Saturday, January 26, 2019

The third seal

A little random looking about in the NT. It's a bit like walking into a very familiar place. I hope I will see with refreshed eyes when I look at it with my biased 12 years of work on Tanak.

I also intend to produce the entire NT Margoliuth translation in Unicode so others can have the benefit of the full coding including cantillation. There is no such version of the text online that I have found.

Revelation 6 Fn Min Max Syll
וָאֶשְׁמַ֨ע ק֜וֹל בְּת֨וֹךְ אַרְבַּ֤ע הַחַיּוֹת֙ אֹמֵ֔ר בַּ֤ת חִטִּים֨ בְּדִינָ֔ר וּשְׁלשָׁ֥ה בַתִּ֛ים שְׂעֹרִ֖ים בְּדִינָ֑ר
וְאֶ֥ת־הַשֶּׁ֛מֶן וְאֶ֥ת־הַיַּ֖יִן אַל־תַּרֵֽעַ׃
6 And I heard a voice in the midst of the four living creatures, saying, A bath of wheat for a dinar, and three baths of barley for a dinar,
and the oil and the wine do not hurt.
4B 3d 30
13
Revelation 6:6 Margoliuth
And I heard a voice in the midst of the four living creatures, saying, A bath of wheat for a dinar, and three baths of barley for a dinar,
and the oil and the wine do not hurt.

I have always pondered the injunction to not harm the oil and the wine. (I assume that this is not oil in the ground, but olive oil for anointing. And the wine, I suppose, is for rejoicing.)

This apocalypse is working up to the fall of Babel (aka Babylon). This is surely an Old Testament trope. What about our corporations to which we are all tied by the apron strings of Mammon? They are necessary as are all our systems. Our systems demonstrate our cooperation and interdependence. No getting anything for an ordinary life without them.

What do other Hebrew translators have here?
וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל מִתּוֹךְ אַרְבַּע הַחַיּוֹת אׂמֵר קַב חִטִּים בְּדִינָר וּשְׁלׂשָׁה קַבִּים שְׂעׂרִים בְּדִינָר וְאֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶן וְהַיַּיִן אַל־תַּשְׁחֵת׃This has a different term for the unit of dry measure קבב occurs only once with this sense in 2 Kings 6:25. It also misses the repeated ואת and substitutes destroy שׁחת for רעע hurt.

וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל מִתּוֹךְ אַרְבַּע הַחַיּוֹת לֵאמֹר קַב חִטִּים בְּבֶקַע כֶּסֶף וּשְׁלשָׁה קַבִּים שְׂעֹרִים בְּבֶקַע כֶּסֶף וְאֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶן וְאֶת־הַיַּיִן אַל־תַּשְׁחֵת׃
This has yet a third unit measure, a bekah of silver. The bekah occurs twice in Torah. Gen 24:22, Ex 38:26.

The genealogy of Matthew


Matthew 1 Fn Min Max Syll
סֵ֕פֶר תּוֹלְדֹ֭ת יֵשׁ֣וּעַ הַמָּשִׁ֑יחַ
בֶּן־דָּוִ֛ד בֶּן־אַבְרָהָֽם
1~ The record of the successions of Jeshua,the anointed,
child of David, child of Abraham.
4B 3d 11
7
אַבְרָהָם֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־יִצְחָ֔ק וְיִצְחָ֖ק הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־יַעֲקֹ֑ב
וְיַעֲקֹ֔ב הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־יְהוּדָ֖ה וְאֶת־אֶחָֽיו
2 Abraham had Yitschaq, and Yitschaq had Jacob,
and Jacob had Judah and his kin.
4B 3d 17
14
וִיהוּדָ֥ה הוֹלִ֛יד אֶת־פֶּ֥רֶץ וְאֶת־זֶ֖רַח מִתָּמָ֑ר
וּפֶ֙רֶץ֨ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־חֶצְר֔וֹן וְחֶצְר֖וֹן הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־רָֽם
3 And Judah had Perez and Zerach from Tamar,
and Perez had Hetsron, and Hetsron had Ram.
4B 3d 15
15
וְרָ֤ם הוֹלִיד֙ אֶת־עַמִּ֣ינָדָ֔ב וְעַמִּֽינָדָ֖ב הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־נַחְשׁ֑וֹן
וְנַחְשׁ֖וֹן הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־שַׂלְמֽוֹן
4 And Ram had Aminadab, and Aminadab had Nashon,
and Nashon had Salmon.
4B 3d 19
8
וְשַׂלְמ֨וֹן הוֹלִי֣ד אֶת־בֹּעַז֙ מֶֽרָחָ֔ב וּבֹ֛עַז הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־עוֹבֵד֖ מֵר֑וּת
וְעוֹבֵד֖ הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־יִשָֽׁי
5 And Salmon had Boaz from Raxab, and Boaz had Obed from Ruth,
and Obed had Jesse.
4B 3d 21
8
וְיִשַׁ֖י הוֹלִ֛יד אֶת־דָּוִ֣ד הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
וְדָוִ֥ד הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה מֵאֵ֥שָּׁת אֽוּרִיָּֽה
6 And Jesse had David the king,
and David the king had Solomon from the wife of Uriah.
4B 3d 11
18
וּשְׁלֹמֹה֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־רְחַבְעָ֔ם וּרְחַבְעָ֖ם הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־אֲבִיָּ֑ה וַאֲבִיָּ֖ה הוֹלִי֥ד אֶת־אָסָֽא 7 And Solomon had Rehoboam, and Rehoboam had Abijah,
and Abijah had Asa.
4B 3d 18
9
וְאָסָ֤א הוֹלִיד֙ אֶת־יְהוֹ֣שָׁפָ֔ט וִיהוֹשָׁפָ֖ט הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־יְהוֹרָ֑ם
וִיהוֹרָ֖ם הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־עֻזִּיָּהֽוּ
8 And Asa had Jehoshaphat, and Jehoshaphat had Jehoram,
and Jehoram had Uzziah.
4B 3d 20
10
וְעֻזִּיָּ֨הוּ֨ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־יוֹתָ֔ם וְיוֹתָ֖ם הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־אָחָ֑ז
וְאָחָ֖ז הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־חִזְקִיָּֽהוּ
9 And Uzziah had Jotham, Jotham had Ahaz,
and Ahaz had Hezekiah.
4B 3d 18
10
וְחִזְקִיָּ֨הוּ֨ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־מְנַשֶּׁ֔ה וּמְנַשֶּׁ֖ה הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־אָמ֑וֹן
וְאָמ֖וֹן הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־יֹאשִׁיָּֽהוּ
10 And Hezekiah had Manasseh, and Manasseh had Amon,
and Amon had Josiah.
4B 3d 19
10
וְיֹֽאשִׁיָּ֗הוּ הוֹלִ֤יד אֶת־יְכָנְיָ֙הוּ֙ וְאֶת־אֶחָ֔יו לעֵת֭ הָגְלוֹתָ֥ם בָּבֶֽלָה 11 And Josiah had Jeconiah and his kin at the time of their exile toward Babel. 4B 3d 24
וְאַֽחֲרֵי֙ הָגְלוֹתָ֣ם בָּבֶ֔לָה יְכָנְיָה֖וּ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵ֑ל
וּשְׁאַ֙לְתִּיאֵ֔ל הוֹלִ֖יד אֶת־זְרֻבָּבֶֽל
12 And after their exile toward Babel, Jeconiah had Shealtiel,
and Shealtiel had Zerubbabel.
4B 3d 21
11
וּזְרֻבָּבֶל֨ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־אֲבִיה֔וּד וַאֲבִיה֖וּד הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־אֶלְיָקִ֑ים
וְאֶלְיָקִ֖ים הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־עַזּֽוּר
13 And Zerubbabel had Abihud, and Abihud had Elyaqim,
and Elyaqim had Azur.
4B 3d 20
9
וְעַזּוּר֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־צָדוֹ֔ק וְצָדוֹ֖ק הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־יָכִי֑ן
וְיָכִי֥ן הוֹלִ֖יד אֶת־אֱלִיהֽוּד
14 And Azur had Zadok, and Zadok had Yakin,
and Yakin had Elihud.
4B 3d 16
9
וֶאֱלִיהוּד֙ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־אֶלְעָזָ֔ר וְאֶלְעָזָר֖ הוֹלִ֣יד אֶת־מַתָּ֑ן
וּמַתָּ֖ן הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־יַֽעֲקֹֽב
15 And Elihud had Eleazar, and Eleazar had Mattan,
and Mattan had Jacob.
4B 3d 19
9
וְיַֽעֲקֹב הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־יוֹסֵ֖ף בַּ֣עַל מִרְיָ֑ם אֲשֶׁ֤ר מִמֶּ֨נָּה֨ נוֹלַ֣ד
יֵשׁ֔וּעַ הַנִּקְרָא֖ מָשִֽׁיחַ
16 And Jacob had Joseph, the husband of Miriam, from whom was born,
Jeshua, he who is called anointed.
4B 3d 20
9
וְ֠בְכֵן כָּל־הַדֹּר֞וֹת מֵֽאַבָרָהָ֤ם עַד־דָּוִד֨ אַרְבָּעָ֣ה עָשָׂ֣ר דּוֹר֔וֹת וּמִדָּוִד֙ עַד־הָגָּל֣וּת בָּבֶ֔לָה אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר דּוֹר֑וֹת
וּמִנ־הָגְּל֤וּת בָּבֶ֙לָה֙ עַד־הַמַּֽשִׁ֔יחַ אַרְבָּעָ֥ה עָשָֽׂר דּוֹרֽוֹת
17 And so all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations, and from David to the exile toward Babel, fourteen generations,
and from the exile toward Babel to the anointed, fourteen generations.
4B 3d 40
19
Verse 4 is direct from Ruth with a spelling difference for Salmah. Note that the versification being different, the music is necessarily different. All other verses of successions in Ruth are similar to this.
Ruth 4:22 
Some of the other births I cannot find in TNK. I found no progeny for Yakin. Elihud is not in TNK. (I didn't look very hard) Anyone help me here?

Note how the first verse starts with an ornament, implicitly continuing TNK and showing Matthew's dependence on what has come before. (Now, of course, I am dealing with a person born less than a century before I was and not at least a millennium before. It is likely that Margoliuth is following convention with no inkling of the music - though he would have known a local cantillation tradition. Would he have observed, Deuteronomy, Job, Psalms and Proverbs as being the only books to start with a non-default accent?)

Wednesday, January 23, 2019

1 Corinthians 8:6, handling the names in NT Hebrew

Translating the names. What do the two Hebrew translators I am looking at do with them?

Lord Jesus Christ is a frequent phrase in the NT. Here is a classic verse. (Note the abbreviations used for the names in the Greek codex sinaiticus.)
αλλ ημιν ειϲ ┬ [θεὸς] ο πατηρ εξ ου τα παντα και ημιϲ ειϲ αυτο
και ειϲ κϲ ιϲ χϲ [κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστός] δι ου τα παντα και ημιϲ δι αυτου

Salkinson-Gisberg  (=Trinitarian Bible Society version for this verse 1831)
בְּכָל־זֹאת לָנוּ רַק־אֱלֹהִים אֶחָד הוּא אֲבִי־עַד אֲשֶׁר מִמֶּנּוּ הַכֹּל וְלוֹ אֲנָחְנוּ
וְאָדוֹן אֶחָד יֵשׁוּעַ הַמָּשִׁיחַ אֲשֶׁר הַכֹּל עַל־יָדוֹ וְעַל־יָדוֹ גַּם־אֲנָחְנוּ׃

In all this, for us but one God, he is everlasting father, from whom is the whole and his we are,
and one lord Jesus the Messiah, by means of whom is the whole and by his means we also.

It is an interesting turn in SG - הוּא אֲבִי־עַד shades of Isaiah 9:5. And the potential for mishearing his we are וְלוֹ אֲנָחְנוּ as it is misheard in Psalm 100. (See verse 3 הֽוּא־עָ֭שָׂנוּ וְל֣וֹ אֲנַ֑חְנוּ. often read as ולא אֲנַחְנוּ)

Margoliuth
אַ֥ךְ לָ֨נוּ֨ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אָחָ֔ד הָאָ֕ב אֲשֶׁ֛ר מִמֶ֥נִּוּ הָכֹ֖ל וַאֲנַ֣חְנוּ אֵלָ֑יו
וְאָד֤וֹן אֶחָד֙ יֵשׁ֣וּעַ הַָמָּשִׁ֔יחַ אֲשֶׁ֤ר עַל־יָדוֹ֙ הַכֹּ֔ל וַאֲנַ֖חְנוּ עַל־יָדֽוֹ

That's a lot of work - transcribing a manuscript - did I get it right? (I found two errors with help.)
Margoliuth 1 Corinthians 8:6
But to us is one God, the father, from whom is the whole and us to him,
and one lord Jesus, the anointed, by means of whom is the whole and we are by his means.
And so the music.
1 Corinthians 8:6 Margoliuth music after Haïk-Vantoura
Theology - Lord is disambiguated in these renderings. It is the lord of Psalms 2 and 110.

I think I will avoid Christ and Messiah as glosses. They raise too many short-circuits.

John 1:2-3 - music

John 1:2 ουτοϲ ην εν αρχη προϲ τον θν
Verse 2

Margoliuth זֶ֥ה הָיָה֛ בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית אֵ֥צֶל הָאֱלֹהִֽים׃ is again different from Salkinson-Ginsberg. הוּא הָיָה מֵרֹאשׁ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים׃
Five words, three differences! This shows the decisions made by translators. Nothing magical here.

M: This was in the beginning next to the God. or SG: He/it was from the first with the God.

Clearly we could vary the English as well. We could drop the awkward articles for God. But why is this a convention? No one has suggested a rationale for it and it is common (but far from universal) in TNK to include the article ה with Elohim.

Note how the music starts on other than the tonic. I see this as linking this verse to the prior verse. (It is also a deliberate decision in TNK accentuation, and it seems more than just the lack of an upbeat as I have frequently recorded elsewhere.)

Now verse 3.

SG כָּל־הַמַּעֲשִׂים נִהְיוּ עַל־יָדוֹ וְאֵין דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה מִבַּלְעָדָיו׃
All that was made was by its hand,
and there is no thing that is made apart from it.
Tout par elle fut, et sans elle fut ne pas même une chose.
(The French has the feminine elle because the antecedent is la parole. I have left the pronoun as neuter to this point in the chapter. יד hand does not need to be a body part (there is no hand in the Greek) but could be phrased as by its means. Yet the word is to become clothed in flesh in verse 14. It will definitely be personal by the time we get there.)

M is significantly different
הַכֹּ֖ל נִהְ֣יוּ עַל־יָד֑וֹ
וּמִבַּלְעָדָ֗יו אַ֠ף לֹ֣א דָּבָ֥ר אחָ֛ד נִהְיָ֖ה אֲשֶׁר֥ נִהְיָֽה
The whole has become by its hand,
and apart from it indeed, not one thing has become that has become.
John 1:3  παντα δι αυτου εγενε το και χωριϲ αυτου εγενετο ουδεν
I was doing this work while listening to a lecture - really I should have concentrated on one or the other. Margoliuth is really good here. And he's not a composer. So some of the conventions for dealing with accent sequences may have a history reaching back to the music that was lost.

Do listen to the lecture in the link below. It needs attention from those who want a redefinition of faith.

From UVIC
We were overwhelmed by the public interest in last Thursday’s John Albert Hall Lecture Series event with Chris Hedges. Utilizing additional overflow capacity via video feed, we were eventually able to seat about 800 people, what I understand to be the largest event in the Centre’s history. We apologize to any who were turned away, and we want to let everyone know that a video recording of the lecture is now available at https://vimeo.com/csrs


Tuesday, January 22, 2019

John 1:1 - what is its music?

I could spend the rest of my life trying to hear the mind of the word in the commentary on Tanakh that is the New Testament. Perhaps this one chapter alone could occupy considerable time.

What occurs to me in this first verse is that we have here a counteraction to raw evolution.

The word made flesh in the human, in the earthling, is counter to the rawness of nature red in tooth and claw. We have here thoughtfulness, mindfulness, logic, care, exercising its prerogative to be tenderhearted, compassionate, merciful, over what it finds on its awakening.

In the short term, it is not a difference between animal and earthling by any means. Earthling is as brutal as any if not more so. It is a call from within (what is this earthling, this mortal human child...) and from not within to consider the co-operative nature of the created order (consider the heavens ...).

The first 5 words of Salkinson-Ginsburg are identical to Margoliuth. Then M introduces another word אצל, next to (preposition 66 uses). It may also be rendered in some contexts as hold in reserve (5), elect (2), joint (2), taper (1).

The two translations diverge after the atnach.
SG
בְּרֵאשִׁית֙ הָיָה֣ הַדָּבָ֔ר וְהַדָּבָר֥ הָיָה֭ אֵ֣צֶל אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים
וְהוּא הַדָּבָר הָיָה אֱלֹהִֽים׃
M
וְהָאֱלֹהִ֖ים הָיָ֥ה הַדָּבָֽר׃

The shape of M looks like this.
John 1:1 Margoliuth translation into Hebrew
The Greek and the King James English are familiar to us to the point of trouble. We can no longer understand what once we thought we did.

εν αρχη ην ο λογοϲ και ο λογοϲ ην προϲ τον θν και θϲ ην ο λογοϲ
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
How curious that both Hebrew translators use the definite article with 'Elohim'. Notice of course that there is no capitalization in either the Greek or the Hebrew.
Why the construct in the first word of the Hebrew? There is lots of debate about how to translate the first word of the Bible. 

Clearly it is imitating the Hebrew of Genesis 1:1 by the use of the words 'εν αρχη', but the accents of M do not imitate Genesis 1:1. 

Here is what they would look like if they did. The word would be on the rest note, and would be followed by a recitation on the rest note.
John 1:1, with the accents imitating Genesis 1:1
This music celebrates the untold eons of the work of the hidden word in creation, the music of the spheres, the creation of hydrogen, helium, and the heavier elements, the celebration of the stars, all those other children and chanting nurselings.

In the beginning the word was, and the word was next to the God,
and the God was the word.

Remember Genesis 1:1
Genesis 1:1
In the beginning of God's creating,
the heavens and the earth,

So not only will compassion undermine our limited self-interest or our imagination of blind watchmaking, but the watchmaking that produced the elements is itself a celebration, all the children shouting for joy at the informational substructures in the created order.

But what other melodies could we make? I think M is right to delay the atnah. My version has only the weaker zaqef qatan to separate the third phrase from the second. I might consider just reversing the merkha and tifcha in the third phrase of the verse, and introducing the tifcha on the third syllable of the first phrase instead of the geresh.

Notes:
  1. I have elected to omit a metheg in that it conflicts with the silluq. My program will generally ignore this short stroke below the consonants:  ֽ if it appears to be in the wrong place, but it is a soft decision in the code, and it may produce a spurious unstressed return to the tonic.
  2. I have generally rendered Salkinson-Ginsberg first, but the text will reflect Margoliuth because I want to observe his compositional trajectory.

Monday, January 21, 2019

Where did I get the translation and cantillation from for Matthew

Astonishing - I can find the provenance of my version of Matthew 5:1-12 on my own blog! What a fickle thing memory is. I really am a Turing machine and when the tape gets too long, I can't remember what I have done.

So having done that, what's next? I thought about comparing beatitudes in Tanakh with those in the New Testament. (I better look and see if I already have!)

I did a few but it was hardly comprehensive. Here are all the beatitudes I can find in my data. There are more perhaps than expected. Some of these are quoted directly in the NT, e.g. Romans 4:7-8. There are 7 new ones in Revelation. James 1:12 (perhaps citing Daniel 12:12) and James 1:25 are examples. In the gospels outside of Matthew, John 12:13. Of course there are many in Luke. And four more in Matthew. It might not be a bad place to start building a NT database. The KJV renders both μακάριος and εὐλογέω as blessed.

Deuteronomy 33FnMinMaxSyll
אַשְׁרֶ֨יךָ יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל מִ֣י כָמ֗וֹךָ עַ֚ם נוֹשַׁ֣ע בַּֽיהוָ֔ה מָגֵ֣ן עֶזְרֶ֔ךָ וַאֲשֶׁר־חֶ֖רֶב גַּאֲוָתֶ֑ךָ
וְיִכָּֽחֲשׁ֤וּ אֹיְבֶ֙יךָ֙ לָ֔ךְ וְאַתָּ֖ה עַל־בָּמוֹתֵ֥ימוֹ תִדְרֹֽךְ
29Happy are you, Israel. Who is like you, a people victorious in Yahweh, the shield of your help, and who is the sword of your pride.
And your enemies will be disowned for you, but you on their high places will tread.
3e4C30
19

1 Kings 10FnMinMaxSyll
אַשְׁרֵ֣י אֲנָשֶׁ֔יךָ אַשְׁרֵ֖י עֲבָדֶ֣יךָ אֵ֑לֶּה
הָֽעֹמְדִ֤ים לְפָנֶ֙יךָ֙ תָּמִ֔יד הַשֹּׁמְעִ֖ים אֶת־חָכְמָתֶֽךָ
8Happy your soldiers. Happy these your servants,
those standing in your presence continually, hearing your wisdom.
3e4C14
17
Isaiah 30 Fn Min Max Syll
וְלָכֵ֞ן יְחַכֶּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ לַֽחֲנַנְכֶ֔ם וְלָכֵ֥ן יָר֖וּם לְרַֽחֶמְכֶ֑ם
כִּֽי־אֱלֹהֵ֤י מִשְׁפָּט֙ יְהוָ֔ה אַשְׁרֵ֖י כָּל־ח֥וֹכֵי לֽוֹ
18 And Yahweh therefore will tarry, to be gracious to you, and therefore he will be exalted, to be compassionate with you.
For Yahweh is the God of judgment. Happy are all who tarry for him.
3e 4C 21
13
Isaiah 32 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵיכֶ֕ם זֹרְעֵ֖י עַל־כָּל־מָ֑יִם
מְשַׁלְּחֵ֥י רֶֽגֶל־הַשּׁ֖וֹר וְהַחֲמֽוֹר
20 Happy are you who sow over all waters,
who set loose the foot of the bull and the ass.
3e 4A 9
11
Isaiah 56 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֤י אֱנוֹשׁ֙ יַעֲשֶׂה־זֹּ֔את וּבֶן־אָדָ֖ם יַחֲזִ֣יק בָּ֑הּ
שֹׁמֵ֤ר שַׁבָּת֙ מֵֽחַלְּל֔וֹ וְשֹׁמֵ֥ר יָד֖וֹ מֵעֲשׂ֥וֹת כָּל־רָֽע
2 Happy is the mortal who does this, and the child of humanity who is resolute about it,
keeping the Sabbath from profaning it, and keeping its hand from doing all evil.
3e 4C 16
17
Psalms 1FnMinMaxSyll
אַ֥שְֽׁרֵי־הָאִ֗ישׁ‬ אֲשֶׁ֤ר ׀ לֹ֥א הָלַךְ֮ בַּעֲצַ֪ת רְשָׁ֫עִ֥ים
וּבְדֶ֣רֶךְ חַ֭טָּאִים לֹ֥א עָמָ֑ד
וּבְמוֹשַׁ֥ב לֵ֝צִ֗ים לֹ֣א יָשָֽׁב
1fHappy the person who does not walk in the advice of the wicked, and in the way of sinners does not stand,
and in the seat of the scornful does not sit.
3d4C14
9
8
Psalms 2 Fn Min Max Syll
נַשְּׁקוּ־בַ֡ר פֶּן־יֶאֱנַ֤ף ׀ וְתֹ֬אבְדוּ דֶ֗רֶךְ כִּֽי־יִבְעַ֣ר כִּמְעַ֣ט אַפּ֑וֹ
אַ֝שְׁרֵ֗י כָּל־ח֥וֹסֵי בֽוֹ
12 Kiss, each of you - pure lest he be angry and you perish in the way,
for he kindles as a hint of his anger. Happy are all who take refuge in him.
3e 4C 19
6
Psalms 32 Fn Min Max Syll
לְדָוִ֗ד מַ֫שְׂכִּ֥יל
אַשְׁרֵ֥י נְֽשׂוּי־פֶּ֗שַׁע כְּס֣וּי חֲטָאָֽה
1 Of David, an insight.
Happy transgression borne away, sin covered.
3e 4B 5
11
אַ֥שְֽׁרֵי אָדָ֗ם לֹ֤א יַחְשֹׁ֬ב יְהוָ֣ה ל֣וֹ עָוֺ֑ן
וְאֵ֖ין בְּרוּח֣וֹ רְמִיָּה
2 f Happy the human to whom Yahweh will not reckon iniquity,
and without deceit in his spirit.

3e 4C 12
8
Psalms 33 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֣י הַ֭גּוֹי אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֑יו
הָעָ֓ם ׀ בָּחַ֖ר לְנַחֲלָ֣ה לֽוֹ
12 Happy the nation whose God is Yahweh,
the people chosen as his inheritance.

3e 4B 12
9
Psalms 34 Fn Min Max Syll
טַעֲמ֣וּ וּ֭רְאוּ כִּי־ט֣וֹב יְהוָ֑ה
אַֽשְׁרֵ֥י הַ֝גֶּ֗בֶר יֶחֱסֶה־בּֽוֹ
9 Taste and see for Yahweh is good.
Happy the valiant that takes refuge in him.
3e 4B 9
9
Psalms 40 Fn Min Max Syll
אַ֥שְֽׁרֵי הַגֶּ֗בֶר אֲשֶׁר־שָׂ֣ם יְ֭הֹוָה מִבְטַח֑וֹ
וְֽלֹא־פָנָ֥ה אֶל־רְ֝הָבִ֗ים וְשָׂטֵ֥י כָזָֽב
5 f Happy the valiant who sets up Yahweh as his trust,
and does not save face with the defiant, falling away to a lie.

3e 4B 14
12
Psalms 41 Fn Min Max Syll
אַ֭שְׁרֵי מַשְׂכִּ֣יל אֶל־דָּ֑ל
בְּי֥וֹם רָ֝עָ֗ה יְֽמַלְּטֵ֥הוּ יְהוָֽה
2 g Happy the one giving insight to the weak.
In the day of evil Yahweh will let him escape.
3e 4B 6
10
יְהוָ֤ה ׀ יִשְׁמְרֵ֣הוּ וִֽ֭יחַיֵּהוּ וְאֻשַּׁ֣ר בָּאָ֑רֶץ
וְאַֽל־תִּ֝תְּנֵ֗הוּ בְּנֶ֣פֶשׁ אֹיְבָֽיו
3 Yahweh will guard him and keep him alive, and he will be considered happy in the earth.
And you will not give him into the throat of his enemies.
3e 4C 16
10
Psalms 65 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֤י ׀ תִּֽבְחַ֣ר וּתְקָרֵב֮ יִשְׁכֹּ֪ן חֲצֵ֫רֶ֥יךָ
נִ֭שְׂבְּעָה בְּט֣וּב בֵּיתֶ֑ךָ
קְ֝דֹ֗שׁ הֵיכָלֶֽךָ
5 Happy the one chosen and brought near, who will dwell in your courts.
We will be satisfied in the good of your house,
your holy temple.

3d 4C 13
8
6
Psalms 72 Fn Min Max Syll
יְהִ֤י שְׁמ֨וֹ לְֽעוֹלָ֗ם לִפְנֵי־שֶׁמֶשׁ֮ יִנּ֪וֹן שְׁ֫מוֹ וְיִתְבָּ֥רְכוּ ב֑וֹ
כָּל־גּוֹיִ֥ם
יְאַשְּׁרֽוּהוּ
17 His name will be forever. His name will propagate in the presence of the sun, and they will bless themselves in him.
All nations will call him happy.

3d 4C 19
3
4
Psalms 84 Fn Min Max Syll
אַ֭שְׁרֵי יוֹשְׁבֵ֣י בֵיתֶ֑ךָ
ע֝֗וֹד יְֽהַלְל֥וּךָ סֶּֽלָה
5 g Happy those sitting in your house.
Ever they will praise you. Selah.

3e 4B 7
7
אַשְׁרֵ֣י אָ֭דָם עֽוֹז־ל֥וֹ בָ֑ךְ
מְ֝סִלּ֗וֹת בִּלְבָבָֽם
6 Happy the human whose strength is in you,
with a highway in their heart.
3e 4B 7
6
יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֑וֹת
אַֽשְׁרֵ֥י אָ֝דָ֗ם בֹּטֵ֥חַ בָּֽךְ
13 Yahweh of hosts,
happy the human who trusts in you.
3e 4A 5
8
Psalms 89 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֣י הָ֭עָם יוֹדְעֵ֣י תְרוּעָ֑ה
יְ֝הוָ֗ה בְּֽאוֹר־פָּנֶ֥יךָ יְהַלֵּכֽוּן
16 Happy the people knowing jubilation.
Yahweh, in the light of your face they will walk.
3e 4B 9
11
Psalms 94 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֤י ׀ הַגֶּ֣בֶר אֲשֶׁר־תְּיַסְּרֶ֣נּוּ יָּ֑הּ
וּֽמִתּוֹרָתְךָ֥ תְלַמְּדֶֽנּוּ
12 Happy the valiant whom you chasten Yah,
and from your instruction you teach them.
3e 4C 12
9
Psalms 106 Fn Min Max Syll
אַ֭שְׁרֵי שֹׁמְרֵ֣י מִשְׁפָּ֑ט
עֹשֵׂ֖ה צְדָקָ֣ה בְכָל־עֵֽת
3 g Happy those keeping judgment,
doing righteousness at all times.

3e 4B 6
8
Psalms 112 Fn Min Max Syll
הַ֥לְלוּ יָ֨הּ ׀ אַשְׁרֵי־אִ֭ישׁ יָרֵ֣א אֶת־יְהוָ֑ה
בְּ֝מִצְוֺתָ֗יו חָפֵ֥ץ מְאֹֽד
1 f Hallelu Yah. A happy person fears Yahweh.
By his commandments he has much delight.
3e 4B 11
8
Psalms 127 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֤י הַגֶּ֗בֶר אֲשֶׁ֤ר מִלֵּ֥א אֶת־אַשְׁפָּת֗וֹ מֵ֫הֶ ֥ם
לֹֽא־יֵבֹ֑שׁוּ
כִּֽי־יְדַבְּר֖וּ אֶת־אוֹיְבִ֣ים בַּשָּֽׁעַר
5 Happy the valiant who filled his quiver with them.
He will not be ashamed when he speaks with enemies at the gate.
3e 4C 16
3
10
יְגִ֣יעַ כַּ֭פֶּיךָ כִּ֣י תֹאכֵ֑ל
אַ֝שְׁרֶ֗יךָ וְט֣וֹב לָֽךְ
2 For you will eat the labour of your palms,
your happiness and good for you.
3e 4B 9
6
Psalms 128 Fn Min Max Syll
שִׁ֗יר הַֽמַּ֫עֲל֥וֹת
אַ֭שְׁרֵי כָּל־יְרֵ֣א יְהוָ֑ה
הַ֝הֹלֵ֗ךְ בִּדְרָכָֽיו
1 ~ A song of the ascents.
Happy all who fear Yahweh,
who walk in his ways.
3e 4B 5
7
6
Psalms 137 Fn Min Max Syll
בַּת־בָּבֶ֗ל הַשְּׁד֫וּדָ֥ה
אַשְׁרֵ֥י שֶׁיְשַׁלֶּם־לָ֑ךְ
אֶת־גְּ֝מוּלֵ֗ךְ שֶׁגָּמַ֥לְתְּ לָֽנוּ
8 Devastating daughter of Babel,
happy the one who makes peace with you,
even rewards you as you rewarded us.
3e 4A 6
6
10
אַשְׁרֵ֤י ׀ שֶׁיֹּאחֵ֓ז וְנִפֵּ֬ץ אֶֽת־עֹ֝לָלַ֗יִךְ אֶל־הַסָּֽלַע 9 Happy the one who grasps and smashes your babies on the cliff. 3e 4C 17
Psalms 144 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֣י הָ֭עָם שֶׁכָּ֣כָה לּ֑וֹ
אַֽשְׁרֵ֥י הָ֝עָ֗ם שֶׁיֲהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהָֽיו
15 Happy the people who are such to him.
Happy the people who have Yahweh as their God.
3e 4B 8
10
Psalms 146 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֗י שֶׁ֤אֵ֣ל יַעֲקֹ֣ב בְּעֶזְר֑וֹ
שִׂ֝בְר֗וֹ עַל־יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהָֽיו
5 Happy the one who has the God of Jacob for its help.
Its reliance is on Yahweh its God,
3e 4C 10
8
Proverbs 3 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֣י אָ֭דָם מָצָ֣א חָכְמָ֑ה
וְ֝אָדָ֗ם יָפִ֥יק תְּבוּנָֽה
13 Happy the human that finds wisdom,
and the human furnished with discernment.
3e 4B 8
8
עֵץ־חַיִּ֣ים הִ֭יא לַמַּחֲזִיקִ֣ים בָּ֑הּ
וְֽתֹמְכֶ֥יהָ מְאֻשָּֽׁר פ
18 A tree of life she is to the courageous in her,
and those retaining her are happy.
3e 4B 10
8
Proverbs 9FnMinMaxSyll
עִזְב֣וּ פְתָאיִ֣ם וִֽחְי֑וּ
וְ֝אִשְׁר֗וּ בְּדֶ֣רֶךְ בִּינָֽה
6Forsake simplicity and live,
and you will be happy in the way of discernment.
3e4B7
8
Proverbs 8 Fn Min Max Syll
וְעַתָּ֣ה בָ֭נִים שִׁמְעוּ־לִ֑י
וְ֝אַשְׁרֵ֗י דְּרָכַ֥י יִשְׁמֹֽרוּ
32 So now, children, hear of what is mine.
Happy are those keeping my ways.
3e 4B 8
9
אַ֥שְֽׁרֵי אָדָם֮ שֹׁמֵ֪עַֽ֫ לִ֥י
לִשְׁקֹ֣ד עַל־דַּ֭לְתֹתַי י֤וֹם ׀ י֑וֹם
לִ֝שְׁמֹ֗ר מְזוּזֹ֥ת פְּתָחָֽי
34 f Happy a human that has heard of what is mine,
to be alert at my gateways day by day,
to watch from the posts of my doors.
3d 4C 8
8
8
Proverbs 14 Fn Min Max Syll
בָּז־לְרֵעֵ֥הוּ חוֹטֵ֑א
וּמְחוֹנֵ֖ן עֲנָוִ֣ים אַשְׁרָֽיו
21 One who is contemptuous to its associate sins,
but one who is gracious to the afflicted is happy.
3e 4B 7
8
Proverbs 16 Fn Min Max Syll
מַשְׂכִּ֣יל עַל־דָּ֭בָר יִמְצָא־ט֑וֹב
וּבוֹטֵ֖חַ בַּיהוָ֣ה אַשְׁרָֽיו
20 Insight on a matter finds good,
and one trusting in Yahweh, happy it is.
3e 4B 8
8
Proverbs 20 Fn Min Max Syll
מִתְהַלֵּ֣ךְ בְּתֻמּ֣וֹ צַדִּ֑יק
אַשְׁרֵ֖י בָנָ֣יו אַחֲרָֽיו
7 One walking in its completeness is a righteous one.
Happy his children after him.
3e 4B 8
7
Proverbs 28 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֣י אָ֭דָם מְפַחֵ֣ד תָּמִ֑יד
וּמַקְשֶׁ֥ה לִ֝בּ֗וֹ יִפּ֥וֹל בְּרָעָֽה
14 Happy the human in dread continually,
but who hardens its heart will fall into evil.
3e 4B 9
10
Proverbs 29 Fn Min Max Syll
בְּאֵ֣ין חָ֭זוֹן יִפָּ֣רַֽע עָ֑ם
וְשֹׁמֵ֖ר תּוֹרָ֣ה אַשְׁרֵֽהוּ
18 Where there is no vision, people are neglected,
but one who keeps instruction will be happy.
3e 4B 8
8
Job 29FnMinMaxSyll
כִּ֤י אֹ֣זֶן שָׁ֭מְעָה וַֽתְּאַשְּׁרֵ֑נִי
וְעַ֥יִן רָ֝אֲתָ֗ה וַתְּעִידֵֽנִי
11CWhen an ear heard, it thought me happy,
and an eye seeing, it testified of me.
3e4C9
9
Job 5 Fn Min Max Syll
הִנֵּ֤ה אַשְׁרֵ֣י אֱ֭נוֹשׁ יוֹכִחֶ֣נּֽוּ אֱל֑וֹהַּ
וּמוּסַ֥ר שַׁ֝דַּ֗י אַל־תִּמְאָֽס
17 Behold happy is the mortal whom God reproves.
The mentoring of the Sufficient, do not refuse.
3e 4C 13
8
Qohelet 10 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֣יךְ אֶ֔רֶץ שֶׁמַּלְכֵּ֖ךְ בֶּן־חוֹרִ֑ים
וְשָׂרַ֙יִךְ֙ בָּעֵ֣ת יֹאכֵ֔לוּ בִּגְבוּרָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א בַשְּׁתִֽי
17 Happy are you, earth, that your king is the child of the freeborn,
and your nobility in time eat for valour and not for partying.
3e 4B 10
16
Daniel 12 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֥י הַֽמְחַכֶּ֖ה וְיַגִּ֑יעַ
לְיָמִ֕ים אֶ֕לֶף שְׁלֹ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים וַחֲמִשָּֽׁה
12 Happy the person who tarries and touches,
the days, a thousand three hundred and thirty five.
3e 4A 9
16
2 Chronicles 9 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֣י אֲנָשֶׁ֔יךָ וְאַשְׁרֵ֖י עֲבָדֶ֣יךָ אֵ֑לֶּה
הָעֹמְדִ֤ים לְפָנֶ֙יךָ֙ תָּמִ֔יד וְשֹׁמְעִ֖ים אֶת־חָכְמָתֶֽךָ
7 Happy your soldiers, and happy these your servants,
those standing in your presence continually, and those hearing your wisdom.
3e 4C 15
17
Matthew 5 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֖י עֲנִיֵּ֣י הָר֑וּחַ
כִּי לָהֶ֥ם מַלְכ֖וּת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם
3 Happy are the poor of spirit,
for to them is the sovereignty of the heavens.
4B 3d 8
9

אַשְׁרֵ֖י הַמִּ֣תְאַבְּלִ֑ים
כִּי־הֵ֥ם יְנֻחָֽמוּ
4 Happy are those who lament,
for they will be consoled.
4B 3d 6
6

אַשְׁרֵ֣י הָעֲנָוִ֑ים
כִּי־הֵ֥ם יִירְשׁ֖וּ־את־הָאָֽרֶץ
5 Happy the afflicted,
for they, they will possess the earth.
4B 3d 6
7

אַשְׁרֵ֖י הָרְעֵבִ֣ים וְהַצְּמֵאִ֙ים לִצְדָקָ֑ה
כִּי־הֵ֥ם יִשְבָּֽעוּ
6 Happy those hungering and those thirsting for righteousness,
for they, they will be satisfied.
4B 3d 12
4
אַשְׁרֵ֖י בַּעֲלֵ֣י־רַחֲמִ֑ים
כִּי־הֵ֥ם יְרֻחָֽמוּ
7 Happy are the compassionate,
for they, they will be shown compassion.
4B 3d 7
6

אַשְׁרֵ֖י בָּרֵ֣י לֵבָ֑ב
כִּי־הֵ֥ם יֶחֱז֖וּ אֶת־אֱלֹהִֽים
8 Happy are the pure of heart,
for they, they will gaze on God.
4B 3d 6
9

אַשְׁרֵ֖י עֹשֵׂ֣י שָׁלוֹ֑ם
כִּי־הֵ֥ם יִקָּרְא֖וּ בְּנֵ֡י־אֱלֹהִֽים
9 Happy those who make peace,
for they, they will be called the children of God.
4B 3d 6
9
אַשְׁרֵ֣י הַנִּרְדָּפִ֙ים עֵקֶ֔ב צִדְקָתָ֑ם
כִּי לָהֶ֥ם מַלְכ֖וּת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם
10 Happy those who are persecuted with foot planted for their righteousness,
for to them is the sovereignty of the heavens.
4B 3d 11
9

אַשְׁרֵי֖כֶם אִם־יְחָרְפ֣וּ אִם־יִרְדְּפ֞וּ אֶתְכֶ֑ם
וּבַשֶּׁקֶ֚ר יָבִיא֣וּ דִבַּתְכֶ֜ם רָעָ֜ה בַּעֲב֖וּר שְׁמִֽי
11 Happy are you if they reproach or persecute you,
or they bring falsehood, your defamation, evil over my name.
4B 3d 13
17

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Music for Matthew 5:14?

Continuing the prior post.

O what discipline is required to put in the accents. Some editors will allow them. Word-10 works. You have to be using the Hebrew keyboard and then put in the alt-codes (painful memory work -see my cheat sheet here.) The blogger editor is OK for minor adjustments to vowels but the cantillation alt-keys are not supported. Similarly in Muse score, you can paste in the right text, but don't try to enter it with the alt-keys. So the detail must be done in Word or by direct insert in html into the database (even more prone to error).

This is the sample verse. Is Margoliuth good at designing cantillation? Think about it. The ancient unknown people who did this - were they punctuating or were they composing? I think they were composing - forming and releasing harmonic and emotional tension to be resolved at the end of each verse, or continuing, using reciting notes to tell the emotional content of the story.


The sequence of coding is not important. Vowels and cantillation fit together in any order after a consonant. (Programmers beware) The result looked a bit like music. But did I copy his signs correctly? I did not. I did not even transcribe the words correctly. My first correction was still wrong. My eye put the accent on the wrong ayin!

Finally, fixing the words too
Notice that Margoliuth has המנחת rather than ישׁבת (seated, situated, etc). The fifth word is from נוח (Noah) to rest. ִIt is an unexpected gloss. (The form does not occur in TNK).

You are the light of the era.
A city resting on a hill cannot be hidden.

Found another version with yet another verb for 'set'. I think the stem must be שׁכן but again the form never occurs in TNK.
אַתֶּם אוֹר הָעוֹלָם. עִיר שׁוֹכֶנֶת עַל הַר אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהִסָּתֵר

Starved

Translation is addictive. I am missing my fix. So here is a little exploration of part of Matthew from various Hebrew versions online.

There is no Unicode version with music.
Matthew 5:14
Salkinson-Ginsburg
אַתֶּם אוֹר הָעוֹלָם עִיר יֹשֶׁבֶת עַל־הָהָר לֹא תוּכַל לְהִסָּתֵר׃
Sar Shalom = Delitzsch
אַתֶּם אוֹרוֹ שֶׁל־עוֹלָם עִיר יׂשֶׁבֶת עַל־הָהָר לׂא תִסָּתֵר׃

Unique and in colour. from The Aleph and Tau Messianic comings. Also for this verse = Delitzsch.

While looking around, I came across this unlocking the gospel series by Julia Blum. I think unlocking is a good note - it certainly needs something to unlock the hearts of its followers.

From the Bible gateway,
אתם אור העולם – בדומה לעיר הבנויה על הר, אשר כל אחד יכול לראות את אורותיה 
an elaborate expansion of the Greek
You are the light of the world - like a city built on a mountain, where everyone can see its lights
υμεις εστε το φως του κοσμου ου δυναται πολις κρυβηναι επανω ορους κειμενη
You are the light of the cosmos, not can be a city hidden on the top of a mountain built.
C'est yous qui êtes la lumière du monde. Une ville construite sur une montagne ne peut pas être cachée.

There don't appear to be a lot of NT Bibles in Hebrew. Margoliuth is the only one with cantillation.
This verse has the sequence e-g#-B A // C-B-f-g#-e depending on the mode. The translator would not have been following this key since it wasn't inferred until the 1960s.

I have a little of this written out in my data, and with cantillation (but I was missing verse 14-15 - see next post - I can't remember where it came from - I must have done it by hand years ago). You can certainly see the Hebrew poetry - short sharp lines. Poor of spirit ? maybe the poor of the wind? The heavens appears to be in the place of a name of God. My glosses are concordant based on the rules of my rendering of TNK.

Matthew 5 Fn

Syll
וַיְהִ֧י כַּאֲשֶׁר רָאָ֛ה אֶת־הֲמוֹ֥ן הָעָ֖ם וַיַּעַ֣ל אֶל־הָהָ֑ר
וַיֵּשֶׁב שָׁ֔ם וַיִּגְּשׁ֥וּ אֵלָ֖יו תַּלְמִידָֽיו
1 And it was as he saw the tumult of the people that he ascended the hill.
And he sat down there and his students came close to him.


18
12

וַיִּפְתַּ֣ח אֶת־פִּיה֑וּ
וַיּוֹרֶ֮ה לָהֶ֥ם לֵאמֹֽר
2 And he opened his mouth,
and he gave instruction to them, saying,

6
7

אַשְׁרֵ֖י עֲנִיֵּ֣י הָר֑וּחַ
כִּי לָהֶ֥ם מַלְכ֖וּת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם
3 Happy are the poor of spirit,
for to them is the sovereignty of the heavens.

8
9

אַשְׁרֵ֖י הַמִּ֣תְאַבְּלִ֑ים
כִּי־הֵ֥ם יְנֻחָֽמוּ
4 Happy are those who lament,
for they will be consoled.

6
6

אַשְׁרֵ֣י הָעֲנָוִ֑ים
כִּי־הֵ֥ם יִירְשׁ֖וּ־את־הָאָֽרֶץ
5 Happy the afflicted,
for they, they will possess the earth.

6
7

אַשְׁרֵ֖י הָרְעֵבִ֣ים וְהַצְּמֵאִ֙ים לִצְדָקָ֑ה
כִּי־הֵ֥ם יִשְבָּֽעוּ
6 Happy those hungering and those thirsting for righteousness,
for they, they will be satisfied.

12
4
אַשְׁרֵ֖י בַּעֲלֵ֣י־רַחֲמִ֑ים
כִּי־הֵ֥ם יְרֻחָֽמוּ
7 Happy are the compassionate,
for they, they will be shown compassion.

7
6

אַשְׁרֵ֖י בָּרֵ֣י לֵבָ֑ב
כִּי־הֵ֥ם יֶחֱז֖וּ אֶת־אֱלֹהִֽים
8 Happy are the pure of heart,
for they, they will gaze on God.

6
9

אַשְׁרֵ֖י עֹשֵׂ֣י שָׁלוֹ֑ם
כִּי־הֵ֥ם יִקָּרְא֖וּ בְּנֵ֡י־אֱלֹהִֽים
9 Happy those who make peace,
for they, they will be called the children of God.

6
9
אַשְׁרֵ֣י הַנִּרְדָּפִ֙ים עֵקֶ֔ב צִדְקָתָ֑ם
כִּי לָהֶ֥ם מַלְכ֖וּת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם
10 Happy those who are persecuted with foot planted for their righteousness,
for to them is the sovereignty of the heavens.

11
9

אַשְׁרֵי֖כֶם אִם־יְחָרְפ֣וּ אִם־יִרְדְּפ֞וּ אֶתְכֶ֑ם
וּבַשֶּׁקֶ֚ר יָבִיא֣וּ דִבַּתְכֶ֜ם רָעָ֜ה בַּעֲב֖וּר שְׁמִֽי
11 Happy are you if they reproach or persecute you,
or they bring falsehood, your defamation, evil over my name.

13
17

שִׂמְח֥וּ וְגִיל֖וּ כִּי שְׂכַרְ֣כֶם הַרְבֶּ֩ה מְ֠אֹ֔ד בַּשָּׁמָ֑יִם
כִּי־כֵ֒ן רָדְפ֔וּ אֶת־הַנְּבִיאִ֙ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר הָיוּ֥ לִפְנֵֽיכֶם
12 Be glad and rejoice, for your wage is very abundant in the heavens,
for so they persecuted the prophets who are in your presence.

17
15

אַתֶּ֥֮ם מֶ֣לַח הָאָרֶץ֒ וְאִ֣ם־הַ֙מֶּלַ֙ח יִתְּפֵ֔ל בַּמֶּ֖ה יָמְלָח֑
לֹא־יִצְלַ֙ח ע֜וֹד לִמא֗וּמָה כִּ֚י אִ֔ם־לְחָשְׁלַ֣ךְ הַח֔וּצָה וּלְהֵרָמֵ֖ס רָגֶֽל
13 You are the salt of the earth. And if the salt is insipid, in what way will it be made salty?
It is no longer useful for anything much except to cast outside and to be trampled under foot.

18
21

אַתֶּ֭ם א֣וֹר הַעוֹלָ֑ם
עִ֚יר הַמֻּנַּחַ֣ת עַל־הָ֔ר לֹ֥א תוּכַ֖ל להִסָּתֵֽר
14 You are the light of the era.
A city resting on a hill cannot be hidden.

7
12
גַּם אֵין מַדְלִיקִים נֵר לָשׂוֹוֹם אוֹתוֹ תַּחַת הָאֵיפָה כִּי אִם־עַל־הַמְּנוֹרָה לְהָאִיר לְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בַּבָּיִת 15 Furthermore, there is no one who will inflame a lamp to put it under an ephah, but rather for the lamp stand to light for all who are in the house.
31

Thursday, January 17, 2019

Searching for another book title

I recently heard the Missa Charles Darwin performed by New York Polyphony, (juxtaposed with a magnificent performance of the Tallis four-part mass.) I have avoided the distraction of the arguments against Darwin. They are based on uninformed opinion. Fear supports such opinions with its consequence, violence. I can't find the quote I thought I read recently about the strength of opinion being inversely proportional to the degree of ignorance of its holder. But here is a note from Darwin about preconceived opinion:
The day will come when this will be given as a curious illustration of the blindness of preconceived opinion. These authors seem no more startled at a miraculous act of creation than at an ordinary birth. But do they really believe that at innumerable periods in the earth's history certain elemental atoms have been commanded suddenly to flash into living tissues? Do they believe that at each supposed act of creation one individual or many were produced? Were all the infinitely numerous kinds of animals and plants created as eggs or seed, or as full grown? and in the case of mammals, were they created bearing the false marks of nourishment from the mother's womb? Although naturalists very properly demand a full explanation of every difficulty from those who believe in the mutability of species, on their own side they ignore the whole subject of the first appearance of species in what they consider reverent silence.
I know I must deal with the science and faith conundrum. I marvel at what we can know and that the more we know, the further into the created order we are called out of our ignorance.

I am going to miss a lecture today. I am needed as chauffeur. Just as well. The speaker was on the radio this morning, on the morning show, and I was not impressed with his coherence. It is the current John Albert Hall lecture and will be podcast by next week. Hmm, I see Diarmaid MacCulloch is scheduled for the fall - I won't want to miss that one.

But the speaker, Christopher Hedges, made a prediction this morning (not very hard to make) that the market would suffer another traumatic depression in our time. Why? He says, Because of the unregulated rule (that's an oxymoron) of the 'Christian' right to our south. It's a stretch, but I expect he has a point. I expect that if we could 'follow the money', we would find that Christian is not the right adjective.

Well, not only them, but those who object to the rule of Mammon in preference to caring for the earth and all who are in it. Remember Psalm 24, one of the few (24, 40, 68, 101, 109, 110, 139) that is headed of David a Psalm.
of David, a psalm.
The earth is Yahweh's and her fullness,
the world and those sitting in her.
The importance of this psalm is underlined by the acrostic that follows it. Incomplete (book 1) or not (book 5), the acrostics follow significant psalms that are themselves significantly related in a circular structure enveloping the whole Psalter. (See this post for the details.)

It is not only this, our current generation, that has worshiped Mammon. Babylon (Babel, God's sledgehammer) is the symbol of stock market collapses. And the downfall of a few other places too, like Tyre (Ezekiel 37), a centre of trade, as the prophet describes, and Ashur (Nahum 3) whose merchants rivaled the population of the chosen (You have increased your merchants more than the stars of the heavens). There is a lot in the Bible about over-confidence on trade, good and necessary though it is.

Who is this Yahweh that the earth and the word and her inhabitants so belong? I think we need a new testament book that focuses on Job. And there isn't one. Darwin is anticipated in Yahweh's speeches. Oh, didn't you notice the nature, red in tooth and claw (Job 39:28-30 for example)? And how about the virility of Behemoth - an early experiment of Yahweh's, the beginning of the ways of the One.

What can be done to understand and to change behaviour? I am considering writing based on words I have not used, like, soul, atonement, and so on. It would make a book, but I think I will have to learn something more first. Maybe another stint as fellow at Uvic? The very place I am avoiding today! And there must be something on the music. And I would not avoid the mechanism of death exhibited by Jesus - as a means of changing the life of all who follow him. Jesus' death is both the means of our evolution and the single best argument against it. He did not propagate, yet he had an impact. Will it last? Is it indeed everlasting, or has it come to its end in the ignominy of Christendom?

Is it because of 'you' that the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles? Romans 2:24.

Monday, January 14, 2019

Word density

I'm sure this is somewhat old hat, but it is interesting to see if some words are more densely used in some books than others. Word density would be the number of occurrences of a stem over the total number of words in the passages being compared. I came across one significant one when doing the 7 different intros to my now 9 volume work on the Hebrew Bible. That is the word for nation, גוי, (goy).

It is more densely used in the latter prophets than in the former by a factor of 8.

This stem גוי, goi, occurs in the Hebrew text 561 times in 23 distinct word forms. In my reading it is always rendered as nation, a word derived from the idea of native, i.e. where you were born. There are 49 occurrences (0. 07% of the words) in the former prophets (just under one fifth of the Bible).  And in the later ones (just over one fifth of the Bible), there are 319 occurrences (0.55% of the words).

What would happen if we looked at other stems? Here's the density of דרך way. Malachi sticks out as do Ezekiel and Job. Leviticus and Qohelet hardly use it at all. There are 769 instances in the Bible in 83 differing word forms (i.e with appendages of articles, prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns, and as both verb and noun).
Usage density of דרך in the books of the Hebrew canon
A closer look at Malachi is not very helpful. The word only occurs 3 times in the book, but the book is so short that it distorts its own measure. Also my translation is inconsistent in its use of the gloss way. I use it for במה in what way. And I don't gloss דרך as way in one of the three cases but as journey. O bother, said Winnie the Pooh. I should probably not make much of single words in a text. (Let that be a lesson!)

In Job I am more consistent but it is a very flexible word. Here is usage in verse 19.

Job 40:15-19 Behemoth