטָּ֔את בְּכָל־חֵ֖טְא אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֶֽחֱטָ֑א
עַל־פִּ֣י ׀ שְׁנֵ֣י עֵדִ֗ים א֛וֹ עַל־פִּ֥י שְׁלֹשָֽׁה־עֵדִ֖ים יָק֥וּם דָּבָֽר
15 One witness will not arise against a person for any iniquity, or for any sin in any sin that he sins.
At the mouth of two witnesses or at the mouth of three witnesses, a word will be placed.
3d 4B 23
18
כִּֽי־יָק֥וּם עֵד־חָמָ֖ס בְּאִ֑ישׁ
לַעֲנ֥וֹת בּ֖וֹ סָרָֽה
16 When a violent witness arises against a person,
to answer against him with revolt.
3e 4A 7
6
וְעָמְד֧וּ שְׁנֵֽי־הָאֲנָשִׁ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־לָהֶ֥ם הָרִ֖יב לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
לִפְנֵ֤י הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ וְהַשֹּׁ֣פְטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִהְי֖וּ בַּיָּמִ֥ים הָהֵֽם
17 Then both the persons whose strife it is, will stand in the presence of Yahweh,
in the presence of the priests and the judges which there will be in those days.
3c 4C 18
19
וְדָרְשׁ֥וּ הַשֹּׁפְטִ֖ים הֵיטֵ֑ב
וְהִנֵּ֤ה עֵֽד־שֶׁ֙קֶר֙ הָעֵ֔ד שֶׁ֖קֶר עָנָ֥ה בְאָחִֽיו
18 And the judges will search out well, and behold, a false witness.
If the witness has answered what is false against his kin,
3e 4C 8
15
וַעֲשִׂ֣יתֶם ל֔וֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר זָמַ֖ם לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת לְאָחִ֑יו
וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ
19 Then you will do to him as he intended to do to his kin,
and you will shrive the evil from within you.
3e 4B 16
10
וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֖ים יִשְׁמְע֣וּ וְיִרָ֑אוּ
וְלֹֽא־יֹסִ֨פוּ לַעֲשׂ֜וֹת ע֗וֹד כַּדָּבָ֥ר הָרָ֛ע הַזֶּ֖ה בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ
20 And the residue will hear and see,
and not again do any more as evil a thing as this among you.
3d 4B 12
19
וְלֹ֥א תָח֖וֹס עֵינֶ֑ךָ
נֶ֣פֶשׁ בְּנֶ֗פֶשׁ עַ֤יִן בְּעַ֙יִן֙ שֵׁ֣ן בְּשֵׁ֔ן יָ֥ד בְּיָ֖ד רֶ֥גֶל בְּרָֽגֶל
21 Your eye will not spare,
throat by throat, eye by eye, tooth by tooth, hand by hand, foot by foot.
3e 4C 7
19