This passage is the second incident showing the character of David and his respect for the anointed of Yahweh. In verse 19, I have used a gloss from Charles Williams Descent of the Dove for ספח. Here are the glosses I have used so far for this stem: accidental plant (4), co-inhere (2) e.g. Isaiah 14:1, 1 Samuel 2:36, co-inherence (1), deform (3), lesion (7), long veil (2).
Its most common gloss is lesion or deform. It is also accidental planting, those gifts of the prior year that sprout in the garden, like the cilantro sprouting from the coriander seed on the deck today. One can almost see that connection. But how can a word glossed as deformation also be glossed here as abide KJV (which I would use for כול) / share JB (חלק)? Same stem, many senses. One issue for me will be finding these things again when I finish the first pass and considering what stems with multiple senses are acceptable. It is possible that one simply needs to find a plausible amendment to the text so that the stem in context makes some sense. Or perhaps it is a sense we do not know.
The two items that David takes from Saul here are the spear and a צפחת of water. Must be a container of some sort. It is the same or a slight variant of the unique description of manna as a thin wafer, and is used also of the water container for Elijah. If I write jar, no one will notice. If I use thin wafer, anyone who reads will be jarred into asking, Oh, what is this? A water biscuit?
Verse 11 gives insight about the relationship perceived in David between Yahweh and his Anointed (=Messiah). Yahweh is present in his Messiah and so one cannot approach with violence and be guiltless. Yahweh is not the direct subject of the verb rendered as far be it. So I have not rendered it as Yahweh forbid. It seems more likely to me that David would be violating his integrity by taking such an action as if it were Yahweh's will.
חלל begin use (2) begun use (1) commence (13) eat start (1) far (10) grotto (1) out question (1) profanation (1) profane (109) profane alike (1) profanity (3) start (28) whistle (2)
|1 Samuel 26||Fn||Min||Max||Syll|
|וַיָּבֹ֤אוּ הַזִּפִים֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל הַגִּבְעָ֖תָה לֵאמֹ֑ר |
הֲל֨וֹא דָוִ֤ד מִסְתַּתֵּר֙ בְּגִבְעַ֣ת הַחֲכִילָ֔ה עַ֖ל פְּנֵ֥י הַיְשִׁימֹֽן
|1||And the Ziffites came to Saul at Gibeah saying, |
Did not David hide himself in the hillock of Haxiliah facing the wastelands?
|וַיָּ֣קָם שָׁא֗וּל וַיֵּ֙רֶד֙ אֶל־מִדְבַּר־זִ֔יף וְאִתּ֛וֹ שְׁלֹֽשֶׁת־אֲלָפִ֥ים אִ֖ישׁ בְּחוּרֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל |
לְבַקֵּ֥שׁ אֶת־דָּוִ֖ד בְּמִדְבַּר־זִֽיף
|2||And Saul arose and came down to the wilderness of Zif, and with him three thousand men, the chosen of Israel, |
to seek David in the wilderness of Zif.
|וַיִּ֨חַן שָׁא֜וּל בְּגִבְעַ֣ת הַחֲכִילָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֛ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַיְשִׁימֹ֖ן עַל־הַדָּ֑רֶךְ |
וְדָוִד֙ יֹשֵׁ֣ב בַּמִּדְבָּ֔ר וַיַּ֕רְא כִּ֣י בָ֥א שָׁא֛וּל אַחֲרָ֖יו הַמִּדְבָּֽרָה
|3||And Saul encamped in the hillock of Haxiliah, that is facing the wastelands over the way. |
But David sat in the wilderness and saw that Saul came after him towards the wilderness.
|וַיִּשְׁלַ֥ח דָּוִ֖ד מְרַגְּלִ֑ים |
וַיֵּ֕דַע כִּֽי־בָ֥א שָׁא֖וּל אֶל־נָכֽוֹן
|4||And David sent out surveyors, |
and knew that Saul came prepared.
|וַיָּ֣קָם דָּוִ֗ד וַיָּבֹא֮ אֶֽל־הַמָּקוֹם֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָנָה־שָׁ֣ם שָׁאוּל֒ וַיַּ֣רְא דָּוִ֗ד אֶת־הַמָּקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָֽׁכַב־שָׁ֣ם שָׁא֔וּל וְאַבְנֵ֥ר בֶּן־נֵ֖ר שַׂר־צְבָא֑וֹ |
וְשָׁאוּל֙ שֹׁכֵ֣ב בַּמַּעְגָּ֔ל וְהָעָ֖ם חֹנִ֥ים סְבִיבֹתָֽיו
|5||And David arose and he came to the place where Saul was encamped, and David saw the place where Saul was lying down, and Abner, child of Ner, the chief of his host. |
And Saul was lying down in the trench, and the people were encamped about him.
|וַיַּ֨עַן דָּוִ֜ד וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ אֶל־אֲחִימֶ֣לֶךְ הַחִתִּ֗י וְאֶל־אֲבִישַׁ֨י בֶּן־צְרוּיָ֜ה אֲחִ֤י יוֹאָב֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר מִֽי־יֵרֵ֥ד אִתִּ֛י אֶל־שָׁא֖וּל אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֑ה |
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲבִישַׁ֔י אֲנִ֖י אֵרֵ֥ד עִמָּֽךְ
|6||And David answered and he said to Ahimelech, the Hittite, and to Abishai, child of Tseruyah, brother of Joab, saying, Who will go down with me to Saul, to the camp? |
And Abishai said, I, I will go down with you.
|וַיָּבֹא֩ דָוִ֨ד וַאֲבִישַׁ֥י ׀ אֶל־הָעָם֮ לַיְלָה֒ וְהִנֵּ֣ה שָׁא֗וּל שֹׁכֵ֤ב יָשֵׁן֙ בַּמַּעְגָּ֔ל וַחֲנִית֥וֹ מְעוּכָֽה־בָאָ֖רֶץ מְרַאֲשֹׁתָ֑יו |
וְאַבְנֵ֣ר וְהָעָ֔ם שֹׁכְבִ֖ים סְבִיבֹתָֽיו
|7||And David and Abishai went to the people by night, and behold, Saul was lying down asleep in the trench and his spear emasculated in the land by his pillows, |
and Abner and the people laid out round about him.
|וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲבִישַׁי֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד סִגַּ֨ר אֱלֹהִ֥ים הַיּ֛וֹם אֶת־אוֹיִבְךָ֖ בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ |
וְעַתָּה֩ אַכֶּ֨נּוּ נָ֜א בַּחֲנִ֤ית וּבָאָ֙רֶץ֙ פַּ֣עַם אַחַ֔ת וְלֹ֥א אֶשְׁנֶ֖ה לֽוֹ
|8||And Abishai said to David, God has imprisoned today your enemy in your hand, |
and now let me strike him, please, with the spear, and on the earth in one pulse, and no second time for him.
|וַיֹּ֧אמֶר דָּוִ֛ד אֶל־אֲבִישַׁ֖י אַל־תַּשְׁחִיתֵ֑הוּ |
כִּ֠י מִ֣י שָׁלַ֥ח יָד֛וֹ בִּמְשִׁ֥יחַ יְהוָ֖ה וְנִקָּֽה
|9||And David said to Abishai, Do not destroy him. |
For who extends his hand against the anointed of Yahweh and is held innocent?
|וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ חַי־יְהוָ֔ה כִּ֥י אִם־יְהוָ֖ה יִגָּפֶ֑נּוּ |
אֽוֹ־יוֹמ֤וֹ יָבוֹא֙ וָמֵ֔ת א֧וֹ בַמִּלְחָמָ֛ה יֵרֵ֖ד וְנִסְפָּֽה
|10||And David said, Yahweh lives, but rather, Yahweh will plague him, |
or his day will come and he will die, or into the battle he will descend and be snatched.
|חָלִ֤ילָה לִּי֙ מֵֽיהוָ֔ה מִשְּׁלֹ֥חַ יָדִ֖י בִּמְשִׁ֣יחַ יְהוָ֑ה |
וְ֠עַתָּה קַח־נָ֨א אֶֽת־הַחֲנִ֜ית אֲשֶׁ֧ר מְרַאֲשֹׁתָ֛יו וְאֶת־צַפַּ֥חַת הַמַּ֖יִם וְנֵ֥לֲכָה לָּֽנוּ
|11||Far be it for me, from Yahweh, to extend my hand against the anointed of Yahweh. |
And now take, please, the spear that is by his pillows, and the thin wafer of water, and let us be gone.
|וַיִּקַּח֩ דָּוִ֨ד אֶֽת־הַחֲנִ֜ית וְאֶת־צַפַּ֤חַת הַמַּ֙יִם֙ מֵרַאֲשֹׁתֵ֣י שָׁא֔וּל וַיֵּלְכ֖וּ לָהֶ֑ם |
וְאֵ֣ין רֹאֶה֩ וְאֵ֨ין יוֹדֵ֜עַ וְאֵ֣ין מֵקִ֗יץ כִּ֤י כֻלָּם֙ יְשֵׁנִ֔ים כִּ֚י תַּרְדֵּמַ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה נָפְלָ֖ה עֲלֵיהֶֽם
|12||And David took the spear and the thin wafer of water from the pillows of Saul, and they got themselves away. |
And none saw, and none knew, and none awakened, for all of them were asleep, for a trance of Yahweh had fallen over them.
|וַיַּעֲבֹ֤ר דָּוִד֙ הָעֵ֔בֶר וַיַּעֲמֹ֥ד עַל־רֹאשׁ־הָהָ֖ר מֵֽרָחֹ֑ק |
רַ֥ב הַמָּק֖וֹם בֵּינֵיהֶֽם
|13||And David crossed over beyond, and he stood on the top of the hill, distant. |
Much was the place between them.
|וַיִּקְרָ֨א דָוִ֜ד אֶל־הָעָ֗ם וְאֶל־אַבְנֵ֤ר בֶּן־נֵר֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הֲל֥וֹא תַעֲנֶ֖ה אַבְנֵ֑ר |
וַיַּ֤עַן אַבְנֵר֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר מִ֥י אַתָּ֖ה קָרָ֥אתָ אֶל־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
|14||And David called to the people and to Abner, child of Ner, saying, Do you not answer, Abner? |
And Abner answered and he said, Who are you, calling to the king?
|וַיֹּאמֶר֩ דָּוִ֨ד אֶל־אַבְנֵ֜ר הֲלוֹא־אִ֣ישׁ אַתָּ֗ה וּמִ֤י כָמ֙וֹךָ֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְלָ֙מָּה֙ לֹ֣א שָׁמַ֔רְתָּ אֶל־אֲדֹנֶ֖יךָ הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ |
כִּי־בָא֙ אַחַ֣ד הָעָ֔ם לְהַשְׁחִ֖ית אֶת־הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ אֲדֹנֶֽיךָ
|15||And David said to Abner, Are you not a man? And who is like you in Israel? And why did you not keep watch of your lord the king? |
For one of the people came to destroy the king, your lord.
|לֹא־ט֞וֹב הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּה֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂיתָ֒ חַי־יְהוָ֗ה כִּ֤י בְנֵי־מָ֙וֶת֙ אַתֶּ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹֽא־שְׁמַרְתֶּ֛ם עַל־אֲדֹנֵיכֶ֖ם עַל־מְשִׁ֣יחַ יְהוָ֑ה |
וְעַתָּ֣ה ׀ רְאֵ֗ה אֵֽי־חֲנִ֥ית הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ וְאֶת־צַפַּ֥חַת הַמַּ֖יִם אֲשֶׁ֥ר מְרַאֲשֹׁתָֽיו
|16||Not good is this thing that you have done. Yahweh lives, but children of death you are, that have failed to keep watch over your master, the anointed of Yahweh. |
And now, see. Where is the spear of the king, and the thin wafer of water that was by his pillows?
|וַיַּכֵּ֤ר שָׁאוּל֙ אֶת־ק֣וֹל דָּוִ֔ד וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הֲקוֹלְךָ֥ זֶ֖ה בְּנִ֣י דָוִ֑ד |
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר דָּוִ֔ד קוֹלִ֖י אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
|17||And Saul recognized the voice of David, and he said, Your voice is this, my son, David? |
And David said, My voice, my lord the king.
|וַיֹּ֕אמֶר לָ֥מָּה זֶּ֛ה אֲדֹנִ֥י רֹדֵ֖ף אַחֲרֵ֣י עַבְדּ֑וֹ |
כִּ֚י מֶ֣ה עָשִׂ֔יתִי וּמַה־בְּיָדִ֖י רָעָֽה
|18||And he said, why is it my lord has pursued after his servant? |
For what have I done, and what in my hand is evil?
|וְעַתָּ֗ה יִֽשְׁמַֽע־נָא֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֵ֖ת דִּבְרֵ֣י עַבְדּ֑וֹ |
אִם־יְהוָ֞ה הֱסִֽיתְךָ֥ בִי֙ יָרַ֣ח מִנְחָ֔ה וְאִ֣ם ׀ בְּנֵ֣י הָאָדָ֗ם אֲרוּרִ֥ים הֵם֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה כִּֽי־גֵרְשׁ֣וּנִי הַיּ֗וֹם מֵהִסְתַּפֵּ֜חַ בְּנַחֲלַ֤ת יְהוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לֵ֥ךְ עֲבֹ֖ד אֱלֹהִ֥ים אֲחֵרִֽים
|19||And now let my lord the king hear, please, the words of his servant. |
If Yahweh has incited you against me, let him find fragrance in a gift, but if the children of a human, cursed are they in the presence of Yahweh, for they have expelled me today from co-inherence in the inheritance of Yahweh, saying, Go. serve other gods.
|וְעַתָּ֗ה אַל־יִפֹּ֤ל דָּֽמִי֙ אַ֔רְצָה מִנֶּ֖גֶד פְּנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה |
כִּֽי־יָצָ֞א מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לְבַקֵּשׁ֙ אֶת־פַּרְעֹ֣שׁ אֶחָ֔ד כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר יִרְדֹּ֥ף הַקֹּרֵ֖א בֶּהָרִֽים
|20||So now, do not let my blood fall earthward before the face of Yahweh, |
for the king of Israel has come forth to seek one flea, as when one pursues a partridge in the hills.
|וַיֹּאמֶר֩ שָׁא֨וּל חָטָ֜אתִי שׁ֣וּב בְּנִֽי־דָוִ֗ד כִּ֠י לֹֽא־אָרַ֤ע לְךָ֙ ע֔וֹד תַּ֠חַת אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָקְרָ֥ה נַפְשִׁ֛י בְּעֵינֶ֖יךָ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה |
הִנֵּ֥ה הִסְכַּ֛לְתִּי וָאֶשְׁגֶּ֖ה הַרְבֵּ֥ה מְאֹֽד
|21||And Saul said, I have sinned. Return, my son, David, for I will not hurt you longer, in that my integrity was precious in your eyes this day. |
Behold, I have been silly, and have strayed thoroughly.
|וַיַּ֤עַן דָּוִד֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר הִנֵּ֖ה חֲנִ֣ית הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ |
וְיַעֲבֹ֛ר אֶחָ֥ד מֵֽהַנְּעָרִ֖ים וְיִקָּחֶֽהָ
|22||And David answered and he said, Behold, the spear of the king. |
And let one from the lads cross over and receive it.
|וַֽיהוָה֙ יָשִׁ֣יב לָאִ֔ישׁ אֶת־צִדְקָת֖וֹ וְאֶת־אֱמֻנָת֑וֹ |
אֲשֶׁר֩ נְתָנְךָ֨ יְהוָ֤ה ׀ הַיּוֹם֙ בְּיָ֔ד וְלֹ֣א אָבִ֔יתִי לִשְׁלֹ֥חַ יָדִ֖י בִּמְשִׁ֥יחַ יְהוָֽה
|23||But Yahweh he will return to each his righteousness and his faithfulness. |
For Yahweh had given you today into my hand, but I did not consent to extend my hand against the anointed of Yahweh.
|וְהִנֵּ֗ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר גָּדְלָ֧ה נַפְשְׁךָ֛ הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֖ה בְּעֵינָ֑י |
כֵּ֣ן תִּגְדַּ֤ל נַפְשִׁי֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וְיַצִּלֵ֖נִי מִכָּל־צָרָֽה
|24||And behold as your integrity was great this day in my eyes, |
so let my integrity be great in the eyes of Yahweh, and may he deliver me from all trouble.
|וַיֹּ֨אמֶר שָׁא֜וּל אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד בָּר֤וּךְ אַתָּה֙ בְּנִ֣י דָוִ֔ד גַּ֚ם עָשֹׂ֣ה תַעֲשֶׂ֔ה וְגַ֖ם יָכֹ֣ל תּוּכָ֑ל |
וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ דָּוִד֙ לְדַרְכּ֔וֹ וְשָׁא֖וּל שָׁ֥ב לִמְקוֹמֽוֹ
|25||And Saul said to David, Blessed are you, my son, David, both doing and to do, and furthermore, you are able to endure. |
So David went on his own way, and Saul returned to his place.