Friday 31 August 2018

1 Samuel 20

Verse 14-15, we are over 90% through and here appears to be a new construction of ולא עם. Every translation ignores the repeated negatives in these two verses. JB writes that they restored the verse with the help of the Greek. (It is a very credible statement. I would have liked to see the reasoning.)

In this case I am going to take the repeated ולא as a kind of frantic stutter. Jonathon is upset, conflicted over his friendship and his responsibility as the heir to the throne of a man afflicted with a mental illness, (evil spirit from Yahweh.) To love in power is better than to have reigned in power.

Remember David's lament over the death of Jonathan. These laments are the grief of Yahweh. You will find a performance here. We could pay more attention to this reconstruction of the emotional content of the Scriptures.

How often does an English speaker fail to distinguish the object of a preposition or verb when using the pronouns "you and I" in a sentence? Our parents taught you and me, us, to put the other person first as if that was teaching us deference and recognition of the other. And perhaps it does. But you and I are so drilled that we fail to see where we should use you and me!

In verse 23, the I of Jonathon is said before the you of David, and Yahweh is between them for ever. See also verse 42. Here Yahweh is like the person of the Holy Spirit of the later Trinitarian doctrine. Is this interface for good? That would be my belief. But we are not, as they say, dealing with a tame lion. Anyway, dear reader, Yahweh be between thee and me. Amen.

Verse 30, Saul is clearly cursing and insulting his son. There could be innuendo in the curse that we would not get. Verse 31 is purely political. I have no adequate word for verse 41. JB considers the verse uncertain and leaves it out. It is גדל not רב so I can't use the KJV word exceeded. NIV has but David wept the most. A paraphrase and guess. This raw libretto is deliberately refusing to overlap words that do not need to be overlapped. That makes these final pieces of the puzzle more difficult. Listen to David's elegy for excessive sorrow.

And here is Walter de la Mare's poem, beautifully set: King David was a sorrowful man. (But it seems he had cause for his sorrow.)
1 Samuel 20 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיִּבְרַ֣ח דָּוִ֔ד מִנָּי֖וֹת בָּרָמָ֑ה
וַיָּבֹ֞א וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוֹנָתָ֗ן מֶ֤ה עָשִׂ֙יתִי֙ מֶֽה־עֲוֺנִ֤י וּמֶֽה־חַטָּאתִי֙ לִפְנֵ֣י אָבִ֔יךָ כִּ֥י מְבַקֵּ֖שׁ אֶת־נַפְשִֽׁי
1 And David ran away from Naiot in Ramah.
And he came and he said before Jonathan, What have I done? What is my iniquity? And how have I sinned in the presence of your father, for he seeks my throat?
3e 4C 11
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר ל֣וֹ חָלִילָה֮ לֹ֣א תָמוּת֒ הִנֵּ֡ה לֹֽא־יַעֲשֶׂ֨ה אָבִ֜י דָּבָ֣ר גָּד֗וֹל א֚וֹ דָּבָ֣ר קָטֹ֔ן וְלֹ֥א יִגְלֶ֖ה אֶת־אָזְנִ֑י
וּמַדּוּעַ֩ יַסְתִּ֨יר אָבִ֥י מִמֶּ֛נִּי אֶת־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֖ה אֵ֥ין זֹֽאת
2 And he said to him, Far be it. You will not die. Behold, my father will not do a great thing or a lesser thing that he will not disclose to my ear.
Why then should my father hide from me this thing? It is not like this.
3d 4C 33
וַיִּשָּׁבַ֨ע ע֜וֹד דָּוִ֗ד וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ יָדֹ֨עַ יָדַ֜ע אָבִ֗יךָ כִּֽי־מָצָ֤אתִי חֵן֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ וַיֹּ֛אמֶר אַל־יֵֽדַע־זֹ֥את יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן פֶּן־יֵֽעָצֵ֑ב
וְאוּלָ֗ם חַי־יְהוָה֙ וְחֵ֣י נַפְשֶׁ֔ךָ כִּ֣י כְפֶ֔שַׂע בֵּינִ֖י וּבֵ֥ין הַמָּֽוֶת
3 And David swore further and he said, Your father knows that I find grace in your eyes, and he said, Do not let Jonathan know this lest he be tortured,
but as Yahweh lives and you live, there is one false step between me and death.
3d 4C 41
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד
מַה־תֹּאמַ֥ר נַפְשְׁךָ֖ וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ
4 And Jonathan said to David,
Whatever your integrity will say, I will do for you.
3e 4A 10
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶל־יְהוֹנָתָ֗ן הִֽנֵּה־חֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ מָחָ֔ר וְאָנֹכִ֛י יָשֹׁב־אֵשֵׁ֥ב עִם־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לֶאֱכ֑וֹל
וְשִׁלַּחְתַּ֙נִי֙ וְנִסְתַּרְתִּ֣י בַשָּׂדֶ֔ה עַ֖ד הָעֶ֥רֶב הַשְּׁלִשִֽׁית
5 And David said to Jonathan, Behold, a new moon tomorrow, and I myself am to sit with the king to eat,
But send me out, and I will hide myself in the field till the third evening.
3d 4B 31
אִם־פָּקֹ֥ד יִפְקְדֵ֖נִי אָבִ֑יךָ
וְאָמַרְתָּ֗ נִשְׁאֹל֩ נִשְׁאַ֨ל מִמֶּ֤נִּי דָוִד֙ לָרוּץ֙ בֵּֽית־לֶ֣חֶם עִיר֔וֹ כִּ֣י זֶ֧בַח הַיָּמִ֛ים שָׁ֖ם לְכָל־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָֽה
6 If your father notices I am absent,
then you say, David begged leave from me to race to Bethlehem, his city, for the regular offering there for all the family.
3c 4C 10
אִם־כֹּ֥ה יֹאמַ֛ר ט֖וֹב שָׁל֣וֹם לְעַבְדֶּ֑ךָ
וְאִם־חָרֹ֤ה יֶֽחֱרֶה֙ ל֔וֹ דַּ֕ע כִּֽי־כָלְתָ֥ה הָרָעָ֖ה מֵעִמּֽוֹ
7 If thus he says, Good, your servant will have peace.
But if he is smoldering with fierce anger, know that evil is consuming him.
3d 4C 11
וְעָשִׂ֤יתָ חֶ֙סֶד֙ עַל־עַבְדֶּ֔ךָ כִּ֚י בִּבְרִ֣ית יְהוָ֔ה הֵבֵ֥אתָ אֶֽת־עַבְדְּךָ֖ עִמָּ֑ךְ
וְאִם־יֶשׁ־בִּ֤י עָוֺן֙ הֲמִיתֵ֣נִי אַ֔תָּה וְעַד־אָבִ֖יךָ לָמָּה־זֶּ֥ה תְבִיאֵֽנִי
8 And you will deal kindly with your servant, for into covenant with Yahweh you have brought your servant with you,
and if there is in me iniquity, put me to death yourself, for what is this that to your father you would bring me?
3e 4C 24
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן חָלִ֣ילָה לָּ֑ךְ
כִּ֣י ׀ אִם־יָדֹ֣עַ אֵדַ֗ע כִּֽי־כָלְתָ֨ה הָרָעָ֜ה מֵעִ֤ם אָבִי֙ לָב֣וֹא עָלֶ֔יךָ וְלֹ֥א אֹתָ֖הּ אַגִּ֥יד לָֽךְ
9 And said Jonathan, Far be it for you.
For if I knew that consuming evil from my father was to come upon you, then would I not make it clear to you?
3e 4C 11
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ אֶל־יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן מִ֖י יַגִּ֣יד לִ֑י
א֛וֹ מַה־יַּעַנְךָ֥ אָבִ֖יךָ קָשָֽׁה
10 And David said to Jonathan, Who will tell me?
Or what if your father answers you with hardness?
3d 4C 14
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד לְכָ֖ה וְנֵצֵ֣א הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה
וַיֵּצְא֥וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֖ם הַשָּׂדֶֽה
11 And Jonathan said to David, Come and let us go out to the field.
And they came out, both of them, to the field.
3e 4C 18
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוֹנָתָ֜ן אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד יְהוָ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ כִּֽי־אֶחְקֹ֣ר אֶת־אָבִ֗י כָּעֵ֤ת ׀ מָחָר֙ הַשְּׁלִשִׁ֔ית וְהִנֵּה־ט֖וֹב אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד
וְלֹֽא־אָז֙ אֶשְׁלַ֣ח אֵלֶ֔יךָ וְגָלִ֖יתִי אֶת־אָזְנֶֽךָ
12 And said Jonathan to David, Yahweh the God of Israel, for I will examine my father as at this time tomorrow, the third time, and behold, good to David,
and then will I not send to you, or disclose it in your ear?
3e 4C 38
כֹּֽה־יַעֲשֶׂה֩ יְהוָ֨ה לִֽיהוֹנָתָ֜ן וְכֹ֣ה יֹסִ֗יף כִּֽי־יֵיטִ֨ב אֶל־אָבִ֤י אֶת־הָֽרָעָה֙ עָלֶ֔יךָ וְגָלִ֙יתִי֙ אֶת־אָזְנֶ֔ךָ וְשִׁלַּחְתִּ֖יךָ וְהָלַכְתָּ֣ לְשָׁל֑וֹם
וִיהִ֤י יְהוָה֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיָ֖ה עִם־אָבִֽי
13 Thus do Yahweh to Jonathan and thus again if it is good to my father to do evil against you. Then I will disclose it in your ear, and I will send you away, and you go in peace.
But Yahweh be with you as he was with my father.
3e 4C 46
וְלֹ֖א אִם־עוֹדֶ֣נִּי חָ֑י
וְלֹֽא־תַעֲשֶׂ֧ה עִמָּדִ֛י חֶ֥סֶד יְהוָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א אָמֽוּת
14 And not ... if I am still living,
then not ... You will deal with me in the mercy of Yahweh. Then I will not die.
3c 4B 7
וְלֹֽא־תַכְרִ֧ת אֶֽת־חַסְדְּךָ֛ מֵעִ֥ם בֵּיתִ֖י עַד־עוֹלָ֑ם
וְלֹ֗א בְּהַכְרִ֤ת יְהוָה֙ אֶת־אֹיְבֵ֣י דָוִ֔ד אִ֕ישׁ מֵעַ֖ל פְּנֵ֥י הָאֲדָמָֽה
15 And you will not cut off your kindness from my house for ever,
... not when Yahweh has cut off the enemies of David, each one from off the surface of the ground.
3c 4C 15
וַיִּכְרֹ֥ת יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן עִם־בֵּ֣ית דָּוִ֑ד
וּבִקֵּ֣שׁ יְהוָ֔ה מִיַּ֖ד אֹיְבֵ֥י דָוִֽד
16 So Jonathan was in league with the house of David,
and let Yahweh demand from the hand of the enemies of David.
3e 4B 11
וַיּ֤וֹסֶף יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ לְהַשְׁבִּ֣יעַ אֶת־דָּוִ֔ד בְּאַהֲבָת֖וֹ אֹת֑וֹ
כִּֽי־אַהֲבַ֥ת נַפְשׁ֖וֹ אֲהֵבֽוֹ
17 And Jonathan again made David swear, in that he loved him.
For the love of his very self he loved him.
3e 4C 21
וַיֹּֽאמֶר־ל֥וֹ יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן מָחָ֣ר חֹ֑דֶשׁ
וְנִפְקַ֕דְתָּ כִּ֥י יִפָּקֵ֖ד מוֹשָׁבֶֽךָ
18 And Jonathan said to him, tomorrow is a new moon,
and your absence will be noticed, for he will visit your seat.
3e 4B 12
וְשִׁלַּשְׁתָּ֙ תֵּרֵ֣ד מְאֹ֔ד וּבָאתָ֙ אֶל־הַמָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁר־נִסְתַּ֥רְתָּ שָּׁ֖ם בְּי֣וֹם הַֽמַּעֲשֶׂ֑ה
וְיָ֣שַׁבְתָּ֔ אֵ֖צֶל הָאֶ֥בֶן הָאָֽזֶל
19 And the third day, descend excessively, and you will come to the place where you were hidden on the day of the deed,
and sit next to the stone of Ezel.
3e 4B 27
וַאֲנִ֕י שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת הַחִצִּ֖ים צִדָּ֣ה אוֹרֶ֑ה
לְשַֽׁלַּֽח־לִ֖י לְמַטָּרָֽה
20 And I will shoot three arrows on its side,
for me to reach out to a target.
3e 4B 13
וְהִנֵּה֙ אֶשְׁלַ֣ח אֶת־הַנַּ֔עַר לֵ֖ךְ מְצָ֣א אֶת־הַחִצִּ֑ים
אִם־אָמֹר֩ אֹמַ֨ר לַנַּ֜עַר הִנֵּ֥ה הַחִצִּ֣ים ׀ מִמְּךָ֣ וָהֵ֗נָּה קָחֶ֧נּוּ ׀ וָבֹ֛אָה כִּֽי־שָׁל֥וֹם לְךָ֛ וְאֵ֥ין דָּבָ֖ר חַי־יְהוָֽה
21 And behold, I will send the lad, Go. Find the arrows. If saying, I say to the lad, Behold, the arrows are beyond you, and behold, take them. Then come,
for peace is for you, and there is no pestilence. Yahweh lives.
3c 4B 16
וְאִם־כֹּ֤ה אֹמַר֙ לָעֶ֔לֶם הִנֵּ֥ה הַחִצִּ֖ים מִמְּךָ֣ וָהָ֑לְאָה
לֵ֕ךְ כִּ֥י שִֽׁלַּחֲךָ֖ יְהוָֽה
22 But if thus I say to the stripling, Behold, the arrows are beyond you, and far removed.
Go, for Yahweh has sent you away.
3e 4C 18
וְהַ֨דָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְנוּ אֲנִ֣י וָאָ֑תָּה
הִנֵּ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה בֵּינִ֥י וּבֵינְךָ֖ עַד־עוֹלָֽם
23 And the word that we spoke I and you,
behold, Yahweh between me and you for evermore.
3c 4B 14
וַיִּסָּתֵ֥ר דָּוִ֖ד בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה
וַיְהִ֣י הַחֹ֔דֶשׁ וַיֵּ֧שֶׁב הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶל־הַלֶּ֖חֶם לֶאֱכֽוֹל
24 So David hid in the field,
and the new moon happened, and the king sat, the bread to eat.
3c 4B 9
וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב הַ֠מֶּלֶךְ עַל־מ֨וֹשָׁב֜וֹ כְּפַ֣עַם ׀ בְּפַ֗עַם אֶל־מוֹשַׁב֙ הַקִּ֔יר וַיָּ֙קָם֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב אַבְנֵ֖ר מִצַּ֣ד שָׁא֑וּל
וַיִּפָּקֵ֖ד מְק֥וֹם דָּוִֽד
25 And the king sat on his seat as he did time after time, on a seat by the house wall. And Jonathan arose and Abner sat by the side of Saul.
And there was absence in the place of David.
3e 4B 37
וְלֹֽא־דִבֶּ֥ר שָׁא֛וּל מְא֖וּמָה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא
כִּ֤י אָמַר֙ מִקְרֶ֣ה ה֔וּא בִּלְתִּ֥י טָה֛וֹר ה֖וּא כִּֽי־לֹ֥א טָהֽוֹר
26 But Saul did not speak anything whatever in that day,
for he was saying, Something has transpired with him, maybe he is not clean, ... for he is not clean.
3d 4C 12
וַיְהִ֗י מִֽמָּחֳרַ֤ת הַחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י וַיִּפָּקֵ֖ד מְק֣וֹם דָּוִ֑ד
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שָׁאוּל֙ אֶל־יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן בְּנ֔וֹ מַדּ֜וּעַ לֹא־בָ֧א בֶן־יִשַׁ֛י גַּם־תְּמ֥וֹל גַּם־הַיּ֖וֹם אֶל־הַלָּֽחֶם
27 And it happened on the morrow the second of the new moon and there was absence in the place of David.
And Saul said to Jonathan, his son, Why has the son of Jesse not come, both yesterday and today, to the bread.
3c 4C 20
וַיַּ֥עַן יְהוֹנָתָ֖ן אֶת־שָׁא֑וּל
נִשְׁאֹ֨ל נִשְׁאַ֥ל דָּוִ֛ד מֵעִמָּדִ֖י עַד־בֵּ֥ית לָֽחֶם
28 And Jonathan answered Saul,
David begged leave from me to be in Bethlehem.
3d 4A 10
וַיֹּ֡אמֶר שַׁלְּחֵ֣נִי נָ֡א כִּ֣י זֶבַח֩ מִשְׁפָּחָ֨ה לָ֜נוּ בָּעִ֗יר וְה֤וּא צִוָּֽה־לִי֙ אָחִ֔י וְעַתָּ֗ה אִם־מָצָ֤אתִי חֵן֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ אִמָּ֥לְטָה נָּ֖א וְאֶרְאֶ֣ה אֶת־אֶחָ֑י
עַל־כֵּ֣ן לֹא־בָ֔א אֶל־שֻׁלְחַ֖ן הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
29 And he said, Dismiss me, if you will, for an offering of our family in the city, and my brother, he commanded me. So now, if I have found grace in your eyes, let me escape now, and I will see my brother.
Therefore he did not come to the table of the king.
3e 4C 46
וַיִּֽחַר־אַ֤ף שָׁאוּל֙ בִּיה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ בֶּֽן־נַעֲוַ֖ת הַמַּרְדּ֑וּת
הֲל֣וֹא יָדַ֗עְתִּי כִּֽי־בֹחֵ֤ר אַתָּה֙ לְבֶן־יִשַׁ֔י לְבָ֨שְׁתְּךָ֔ וּלְבֹ֖שֶׁת עֶרְוַ֥ת אִמֶּֽךָ
30 And the anger of Saul burned against Jonathan, saying to him, Son of the perverse and mutinous women,
do I not know that you have chosen the son of Jesse to your shame, and to the shame of the nakedness of your mother.
3e 4C 21
כִּ֣י כָל־הַיָּמִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר בֶּן־יִשַׁי֙ חַ֣י עַל־הָאֲדָמָ֔ה לֹ֥א תִכּ֖וֹן אַתָּ֣ה וּמַלְכוּתֶ֑ךָ
וְעַתָּ֗ה שְׁלַ֨ח וְקַ֤ח אֹתוֹ֙ אֵלַ֔י כִּ֥י בֶן־מָ֖וֶת הֽוּא
31 B For all the days that the son of Jesse lives on the ground, you will not be established, nor your kingdom,
so now send for, and take him to me, for a child of death he is.
3e 4C 26
וַיַּ֙עַן֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן אֶת־שָׁא֖וּל אָבִ֑יו
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֵלָ֛יו לָ֥מָּה יוּמַ֖ת מֶ֥ה עָשָֽׂה
32 And Jonathan answered Saul his father,
and he said to him, For what is he to be put to death? What has he done?
3c 4B 12
וַיָּ֨טֶל שָׁא֧וּל אֶֽת־הַחֲנִ֛ית עָלָ֖יו לְהַכֹּת֑וֹ
וַיֵּ֙דַע֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן כִּֽי־כָ֥לָה הִ֛יא מֵעִ֥ם אָבִ֖יו לְהָמִ֥ית אֶת־דָּוִֽד
33 And Saul hurled spears at him to strike him.
And Jonathan knew that this was consuming with his father to execute David.
3c 4B 15
וַיָּ֧קָם יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן מֵעִ֥ם הַשֻּׁלְחָ֖ן בָּחֳרִי־אָ֑ף
וְלֹא־אָכַ֞ל בְּיוֹם־הַחֹ֤דֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי֙ לֶ֔חֶם כִּ֤י נֶעְצַב֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד כִּ֥י הִכְלִמ֖וֹ אָבִֽיו
34 And Jonathan arose from the table, burning with anger,
and did not eat bread on the second day of the new moon, for he was tortured about David, for his father had humiliated him.
3c 4C 16
וַיְהִ֣י בַבֹּ֔קֶר וַיֵּצֵ֧א יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לְמוֹעֵ֣ד דָּוִ֑ד
וְנַ֥עַר קָטֹ֖ן עִמּֽוֹ
35 And it happened in the morning that Jonathan went out to the field at the appointed time with David,
and a wee youngster with him.
3c 4B 20
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְנַעֲר֔וֹ רֻ֗ץ מְצָ֥א נָא֙ אֶת־הַ֣חִצִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָנֹכִ֖י מוֹרֶ֑ה
הַנַּ֣עַר רָ֔ץ וְהֽוּא־יָרָ֥ה הַחֵ֖צִי לְהַעֲבִרֽוֹ
36 And he said to his lad, Race. Find, please, the arrows that I will shoot.
The lad raced, and he shot the arrow to pass by him.
3e 4B 22
וַיָּבֹ֤א הַנַּ֙עַר֙ עַד־מְק֣וֹם הַחֵ֔צִי אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָרָ֖ה יְהוֹנָתָ֑ן
וַיִּקְרָ֨א יְהוֹנָתָ֜ן אַחֲרֵ֤י הַנַּ֙עַר֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר הֲל֥וֹא הַחֵ֖צִי מִמְּךָ֥ וָהָֽלְאָה
37 And the lad came to the place of the arrow where Jonathan had shot.
And Jonathan called after the lad, and he said, Is not the arrow beyond you and far removed?
3e 4C 20
וַיִּקְרָ֤א יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י הַנַּ֔עַר מְהֵרָ֥ה ח֖וּשָׁה אַֽל־תַּעֲמֹ֑ד
וַיְלַקֵּ֞ט נַ֤עַר יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אֶת־הַ֣חִצִּ֔ים וַיָּבֹ֖א אֶל־אֲדֹנָֽיו
38 And Jonathan called after the lad, Swiftly, hurry, nor let yourself stand.
And the lad of Jonathan picked up the arrows, and he came to his master.
3e 4C 22
וְהַנַּ֖עַר לֹֽא־יָדַ֣ע מְא֑וּמָה
אַ֤ךְ יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ וְדָוִ֔ד יָדְע֖וּ אֶת־הַדָּבָֽר
39 And the lad knew nothing whatever,
but Jonathan and David, they knew the matter.
3e 4C 9
וַיִּתֵּ֤ן יְהֽוֹנָתָן֙ אֶת־כֵּלָ֔יו אֶל־הַנַּ֖עַר אֲשֶׁר־ל֑וֹ
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ לֵ֖ךְ הָבֵ֥יא הָעִֽיר
40 And Jonathan gave his cargo to the lad that was his,
and he said to him, Go and bring to the city.
3e 4C 17
הַנַּעַר֮ בָּא֒ וְדָוִ֗ד קָ֚ם מֵאֵ֣צֶל הַנֶּ֔גֶב וַיִּפֹּ֨ל לְאַפָּ֥יו אַ֛רְצָה וַיִּשְׁתַּ֖חוּ שָׁלֹ֣שׁ פְּעָמִ֑ים
וַֽיִּשְּׁק֣וּ ׀ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֗הוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֔הוּ עַד־דָּוִ֖ד הִגְדִּֽיל
41 The lad went, and David arose next to the south, and fell, his nose earthward, and prostrated himself three times.
And they kissed each his friend, and wept, each with his friend, even David, the great..
3d 4C 31
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן לְדָוִ֖ד לֵ֣ךְ לְשָׁל֑וֹם
אֲשֶׁר֩ נִשְׁבַּ֨עְנוּ שְׁנֵ֜ינוּ אֲנַ֗חְנוּ בְּשֵׁ֤ם יְהוָה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יְהוָ֞ה יִֽהְיֶ֣ה ׀ בֵּינִ֣י וּבֵינֶ֗ךָ וּבֵ֥ין זַרְעִ֛י וּבֵ֥ין זַרְעֲךָ֖ עַד־עוֹלָֽם
42 And Jonathan said to David, Go in peace,
for we have sworn, both of us, ourselves, in the name of Yahweh, saying, Yahweh be between me and you, and between my seed and your seed for evermore.
3c 4C 14

Thursday 30 August 2018

2 Chronicles 26

Agriculture, husbandry? אֲדָמָ֖ה הָיָֽה the ground is becoming? What an interesting way to express the word and the love of it attributed to Uzziah. He also loved weapons both offensive and defensive, and unfortunately for him, he was disrespectful of the separation of powers within the ordered life of Judah.

These ancient peoples were not a theocracy. There is a separation of governing powers within the tradition. Prophet, priest, and monarch all create a balancing mechanism. Without this, the honest record of the Scripture would not exist. We still have to be careful how we read this violent written record, warts and all. The tensions in each branch of the separation and across branches are also clearly evident as the branch of government evolves. It is equally true that the branches are linked through their recognition of Yahweh, their God. Such an ultimate check on absolute power is also a requirement for us to live.

2 Chronicles 26 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיִּקְח֞וּ כָּל־עַ֤ם יְהוּדָה֙ אֶת־עֻזִּיָּ֔הוּ וְה֕וּא בֶּן־שֵׁ֥שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה שָׁנָ֑ה
וַיַּמְלִ֣יכוּ אֹת֔וֹ תַּ֖חַת אָבִ֥יו אֲמַצְיָֽהוּ
1 And all the people of Judah took Uzziah, and he was a child of sixteen years,
and made king him instead of his father Amaziah.
3e 4C 21
ה֚וּא בָּנָ֣ה אֶת־אֵיל֔וֹת וַיְשִׁיבֶ֖הָ לִֽיהוּדָ֑ה
אַחֲרֵ֥י שְׁכַֽב־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ עִם־אֲבֹתָֽיו
2 C He himself built up Hart [Eiloth] and restored it to Judah,
after the king was laid out with his ancestors.
3e 4C 13
בֶּן־שֵׁ֨שׁ עֶשְׂרֵ֤ה שָׁנָה֙ עֻזִּיָּ֣הוּ בְמָלְכ֔וֹ וַחֲמִשִּׁ֤ים וּשְׁתַּ֙יִם֙ שָׁנָ֔ה מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וְשֵׁ֣ם אִמּ֔וֹ יְכָלְיָ֖ה מִן־יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם
3 A child of sixteen years was Uzziah when he began to reign, and fifty two years he reigned in Jerusalem.
And the name of his mother was Yekolyah from Jerusalem.
3e 4C 27
וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הַיָּשָׁ֖ר בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֖ה אֲמַצְיָ֥הוּ אָבִֽיו
4 And he did what is upright in the eyes of Yahweh,
according to everything that Amaziah his father had done.
3e 4B 11
וַיְהִי֙ לִדְרֹ֣שׁ אֱלֹהִ֔ים בִּימֵ֣י זְכַרְיָ֔הוּ הַמֵּבִ֖ין בִּרְאֹ֣ת הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים
וּבִימֵי֙ דָּרְשׁ֣וֹ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה הִצְלִיח֖וֹ הָאֱלֹהִֽים
5 And he was searching out God in the days of Zachariah, one who understood the appearances of this God.
And in the days he searched out Yahweh, this God made him prosper.
3e 4B 22
וַיֵּצֵא֙ וַיִּלָּ֣חֶם בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וַיִּפְרֹ֞ץ אֶת־ח֣וֹמַת גַּ֗ת וְאֵת֙ חוֹמַ֣ת יַבְנֵ֔ה וְאֵ֖ת חוֹמַ֣ת אַשְׁדּ֑וֹד
וַיִּבְנֶ֣ה עָרִ֔ים בְּאַשְׁדּ֖וֹד וּבַפְּלִשְׁתִּֽים
6 And he went out and fought against the Philistines, and broke through the wall of Gath, and the rampart of Yabneh, and the rampart of Ashdod,
and built cities in Ashdod and against the Philistines.
3e 4B 29
וַיַּעְזְרֵ֨הוּ הָֽאֱלֹהִ֜ים עַל־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֧ים וְעַל־הָֽעַרְבִ֛ים הַיֹּשְׁבִ֥ים בְּגוּר־בָּ֖עַל וְהַמְּעוּנִֽים 7 And this God helped him against the Philistines and against the Arabians, those inhabiting in Gur Baal and the Meunim. 3c 3g 29
וַיִּתְּנ֧וּ הָֽעַמּוֹנִ֛ים מִנְחָ֖ה לְעֻזִּיָּ֑הוּ
וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ שְׁמוֹ֙ עַד־לְב֣וֹא מִצְרַ֔יִם כִּ֥י הֶחֱזִ֖יק עַד־לְמָֽעְלָה
8 And the Ammonites gave a gift to Uzziah,
and his name traveled to the entry of Egypt for he was resolute to a great degree.
3c 4C 14
וַיִּ֨בֶן עֻזִּיָּ֤הוּ מִגְדָּלִים֙ בִּיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם עַל־שַׁ֧עַר הַפִּנָּ֛ה וְעַל־שַׁ֥עַר הַגַּ֖יְא וְעַל־הַמִּקְצ֑וֹעַ
9 And Uzziah built towers in Jerusalem, over the gate of the corner, and over the gate of the gorge, and over the cutting,
and he revamped them.
3c 4C 32
וַיִּ֨בֶן מִגְדָּלִ֜ים בַּמִּדְבָּ֗ר וַיַּחְצֹב֙ בֹּר֣וֹת רַבִּ֔ים כִּ֤י מִקְנֶה־רַּב֙ הָ֣יָה ל֔וֹ וּבַשְּׁפֵלָ֖ה וּבַמִּישׁ֑וֹר
אִכָּרִ֣ים וְכֹֽרְמִ֗ים בֶּהָרִים֙ וּבַכַּרְמֶ֔ל כִּֽי־אֹהֵ֥ב אֲדָמָ֖ה הָיָֽה
10 And he built towers in the wilderness, hewed many cisterns, for had he much livestock, both in the low place in the level place,
farmers and vine-dressers in the hills and in Carmel, for he loved agriculture.
3e 4C 31
וַיְהִ֣י לְעֻזִּיָּ֡הוּ חַיִל֩ עֹשֵׂ֨ה מִלְחָמָ֜ה יוֹצְאֵ֧י צָבָ֣א לִגְד֗וּד בְּמִסְפַּר֙ פְּקֻדָּתָ֔ם בְּיַד֙ יְעִיאֵ֣ל הַסּוֹפֵ֔ר וּמַעֲשֵׂיָ֖הוּ הַשּׁוֹטֵ֑ר
עַ֚ל יַד־חֲנַנְיָ֔הוּ מִשָּׂרֵ֖י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
11 And Uzziah had ability to make war, a host going out as a raiding party, according to the count of their conscription by the hand of Jeiel, the secretary, and Maaseyah, the overseer,
by the hand of Hananiah, the chief of the king.
3c 4C 43
כֹּ֠ל מִסְפַּ֞ר רָאשֵׁ֤י הָאָבוֹת֙ לְגִבּ֣וֹרֵי חָ֔יִל אַלְפַּ֖יִם וְשֵׁ֥שׁ מֵאֽוֹת 12 ~ All the count of the heads of the ancestors for the valiant of force, two thousand six hundred. 3e 4C 20
וְעַל־יָדָם֩ חֵ֨יל צָבָ֜א שְׁלֹ֧שׁ מֵא֣וֹת אֶ֗לֶף וְשִׁבְעַ֤ת אֲלָפִים֙ וַחֲמֵ֣שׁ מֵא֔וֹת עוֹשֵׂ֥י מִלְחָמָ֖ה בְּכֹ֣חַ חָ֑יִל
לַעְזֹ֥ר לַמֶּ֖לֶךְ עַל־הָאוֹיֵֽב
13 And by their hand a forceful host, three hundred and seven thousand five hundred, those making war in the power of force,
to help the king over the enemy.
3c 4C 34
וַיָּכֶן֩ לָהֶ֨ם עֻזִּיָּ֜הוּ לְכָל־הַצָּבָ֗א מָגִנִּ֤ים וּרְמָחִים֙ וְכ֣וֹבָעִ֔ים וְשִׁרְיֹנ֖וֹת וּקְשָׁת֑וֹת
וּלְאַבְנֵ֖י קְלָעִֽים
14 And Uzziah prepared for them, for all the host, shields, and lances, and helmets, and chain mail, and bows,
and sling stones.
3e 4C 31
וַיַּ֣עַשׂ ׀ בִּירוּשָׁלִַ֨ם חִשְּׁבֹנ֜וֹת מַחֲשֶׁ֣בֶת חוֹשֵׁ֗ב לִהְי֤וֹת עַל־הַמִּגְדָּלִים֙ וְעַל־הַפִּנּ֔וֹת לִירוֹא֙ בַּֽחִצִּ֔ים וּבָאֲבָנִ֖ים גְּדֹל֑וֹת
וַיֵּצֵ֤א שְׁמוֹ֙ עַד־לְמֵ֣רָח֔וֹק כִּֽי־הִפְלִ֥יא לְהֵעָזֵ֖ר עַ֥ד כִּֽי־חָזָֽק
15 And he made devices in Jerusalem devised by device to be on the towers and on the corners, to shoot with arrows and with great stones.
And his reputation went out afar off, for he was wonderfully helped through, for he was resolved.
3e 4C 41
וּכְחֶזְקָת֗וֹ גָּבַ֤הּ לִבּוֹ֙ עַד־לְהַשְׁחִ֔ית וַיִּמְעַ֖ל בַּיהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֑יו
וַיָּבֹא֙ אֶל־הֵיכַ֣ל יְהוָ֔ה לְהַקְטִ֖יר עַל־מִזְבַּ֥ח הַקְּטֹֽרֶת
16 But he encouraged himself. His heart was haughty to destruction. And he trespassed in Yahweh his God,
and came to the temple of Yahweh to burn incense upon the altar of incense.
3e 4C 20
וַיָּבֹ֥א אַחֲרָ֖יו עֲזַרְיָ֣הוּ הַכֹּהֵ֑ן
וְעִמּ֞וֹ כֹּהֲנִ֧ים ׀ לַיהוָ֛ה שְׁמוֹנִ֖ים בְּנֵי־חָֽיִל
17 And Azariah the priest came after him,
and with him were eighty priests of Yahweh, sons of ability.
3c 4B 13
וַיַּעַמְד֞וּ עַל־עֻזִּיָּ֣הוּ הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וַיֹּ֤אמְרוּ לוֹ֙ לֹא־לְךָ֣ עֻזִּיָּ֗הוּ לְהַקְטִיר֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה כִּ֣י לַכֹּהֲנִ֧ים בְּנֵי־אַהֲרֹ֛ן הַמְקֻדָּשִׁ֖ים לְהַקְטִ֑יר
צֵ֤א מִן־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ֙ כִּ֣י מָעַ֔לְתָּ וְלֹֽא־לְךָ֥ לְכָב֖וֹד מֵיְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהִֽים
18 And they stood against Uzziah the king, and they said to him, Not for yourself, Uzziah, to burn incense to Yahweh, but for the priests, the children of Aaron, that are holy, to burn incense.
Go forth from the sanctuary, for you have trespassed, and not for yourself, for glory is from Yahweh God.
3c 4C 44
וַיִּזְעַף֙ עֻזִּיָּ֔הוּ וּבְיָד֥וֹ מִקְטֶ֖רֶת לְהַקְטִ֑יר
וּבְזַעְפּ֣וֹ עִם־הַכֹּהֲנִ֗ים וְ֠הַצָּרַעַת זָרְחָ֨ה בְמִצְח֜וֹ לִפְנֵ֤י הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ בְּבֵ֣ית יְהוָ֔ה מֵעַ֖ל לְמִזְבַּ֥ח הַקְּטֹֽרֶת
19 And Uzziah was outraged, and in his hand was incense to burn with smoke.
And being outraged with the priests, the leprosy rose into his forehead in the presence of the priests, in the house of Yahweh beside the altar of incense.
3e 4C 16
וַיִּ֣פֶן אֵלָ֡יו עֲזַרְיָהוּ֩ כֹהֵ֨ן הָרֹ֜אשׁ וְכָל־הַכֹּהֲנִ֗ים וְהִנֵּה־ה֤וּא מְצֹרָע֙ בְּמִצְח֔וֹ וַיַּבְהִל֖וּהוּ מִשָּׁ֑ם
וְגַם־הוּא֙ נִדְחַ֣ף לָצֵ֔את כִּ֥י נִגְּע֖וֹ יְהוָֽה
20 And Azariah faced him, the head priest, and all the priests, and behold he was leprous in his forehead, and they thrust him out from there.
And also he sped to get out, for Yahweh had touched him.
3e 4C 36
וַיְהִי֩ עֻזִּיָּ֨הוּ הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ מְצֹרָ֣ע ׀ עַד־י֣וֹם מוֹת֗וֹ וַיֵּ֜שֶׁב בֵּ֤ית הַֽחָפְשִׁית֙ מְצֹרָ֔ע כִּ֥י נִגְזַ֖ר מִבֵּ֣ית יְהוָ֑ה
וְיוֹתָ֤ם בְּנוֹ֙ עַל־בֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ שׁוֹפֵ֖ט אֶת־עַ֥ם הָאָֽרֶץ
21 And Uzziah the king was a leper until the day of his death, and he settled in the house of the free, a leper, for he was disconnected from the house of Yahweh.
And Jotham his son was over the house of the king, judging the people of the land.
3e 4C 33
וְיֶ֙תֶר֙ דִּבְרֵ֣י עֻזִּיָּ֔הוּ הָרִאשֹׁנִ֖ים וְהָאֲחֲרֹנִ֑ים
כָּתַ֛ב יְשַֽׁעְיָ֥הוּ בֶן־אָמ֖וֹץ הַנָּבִֽיא
22 And the remaining words of Uzziah, the first and the last,
Isaiah wrote, the child of Amoz the prophet.
3d 4B 19
וַיִּשְׁכַּ֨ב עֻזִּיָּ֜הוּ עִם־אֲבֹתָ֗יו וַיִּקְבְּר֨וּ אֹת֤וֹ עִם־אֲבֹתָיו֙ בִּשְׂדֵ֤ה הַקְּבוּרָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לַמְּלָכִ֔ים כִּ֥י אָמְר֖וּ מְצוֹרָ֣ע ה֑וּא
וַיִּמְלֹ֛ךְ יוֹתָ֥ם בְּנ֖וֹ תַּחְתָּֽיו
23 And Uzziah was laid out with his ancestors, and they entombed him with his ancestors in the cemetery field that was for kings, for they said, He is a leper.
And Jotham his son reigned in his stead.
3d 4C 38

Wednesday 29 August 2018

Ezra 7

Part of this chapter is Hebrew and part Aramaic. Biblical Aramaic and Hebrew seem to have more stems in common than they do that are different. Even when different, their stems may be close. E.g. in the stem for counsel, the Hebrew יעץ in Aramaic is יעט. The square script is itself first the Aramaic script. It has a number of letters that seem to duplicate sounds. It is not surprising that some letters might have morphed from one dialect to another, eventually the dialect becoming a separate tongue. There are dozens of Semitic languages.

The atenah in verse 15 falls in the middle of a construct. The definite article applied to silver and gold  in the first half of the verse is implied by the phrase following in the second half of the verse. The split is unusual but so is the length of the second part of the construct.

For the stem עבד I continue to avoid the gloss do (though I have used it in Daniel 3:32). Aramaic appears to use עבד for both serve and do. Perhaps the Aramaic should sound even more foreign than Hebrew to our ears.

Verse 22 is not a blank cheque. Based on the music, without requisition seems to apply only to salt.

Ezra 7 Fn Min Max Syll
וְאַחַר֙ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה בְּמַלְכ֖וּת אַרְתַּחְשַׁ֣סְתְּא מֶֽלֶךְ־פָּרָ֑ס
עֶזְרָא֙ בֶּן־שְׂרָיָ֔ה בֶּן־עֲזַרְיָ֖ה בֶּן־חִלְקִיָּֽה
1 And after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes, king of Persia,
Ezra child of Saraiah, child of Azariah, child of Hilqiah,
3e 4B 20
בֶּן־שַׁלּ֥וּם בֶּן־צָד֖וֹק בֶּן־אֲחִיטֽוּב 2 Child of Shallum, child of Zadok, child of Achitov, 3e 3g 10
בֶּן־אֲמַרְיָ֥ה בֶן־עֲזַרְיָ֖ה בֶּן־מְרָיֽוֹת 3 Child of Amariah, child of Azariah, child of Meraioth, 3e 3g 12
בֶּן־זְרַֽחְיָ֥ה בֶן־עֻזִּ֖י בֶּן־בֻּקִּֽי 4 Child of Zeraxiah, child of Uzzi, child of Buqi, 3e 3g 10
בֶּן־אֲבִישׁ֗וּעַ בֶּן־פִּֽינְחָס֙ בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָ֔ר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹ֥ן הַכֹּהֵ֖ן הָרֹֽאשׁ 5 Child of Abishua, child of Phineas, child of Eleazar, child of Aaron, the head priest, 3e 3g 21
ה֤וּא עֶזְרָא֙ עָלָ֣ה מִבָּבֶ֔ל וְהֽוּא־סֹפֵ֤ר מָהִיר֙ בְּתוֹרַ֣ת מֹשֶׁ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥ן יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיִּתֶּן־ל֣וֹ הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ כְּיַד־יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהָיו֙ עָלָ֔יו כֹּ֖ל בַּקָּשָׁתֽוֹ
6 C This Ezra went up from Babel, and he was an impetuous scribe in the instruction of Moses that Yahweh the God of Israel had given,
and the king gave him, according to the hand of Yahweh his God upon him, all that he sought.
3e 4C 31
וַיַּֽעֲל֣וּ מִבְּנֵֽי־יִ֠שְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַכֹּהֲנִ֨ים וְהַלְוִיִּ֜ם וְהַמְשֹׁרְרִ֧ים וְהַשֹּׁעֲרִ֛ים וְהַנְּתִינִ֖ים אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
בִּשְׁנַת־שֶׁ֖בַע לְאַרְתַּחְשַׁ֥סְתְּא הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
7 And went up from the children of Israel, and from the priests and the Levites, and the singers, and the gatekeepers, and the Nethinim, to Jerusalem,
in the seventh year of Artaxerxes the king.
3c 4B 37
וַיָּבֹ֥א יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַחֲמִישִׁ֑י
הִ֛יא שְׁנַ֥ת הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖ית לַמֶּֽלֶךְ
8 And he entered Jerusalem in the fifth new moon.
This was the seventh year of the king.
3d 4B 14
כִּ֗י בְּאֶחָד֙ לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָרִאשׁ֔וֹן ה֣וּא יְסֻ֔ד הַֽמַּעֲלָ֖ה מִבָּבֶ֑ל
וּבְאֶחָ֞ד לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַחֲמִישִׁ֗י בָּ֚א אֶל־יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם כְּיַד־אֱלֹהָ֖יו הַטּוֹבָ֥ה עָלָֽיו
9 ~ For on the first of the first month, he laid the foundation of the ascent from Babel, and on the first of the fifth month he had come to Jerusalem,
according to the good hand of his God upon him.
3e 4C 20
כִּ֤י עֶזְרָא֙ הֵכִ֣ין לְבָב֔וֹ לִדְר֛וֹשׁ אֶת־תּוֹרַ֥ת יְהוָ֖ה וְלַעֲשֹׂ֑ת
וּלְלַמֵּ֥ד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל חֹ֥ק וּמִשְׁפָּֽט
10 C For Ezra prepared his heart to search out the instruction of Yahweh and to act,
and to teach in Israel, statute and judgment.
3d 4C 19
וְזֶ֣ה ׀ פַּרְשֶׁ֣גֶן הַֽנִּשְׁתְּוָ֗ן אֲשֶׁ֤ר נָתַן֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אַרְתַּחְשַׁ֔סְתְּא לְעֶזְרָ֥א הַכֹּהֵ֖ן הַסֹּפֵ֑ר
סֹפֵ֞ר דִּבְרֵ֧י מִצְוֺת־יְהוָ֛ה וְחֻקָּ֖יו עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
11 And this is a copy of the written record in which the king, Artaxerxes, granted to Ezra the priest, the secretary.
The record of the words of the commandment of Yahweh and his statutes over Israel,
3c 4C 29
אַ֨רְתַּחְשַׁ֔סְתְּא מֶ֖לֶךְ מַלְכַיָּ֑א
לְעֶזְרָ֣א כָ֠הֲנָא סָפַ֨ר דָּתָ֜א דִּֽי־אֱלָ֧הּ שְׁמַיָּ֛א גְּמִ֖יר וּכְעֶֽנֶת
12 ~ Artaxerxes, king of kings,
to Ezra the priest, scribe of the dictate of the God of the heavens, perfect peace. And now,
3c 4B 9
מִנִּי֮ שִׂ֣ים טְעֵם֒ דִּ֣י כָל־מִתְנַדַּ֣ב בְּמַלְכוּתִי֩ מִן־עַמָּ֨ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל וְכָהֲנ֣וֹהִי וְלֵוָיֵ֗א לִמְהָ֧ךְ לִֽירוּשְׁלֶ֛ם עִמָּ֖ךְ יְהָֽךְ 13 From me is set a warrant that all who willingly offered, within my kingdom, from the people of Israel, and its priests, and the Levites, to go up to Jerusalem with you, may go. 3c 4B 38
כָּל־קֳבֵ֗ל דִּי֩ מִן־קֳדָ֨ם מַלְכָּ֜א וְשִׁבְעַ֤ת יָעֲטֹ֙הִי֙ שְׁלִ֔יחַ לְבַקָּרָ֥א עַל־יְה֖וּד וְלִֽירוּשְׁלֶ֑ם
בְּדָ֥ת אֱלָהָ֖ךְ דִּ֥י בִידָֽךְ
14 All because, from before the king and seven of his counselors, you are sent to enquire concerning Judah and of Jerusalem,
according to the dictate of your God which is in your hand.
3e 4C 30
וּלְהֵיבָלָ֖ה כְּסַ֣ף וּדְהַ֑ב
דִּֽי־מַלְכָּ֣א וְיָעֲט֗וֹהִי הִתְנַדַּ֙בוּ֙ לֶאֱלָ֣הּ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל דִּ֥י בִֽירוּשְׁלֶ֖ם מִשְׁכְּנֵֽהּ
15 And to convey the silver and gold,
that the king and his counselors have freely offered to the God of Israel that is in Jerusalem, his dwelling-place.
3e 4B 8
וְכֹל֙ כְּסַ֣ף וּדְהַ֔ב דִּ֣י תְהַשְׁכַּ֔ח בְּכֹ֖ל מְדִינַ֣ת בָּבֶ֑ל
עִם֩ הִתְנַדָּב֨וּת עַמָּ֤א וְכָֽהֲנַיָּא֙ מִֽתְנַדְּבִ֔ין לְבֵ֥ית אֱלָהֲהֹ֖ם דִּ֥י בִירוּשְׁלֶֽם
16 And all the silver and gold that you find in all the province of Babel,
with the freewill offering of the people and the priests, offering willingly to the house of their God that is in Jerusalem.
3e 4C 17
כָּל־קֳבֵ֣ל דְּנָה֩ אָסְפַּ֨רְנָא תִקְנֵ֜א בְּכַסְפָּ֣א דְנָ֗ה תּוֹרִ֤ין ׀ דִּכְרִין֙ אִמְּרִ֔ין וּמִנְחָתְה֖וֹן וְנִסְכֵּיה֑וֹן
וּתְקָרֵ֣ב הִמּ֔וֹ עַֽל־מַדְבְּחָ֔ה דִּ֛י בֵּ֥ית אֱלָהֲכֹ֖ם דִּ֥י בִירוּשְׁלֶֽם
17 All because of this, promptly, you will buy with this silver, bullocks, rams, lambs, and their gifts, and their libations,
and make oblation of them on the altar of the house of God that is in Jerusalem.
3d 4C 29
וּמָ֣ה דִי֩ עֲלָ֨ךְ וְעַל־אֶחָ֜ךְ יֵיטַ֗ב בִּשְׁאָ֛ר כַּסְפָּ֥א וְדַהֲבָ֖ה לְמֶעְבַּ֑ד
כִּרְע֥וּת אֱלָהֲכֹ֖ם תַּעַבְדֽוּן
18 And whatever to you and to your kin seems good with the residue of the silver and the gold to administer,
according to the resolution of your God, you will administer.
3d 4B 22
וּמָֽאנַיָּא֙ דִּֽי־מִתְיַהֲבִ֣ין לָ֔ךְ לְפָלְחָ֖ן בֵּ֣ית אֱלָהָ֑ךְ
הַשְׁלֵ֕ם קֳדָ֖ם אֱלָ֥הּ יְרוּשְׁלֶֽם
19 And the vessels that are provided to you for the reverence of the house of your God,
repay before the God of Jerusalem.
3e 4B 17
וּשְׁאָ֗ר חַשְׁחוּת֙ בֵּ֣ית אֱלָהָ֔ךְ דִּ֥י יִפֶּל־לָ֖ךְ לְמִנְתַּ֑ן
תִּנְתֵּ֕ן מִן־בֵּ֖ית גִּנְזֵ֥י מַלְכָּֽא
20 And the residue of what is necessary for the house of your God that will fall to you to give,
let be given from the house of the depositories of the king.
3e 4B 15
וּ֠מִנִּי אֲנָ֞ה אַרְתַּחְשַׁ֤סְתְּא מַלְכָּא֙ שִׂ֣ים טְעֵ֔ם לְכֹל֙ גִּזַּֽבְרַיָּ֔א דִּ֖י בַּעֲבַ֣ר נַהֲרָ֑ה
דִּ֣י כָל־דִּ֣י יִ֠שְׁאֲלֶנְכוֹן עֶזְרָ֨א כָהֲנָ֜ה סָפַ֤ר דָּתָא֙ דִּֽי־אֱלָ֣הּ שְׁמַיָּ֔א אָסְפַּ֖רְנָא יִתְעֲבִֽד
21 ~ And I myself, Artaxerxes the king, set the warrant for all the treasurers who are across the river,
that all that Ezra the priest scribe of the dictate of the God of the heavens will ask, promptly let it be served.
3e 4C 27
עַד־כְּסַף֮ כַּכְּרִ֣ין מְאָה֒ וְעַד־חִנְטִין֙ כֹּרִ֣ין מְאָ֔ה וְעַד־חֲמַר֙ בַּתִּ֣ין מְאָ֔ה וְעַד־בַּתִּ֥ין מְשַׁ֖ח מְאָ֑ה
וּמְלַ֖ח דִּי־לָ֥א כְתָֽב
22 To silver a hundred talents, and to wheat a hundred cor, and to red wine a hundred baths, and to baths of oil, a hundred,
and salt without requisition.
3e 4B 31
כָּל־דִּ֗י מִן־טַ֙עַם֙ אֱלָ֣הּ שְׁמַיָּ֔א יִתְעֲבֵד֙ אַדְרַזְדָּ֔א לְבֵ֖ית אֱלָ֣הּ שְׁמַיָּ֑א
דִּֽי־לְמָ֤ה לֶֽהֱוֵא֙ קְצַ֔ף עַל־מַלְכ֥וּת מַלְכָּ֖א וּבְנֽוֹהִי
23 All that is from the warrant of the God of the heavens, let it be served with excellence, to the house of the God of the heavens,
for why should there be rage concerning the kingdom of the king and his children?
3e 4C 23
וּלְכֹ֣ם מְהוֹדְעִ֗ין דִּ֣י כָל־כָּהֲנַיָּ֣א וְ֠לֵוָיֵא זַמָּ֨רַיָּ֤א תָרָֽעַיָּא֙ נְתִ֣ינַיָּ֔א וּפָ֣לְחֵ֔י בֵּ֖ית אֱלָהָ֣א דְנָ֑ה
מִנְדָּ֤ה בְלוֹ֙ וַהֲלָ֔ךְ לָ֥א שַׁלִּ֖יט לְמִרְמֵ֥א עֲלֵיהֹֽם
24 And to you we make it known, that all the priests and the Levites, the psalmists, the gatekeepers, the Nethinim, and those who reverence this house of God,
levy, tariff, or toll, it is not legal to heave upon them.
3e 4C 36
וְאַ֣נְתְּ עֶזְרָ֗א כְּחָכְמַ֨ת אֱלָהָ֤ךְ דִּֽי־בִידָךְ֙ מֶ֣נִּי שָׁפְטִ֞ין וְדַיָּנִ֗ין דִּי־לֶהֱוֺ֤ן דָּאיְנִין֙ לְכָל־עַמָּה֙ דִּ֚י בַּעֲבַ֣ר נַהֲרָ֔ה לְכָל־יָדְעֵ֖י דָּתֵ֣י אֱלָהָ֑ךְ
וְדִ֧י לָ֦א יָדַ֖ע תְּהוֹדְעֽוּן
25 And you, Ezra, in the wisdom of your God which is in your hand, number judges and advocates, that they may advocate for all the people who are across the river, for all knowing the dictates of your God.
And who does not know him, you inform.
3c 4C 47
וְכָל־דִּי־לָא֩ לֶהֱוֵ֨א עָבֵ֜ד דָּתָ֣א דִֽי־אֱלָהָ֗ךְ וְדָתָא֙ דִּ֣י מַלְכָּ֔א אָסְפַּ֕רְנָא דִּינָ֕ה לֶהֱוֵ֥א מִתְעֲבֵ֖ד מִנֵּ֑הּ
הֵ֤ן לְמוֹת֙ הֵ֣ן לִשְׁרֹשִׁ֔י הֵן־לַעֲנָ֥שׁ נִכְסִ֖ין וְלֶאֱסוּרִֽין
26 And anyone that will not be servant of the dictate of your God, let the dictate of the king promptly be sentenced for him, being served from him,
whether to death or to uprooting or to a fine of material wealth or to bondage.
3e 4C 32
בָּר֥וּךְ יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבוֹתֵ֑ינוּ
אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתַ֤ן כָּזֹאת֙ בְּלֵ֣ב הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לְפָאֵ֕ר אֶת־בֵּ֥ית יְהוָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם
27 Bless Yahweh, the God of our ancestors,
who has given such as this into the heart of the king, to adorn the house of Yahweh that is in Jerusalem.
3e 4C 11
וְעָלַ֣י הִטָּה־חֶ֗סֶד לִפְנֵ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וְיֽוֹעֲצָ֔יו וּלְכָל־שָׂרֵ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ הַגִּבֹּרִ֑ים
וַאֲנִ֣י הִתְחַזַּ֗קְתִּי כְּיַד־יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהַי֙ עָלַ֔י וָאֶקְבְּצָ֧ה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֛ל רָאשִׁ֖ים לַעֲל֥וֹת עִמִּֽי
28 And to me has stretched out kindness before the king and his counselors, and to all the valiant sultans of the king.
And I myself was encouraged according to the hand of Yahweh my God on me, and I collected from Israel the preeminent to go up with me.
3c 4C 27

Tuesday 28 August 2018

Isaiah 48

Cruising on the Uchuck III
I must continue in random order. Each chapter in a different book provides respite from the prior chapter. By the time you read this, we should be over 90% done in this reading project. Over the next years, if I am able, I will say what the impact is on me of actually reading the entire Hebrew Scripture. (I am sure I had considered that I had already read it several times before I started, but what I did in my early zeal cannot be called reading. And what some people take from such ignorant readings is nothing more than power-seeking. It should not be so among you.)

At the time that this post appears, there will be 66 chapters (excluding the psalms) that will remain to be posted. Hopefully some of them will have been done and scheduled and I will be on holiday again, on a working wooden boat that plies the north western waters of Vancouver Island.

There is a 'he' in this chapter with no antecedent. Israel, Judah, other? It is used in the context of glory. Translations following the Greek may put my name in the place of the first instance (verse 11). What then to do with verse 15 and following?

Isaiah 48 Fn Min Max Syll
שִׁמְעוּ־זֹ֣את בֵּֽית־יַעֲקֹ֗ב הַנִּקְרָאִים֙ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּמִמֵּ֥י יְהוּדָ֖ה יָצָ֑אוּ
הַֽנִּשְׁבָּעִ֣ים ׀ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יְהוָ֗ה וּבֵאלֹהֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יַזְכִּ֔ירוּ לֹ֥א בֶאֱמֶ֖ת וְלֹ֥א בִצְדָקָֽה
1 Hear this, O house of Jacob, who are called by the name of Israel, and from the waters of Judah, emerged,
who swear in the name of Yahweh, and in the God of Israel, they remember, not in truth and not in righteousness.
3e 4C 25
כִּֽי־מֵעִ֤יר הַקֹּ֙דֶשׁ֙ נִקְרָ֔אוּ וְעַל־אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל נִסְמָ֑כוּ
יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת שְׁמֽוֹ
2 For a holy city, they call themselves, and over the God of Israel, they support themselves.
Yahweh of hosts is his name.
3e 4C 19
הָרִֽאשֹׁנוֹת֙ מֵאָ֣ז הִגַּ֔דְתִּי וּמִפִּ֥י יָצְא֖וּ וְאַשְׁמִיעֵ֑ם
פִּתְאֹ֥ם עָשִׂ֖יתִי וַתָּבֹֽאנָה
3 The former things from then I made clear, and from my mouth they emerged, and I broadcast them.
Suddenly I acted, and they are coming.
3e 4B 18
מִדַּעְתִּ֕י כִּ֥י קָשֶׁ֖ה אָ֑תָּה
וְגִ֤יד בַּרְזֶל֙ עָרְפֶּ֔ךָ וּמִצְחֲךָ֖ נְחוּשָֽׁה
4 From my knowledge that you are intransigent,
with sinew of iron your scruff, and your forehead brazen,
3e 4C 8
וָאַגִּ֤יד לְךָ֙ מֵאָ֔ז בְּטֶ֥רֶם תָּב֖וֹא הִשְׁמַעְתִּ֑יךָ
פֶּן־תֹּאמַר֙ עָצְבִּ֣י עָשָׂ֔ם וּפִסְלִ֥י וְנִסְכִּ֖י צִוָּֽם
5 I told you from then, before it came, I reported to you,
lest you would say, My pained fetish did them, and my graven image, and my molten image commanded them.
3e 4C 16
שָׁמַ֤עְתָּֽ חֲזֵה֙ כֻּלָּ֔הּ וְאַתֶּ֖ם הֲל֣וֹא תַגִּ֑ידוּ
הִשְׁמַעְתִּ֤יךָ חֲדָשׁוֹת֙ מֵעַ֔תָּה וּנְצֻר֖וֹת וְלֹ֥א יְדַעְתָּֽם
6 You have heard, Gaze on all of it, and you, will you not make it clear?
I have reported to you what is new from now, and preserved things and you did not know them.
3e 4C 15
עַתָּ֤ה נִבְרְאוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א מֵאָ֔ז וְלִפְנֵי־י֖וֹם וְלֹ֣א שְׁמַעְתָּ֑ם
פֶּן־תֹּאמַ֖ר הִנֵּ֥ה יְדַעְתִּֽין
7 Now they have been created, and not from then, facing day, and you did not hear them,
lest you would say, Behold, I knew them.
3e 4C 18
גַּ֣ם לֹֽא־שָׁמַ֗עְתָּ גַּ֚ם לֹ֣א יָדַ֔עְתָּ גַּ֕ם מֵאָ֖ז לֹא־פִתְּחָ֣ה אָזְנֶ֑ךָ
כִּ֤י יָדַ֙עְתִּי֙ בָּג֣וֹד תִּבְגּ֔וֹד וּפֹשֵׁ֥עַ מִבֶּ֖טֶן קֹ֥רָא לָֽךְ
8 B Both you have not heard, and you did not know. Even from then, your ear was not opened.
For I know that with treachery you would betray, for transgressor from a belly, it was proclaimed of you.
3e 4C 18
לְמַ֤עַן שְׁמִי֙ אַאֲרִ֣יךְ אַפִּ֔י וּתְהִלָּתִ֖י אֶחֱטָם־לָ֑ךְ
לְבִלְתִּ֖י הַכְרִיתֶֽךָ
9 For the sake of my name, I will slow my anger, and for my praise, I will dampen myself for you,
so as not to cut you off.
3e 4C 18
הִנֵּ֥ה צְרַפְתִּ֖יךָ וְלֹ֣א בְכָ֑סֶף
בְּחַרְתִּ֖יךָ בְּכ֥וּר עֹֽנִי
10 Behold, I have refined you, but not with silver.
I have chosen you in the forge of affliction.
3e 4B 11
לְמַעֲנִ֧י לְמַעֲנִ֛י אֶעֱשֶׂ֖ה כִּ֣י אֵ֣יךְ יֵחָ֑ל
וּכְבוֹדִ֖י לְאַחֵ֥ר לֹֽא־אֶתֵּֽן
11 For my sake, for my sake will I act. For how will he be profaned?
But my glory to another, I will not give.
3c 4B 15
שְׁמַ֤ע אֵלַי֙ יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מְקֹרָאִ֑י
אֲנִי־הוּא֙ אֲנִ֣י רִאשׁ֔וֹן אַ֖ף אֲנִ֥י אַחֲרֽוֹן
12 Hear me, Jacob, and Israel whom I have called.
I am he. I am first. Also I am last.
3e 4C 15
אַף־יָדִי֙ יָ֣סְדָה אֶ֔רֶץ וִֽימִינִ֖י טִפְּחָ֣ה שָׁמָ֑יִם
קֹרֵ֥א אֲנִ֛י אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם יַעַמְד֥וּ יַחְדָּֽו
13 Indeed my hand laid the foundation of earth, and my right hand cloaked heaven.
I myself called to them. They stand together.
3d 4B 15
הִקָּבְצ֤וּ כֻלְּכֶם֙ וּֽשֲׁמָ֔עוּ מִ֥י בָהֶ֖ם הִגִּ֣יד אֶת־אֵ֑לֶּה
יְהוָ֣ה אֲהֵב֔וֹ יַעֲשֶׂ֤ה חֶפְצוֹ֙ בְּבָבֶ֔ל וּזְרֹע֖וֹ כַּשְׂדִּֽים
14 Collect yourselves, all of you, and hear. Who among them made these clear?
Yahweh has loved him. He will do his delight in Babel, and his arm, the Chaldeans.
3e 4C 17
אֲנִ֥י אֲנִ֛י דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי אַף־קְרָאתִ֑יו
הֲבִיאֹתִ֖יו וְהִצְלִ֥יחַ דַּרְכּֽוֹ
15 I myself, I have spoken. Indeed, I called him.
I have brought him, and his way thrives.
3d 4A 11
קִרְב֧וּ אֵלַ֣י שִׁמְעוּ־זֹ֗את לֹ֤א מֵרֹאשׁ֙ בַּסֵּ֣תֶר דִּבַּ֔רְתִּי מֵעֵ֥ת הֱיוֹתָ֖הּ שָׁ֣ם אָ֑נִי
וְעַתָּ֗ה אֲדֹנָ֧י יְהוִ֛ה שְׁלָחַ֖נִי וְרוּחֽוֹ
16 Come near me. Hear this. Not from the beginning in secret have I spoken. From the time that has been, there am I.
And now my Lord, Yahweh, has sent me, and his spirit.
3c 4C 24
כֹּֽה־אָמַ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה גֹּאַלְךָ֖ קְד֣וֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
אֲנִ֨י יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ מְלַמֶּדְךָ֣ לְהוֹעִ֔יל מַדְרִֽיכֲךָ֖ בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ תֵּלֵֽךְ
17 Thus says Yahweh, your redeemer, the Holy One of Israel,
I am Yahweh your God who teaches you to be of use, who directs you in the way you will go.
3c 4C 13
ל֥וּא הִקְשַׁ֖בְתָּ לְמִצְוֺתָ֑י
וַיְהִ֤י כַנָּהָר֙ שְׁלוֹמֶ֔ךָ וְצִדְקָתְךָ֖ כְּגַלֵּ֥י הַיָּֽם
18 f Oh that you had paid attention to my commandments.
Then like a river your peace would have been, and your righteousness like the waves of the sea.
3e 4C 8
וַיְהִ֤י כַחוֹל֙ זַרְעֶ֔ךָ וְצֶאֱצָאֵ֥י מֵעֶ֖יךָ כִּמְעֹתָ֑יו
לֹֽא־יִכָּרֵ֧ת וְֽלֹא־יִשָּׁמֵ֛ד שְׁמ֖וֹ מִלְּפָנָֽי
19 Your seed would be as the sand, and the offspring of your inner parts as its particles.
Not cut off and not exterminated is his name in my presence.
3c 4C 18
צְא֣וּ מִבָּבֶל֮ בִּרְח֣וּ מִכַּשְׂדִּים֒ בְּק֣וֹל רִנָּ֗ה הַגִּ֤ידוּ הַשְׁמִ֙יעוּ֙ זֹ֔את הוֹצִיא֖וּהָ עַד־קְצֵ֣ה הָאָ֑רֶץ
אִמְר֕וּ גָּאַ֥ל יְהוָ֖ה עַבְדּ֥וֹ יַעֲקֹֽב
20 Go forth from Babel. Run away from the Chaldeans. With a voice of a loud shout, make clear, broadcast this.
Have it brought forth to the extremity of the earth. Say, Yahweh has redeemed his servant Jacob.
3e 4C 31
וְלֹ֣א צָמְא֗וּ בָּחֳרָבוֹת֙ הֽוֹלִיכָ֔ם מַ֥יִם מִצּ֖וּר הִזִּ֣יל לָ֑מוֹ
וַיִּ֨בְקַע־צ֔וּר וַיָּזֻ֖בוּ מָֽיִם
21 And they did not thirst in the deserts where he had them walk. From the rock he made water flow for them,
and he split a rock and water gushed out.
3e 4B 18
אֵ֣ין שָׁל֔וֹם אָמַ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה לָרְשָׁעִֽים 22 B There is no peace, says Yahweh, for the wicked. 3e 4B 10

Monday 27 August 2018

Judges 19

This strange story so like Sodom, is more horrible in awkward English than I expected. What is the הזק stem doing here? The man was resolute / encouraged / resolved ? with his courtesan?

Behold the woman.

One does not compare religions by abstraction or theoretical model. One looks at the appalling record of humanity held up in our faces as an example of what not to do.

The reminder in verse 1 that there was no king perhaps puts this story into the pro-monarchic camp. Both camps are well represented in Scripture. Is the writer of Judges indicating that without a monarch, there is no example for the people to follow? Is the anti-monarchic writer indicating that with a monarch, the example is uniformly a bad one. The next chapter we read a few months ago. The comment about 'there being no king' in chapter 21 closes the story.

Aside: Why courtesan rather than concubine? Good question. I don't know when I made this decision. (I did not turn on full change logging in my database. Too much overhead for a single PC.) And it turns out that I have only used concubine once! in Qohelet 2:8. And I wonder if I should eliminate it here since the word is שׁד breast. JB has here chest on chest of it. NIV has harem with a note that the meaning of the Hebrew is uncertain. (Not sure I believe in this meaning thing.)

I think people hope no one really reads this text. I can't see where JB got this phrase from unless it was just embarrassing to them so they invented a euphemism. NIV is probably not right. Breast and breasts is the literal rendering. Courtesan is my gloss for a relatively common stem, פלגשׁ. I could stay within my rules and change it to concubine, a perfectly acceptable word with a well-defined family relationship, a woman taken to produce children with a different legal status than a wife (i.e. not a harem).

My first shot at this phrase was choir and orchestra. Just look at the comment I made in my data at the time: May 6, 2010. "No one agrees on  שִׁדָּה וְשִׁדּוֹת so I chose my own phrase of what I take as delight. Last night's Shostakovich was proof - the first slow movement from the piano quintet."  KJV has musical instruments, and that of all sorts. Music has a fuller relationship to the word of God than these meanderings might allow.

Maybe I should use concubine and courtesan depending on the cultural background of the book. Tribal vs court life?

Judges 19 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְהִי֙ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֔ם וּמֶ֖לֶךְ אֵ֣ין בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיְהִ֣י ׀ אִ֣ישׁ לֵוִ֗י גָּ֚ר בְּיַרְכְּתֵ֣י הַר־אֶפְרַ֔יִם וַיִּֽקַּֽח־לוֹ֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה פִילֶ֔גֶשׁ מִבֵּ֥ית לֶ֖חֶם יְהוּדָֽה
1 And it happened in those days, (and there was no king in Israel),
that there was a man, a Levite, residing by the flanks of mount Ephraim, and he took for himself a wife, a courtesan from Bethlehem of Judah.
3e 4C 15
וַתִּזְנֶ֤ה עָלָיו֙ פִּֽילַגְשׁ֔וֹ וַתֵּ֤לֶךְ מֵֽאִתּוֹ֙ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֔יהָ אֶל־בֵּ֥ית לֶ֖חֶם יְהוּדָ֑ה
וַתְּהִי־שָׁ֕ם יָמִ֖ים אַרְבָּעָ֥ה חֳדָשִֽׁים
2 And his courtesan played the harlot on him, and she went from him to the house of her father, to Bethlehem of Judah.
And she was there for days, four months.
3e 4C 26
וַיָּ֨קָם אִישָׁ֜הּ וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ אַחֲרֶ֗יהָ לְדַבֵּ֤ר עַל־לִבָּהּ֙ לַהֲשִׁיבָ֔הּ וְנַעֲר֥וֹ עִמּ֖וֹ וְצֶ֣מֶד חֲמֹרִ֑ים
וַתְּבִיאֵ֙הוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֔יהָ וַיִּרְאֵ֙הוּ֙ אֲבִ֣י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֔ה וַיִּשְׂמַ֖ח לִקְרָאתֽוֹ
3 And her man arose, and he went after her to speak to her heart, to restore her. And his lad with him, with a pair of asses.
And she had him come to the house of her father, and the father of the lass saw him and he was glad to encounter him.
3e 4C 34
וַיֶּחֱזַק־בּ֤וֹ חֹֽתְנוֹ֙ אֲבִ֣י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֔ה וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב אִתּ֖וֹ שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֑ים
וַיֹּאכְלוּ֙ וַיִּשְׁתּ֔וּ וַיָּלִ֖ינוּ שָֽׁם
4 And his father-in-law encouraged him, the father of the lass, and he settled with him three days,
and they ate and they imbibed and they lodged there.
3e 4C 23
וַֽיְהִי֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הָרְבִיעִ֔י וַיַּשְׁכִּ֥ימוּ בַבֹּ֖קֶר וַיָּ֣קָם לָלֶ֑כֶת
וַיֹּאמֶר֩ אֲבִ֨י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֜ה אֶל־חֲתָנ֗וֹ סְעָ֧ד לִבְּךָ֛ פַּת־לֶ֖חֶם וְאַחַ֥ר תֵּלֵֽכוּ
5 And it was on the fourth day and they rose early in the morning, and he arose to go.
But the father of the lass said to his son-in-law, Find sustenance for your heart, a fragment of bread, and afterwards you will go.
3c 4B 20
וַיֵּשְׁב֗וּ וַיֹּאכְל֧וּ שְׁנֵיהֶ֛ם יַחְדָּ֖ו וַיִּשְׁתּ֑וּ
וַיֹּ֜אמֶר אֲבִ֤י הַֽנַּעֲרָה֙ אֶל־הָאִ֔ישׁ הֽוֹאֶל־נָ֥א וְלִ֖ין וְיִטַ֥ב לִבֶּֽךָ
6 And they sat and they ate, the two of them as one, and they imbibed.
And the father of the lass said to the man, Be humoured, if you will, and stick around. And let your heart be merry.
3c 4C 14
וַיָּ֥קָם הָאִ֖ישׁ לָלֶ֑כֶת
וַיִּפְצַר־בּוֹ֙ חֹתְנ֔וֹ וַיָּ֖שָׁב וַיָּ֥לֶן שָֽׁם
7 And the man arose to go,
and his father-in-law urged him, and he turned and lodged there.
3e 4A 8
וַיַּשְׁכֵּ֨ם בַּבֹּ֜קֶר בַּיּ֣וֹם הַחֲמִישִׁי֮ לָלֶכֶת֒ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ אֲבִ֣י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֗ה סְעָד־נָא֙ לְבָ֣בְךָ֔ וְהִֽתְמַהְמְה֖וּ עַד־נְט֣וֹת הַיּ֑וֹם
וַיֹּאכְל֖וּ שְׁנֵיהֶֽם
8 And he rose up early in the morning on the fifth day to go, but the father of the lass said, Find sustenance, if you will, for your heart, and they lingered until the day declined,
and they ate, the two of them.
3e 4B 40
וַיָּ֤קָם הָאִישׁ֙ לָלֶ֔כֶת ה֥וּא וּפִילַגְשׁ֖וֹ וְנַעֲר֑וֹ
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֣וֹ חֹתְנ֣וֹ אֲבִ֣י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֡ה הִנֵּ֣ה נָא֩ רָפָ֨ה הַיּ֜וֹם לַעֲרֹ֗ב לִֽינוּ־נָ֞א הִנֵּ֨ה חֲנ֤וֹת הַיּוֹם֙ לִ֥ין פֹּה֙ וְיִיטַ֣ב לְבָבֶ֔ךָ וְהִשְׁכַּמְתֶּ֤ם מָחָר֙ לְדַרְכְּכֶ֔ם וְהָלַכְתָּ֖ לְאֹהָלֶֽךָ
9 And the man arose to go, he and his courtesan, and his lad.
And his father-in-law said to him, the father of the lass, Behold, if you will, day slackens to the evening. Lodge, if you will. Behold, the day hovers. Lodge here, and let your heart be merry, and rise early tomorrow to journey to go to your tent.
3e 4C 17
וְלֹֽא־אָבָ֤ה הָאִישׁ֙ לָל֔וּן וַיָּ֣קָם וַיֵּ֗לֶךְ וַיָּבֹא֙ עַד־נֹ֣כַח יְב֔וּס הִ֖יא יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וְעִמּ֗וֹ צֶ֤מֶד חֲמוֹרִים֙ חֲבוּשִׁ֔ים וּפִילַגְשׁ֖וֹ עִמּֽוֹ
10 And the man not did consent to lodge, and he arose and he walked away, and came to be opposite Yebus. (This is Jerusalem).
And with him was a pair of asses saddled. And his courtesan was with him.
3e 4C 26
הֵ֣ם עִם־יְב֔וּס וְהַיּ֖וֹם רַ֣ד מְאֹ֑ד
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַנַּ֜עַר אֶל־אֲדֹנָ֗יו לְכָה־נָּ֛א וְנָס֛וּרָה אֶל־עִֽיר־הַיְבוּסִ֥י הַזֹּ֖את וְנָלִ֥ין בָּֽהּ
11 B They were beside Yebus, and the day was wrapped excessively.
And the lad said to his master, Come, please, and let us turn aside to this city of the Jebusite, and lodge in it.
3d 4B 10
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ אֲדֹנָ֔יו לֹ֤א נָסוּר֙ אֶל־עִ֣יר נָכְרִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹֽא־מִבְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל הֵ֑נָּה
וְעָבַ֖רְנוּ עַד־גִּבְעָֽה
12 And his master said to him, We will not turn aside to a foreign city who are not from the children of Israel,
but we will pass through to Gibeah.
3d 4C 25
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְנַעֲר֔וֹ לְךָ֥ וְנִקְרְבָ֖ה בְּאַחַ֣ד הַמְּקֹמ֑וֹת
וְלַ֥נּוּ בַגִּבְעָ֖ה א֥וֹ בָרָמָֽה
13 And he said to his lad, Come, let us draw near to one of the places.
And we will lodge in Gibeah or in Ramah.
3e 4B 19
וַיַּעַבְר֖וּ וַיֵּלֵ֑כוּ
וַתָּבֹ֤א לָהֶם֙ הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ אֵ֥צֶל הַגִּבְעָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְבִנְיָמִֽן
14 And they passed by and they went.
And the sun set on them next to Gibeah, that is of Benjamin.
3e 4C 8
וַיָּסֻ֣רוּ שָׁ֔ם לָב֖וֹא לָל֣וּן בַּגִּבְעָ֑ה
וַיָּבֹ֗א וַיֵּ֙שֶׁב֙ בִּרְח֣וֹב הָעִ֔יר וְאֵ֥ין אִ֛ישׁ מְאַסֵּֽף־אוֹתָ֥ם הַבַּ֖יְתָה לָלֽוּן
15 And they turned aside there to enter to lodge in Gibeah,
and he came and sat in the plaza of the city, and there was no-one to billet them in a house to lodge.
3d 4B 12
וְהִנֵּ֣ה ׀ אִ֣ישׁ זָקֵ֗ן בָּ֣א מִֽן־מַעֲשֵׂ֤הוּ מִן־הַשָּׂדֶה֙ בָּעֶ֔רֶב וְהָאִישׁ֙ מֵהַ֣ר אֶפְרַ֔יִם וְהוּא־גָ֖ר בַּגִּבְעָ֑ה
וְאַנְשֵׁ֥י הַמָּק֖וֹם בְּנֵ֥י יְמִינִֽי
16 And behold, an old man came from his task, from the field in the evening, and the man was from mount Ephraim, and he was a guest in Gibeah,
and the men of the place were Benjaminites.
3e 4C 32
וַיִּשָּׂ֣א עֵינָ֗יו וַיַּ֛רְא אֶת־הָאִ֥ישׁ הָאֹרֵ֖חַ בִּרְחֹ֣ב הָעִ֑יר
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הָאִ֧ישׁ הַזָּקֵ֛ן אָ֥נָה תֵלֵ֖ךְ וּמֵאַ֥יִן תָּבֽוֹא
17 And he lifted up his eyes, and he saw the wayfarer in the plaza of the city,
and the old man said, Where are you going, and where have you come from?
3c 4B 18
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֗יו עֹבְרִ֨ים אֲנַ֜חְנוּ מִבֵּֽית־לֶ֣חֶם יְהוּדָה֮ עַד־יַרְכְּתֵ֣י הַר־אֶפְרַיִם֒ מִשָּׁ֣ם אָנֹ֔כִי וָאֵלֵ֕ךְ עַד־בֵּ֥ית לֶ֖חֶם יְהוּדָ֑ה
וְאֶת־בֵּ֤ית יְהוָה֙ אֲנִ֣י הֹלֵ֔ךְ וְאֵ֣ין אִ֔ישׁ מְאַסֵּ֥ף אוֹתִ֖י הַבָּֽיְתָה
18 And he said to him, We are passing through from Bethlehem of Judah to the flanks of mount Ephraim. From there I am. And I went to Bethlehem of Judah and to the house of Yahweh I am going.
And there was no-one to billet me in a house.
3e 4C 39
וְגַם־תֶּ֤בֶן גַּם־מִסְפּוֹא֙ יֵ֣שׁ לַחֲמוֹרֵ֔ינוּ וְ֠גַם לֶ֣חֶם וָיַ֤יִן יֶשׁ־לִי֙ וְלַֽאֲמָתֶ֔ךָ וְלַנַּ֖עַר עִם־עֲבָדֶ֑יךָ
אֵ֥ין מַחְס֖וֹר כָּל־דָּבָֽר
19 And there is both straw and also silage for our asses, and also bread and wine there is for me, and for your maidservant, and for the lad with your servants.
There is no lack of any thing.
3e 4C 36
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הָאִ֤ישׁ הַזָּקֵן֙ שָׁל֣וֹם לָ֔ךְ רַ֥ק כָּל־מַחְסוֹרְךָ֖ עָלָ֑י
רַ֥ק בָּרְח֖וֹב אַל־תָּלַֽן
20 And old the man said, Peace to you, but all your deprivation be against me.
Only in the plaza, do not lodge.
3e 4C 18
וַיְבִיאֵ֣הוּ לְבֵית֔וֹ וַיָּ֖בָול לַחֲמוֹרִ֑ים
וַֽיִּרְחֲצוּ֙ רַגְלֵיהֶ֔ם וַיֹּאכְל֖וּ וַיִּשְׁתּֽוּ
21 And he brought him to his own house, and gave fodder to the asses.
And they washed their feet, and they ate and they imbibed.
3e 4B 15
הֵמָּה֮ מֵיטִיבִ֣ים אֶת־לִבָּם֒ וְהִנֵּה֩ אַנְשֵׁ֨י הָעִ֜יר אַנְשֵׁ֣י בְנֵֽי־בְלִיַּ֗עַל נָסַ֙בּוּ֙ אֶת־הַבַּ֔יִת מִֽתְדַּפְּקִ֖ים עַל־הַדָּ֑לֶת
וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ אֶל־הָ֠אִישׁ בַּ֣עַל הַבַּ֤יִת הַזָּקֵן֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הוֹצֵ֗א אֶת־הָאִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥א אֶל־בֵּיתְךָ֖ וְנֵדָעֶֽנּוּ
22 They made their heart merry and behold, those of the city, the incurables of the children of worthlessness, surrounded the house, knocking on the gateway.
And they said to the old man, the owner of the house, saying, Bring out the man that came to your house that we may know him.
3d 4C 37
וַיֵּצֵ֣א אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם הָאִישׁ֙ בַּ֣עַל הַבַּ֔יִת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אַל־אַחַ֖י אַל־תָּרֵ֣עוּ נָ֑א
אַ֠חֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֞א הָאִ֤ישׁ הַזֶּה֙ אַל־בֵּיתִ֔י אַֽל־תַּעֲשׂ֖וּ אֶת־הַנְּבָלָ֥ה הַזֹּֽאת
23 And the man came out to them, the owner of the house, and he said to them, No, my kin. Do no evil, please.
After all, this man has entered my house. You will not do this senselessness.
3e 4C 27
הִנֵּה֩ בִתִּ֨י הַבְּתוּלָ֜ה וּפִֽילַגְשֵׁ֗הוּ אוֹצִֽיאָה־נָּ֤א אוֹתָם֙ וְעַנּ֣וּ אוֹתָ֔ם וַעֲשׂ֣וּ לָהֶ֔ם הַטּ֖וֹב בְּעֵינֵיכֶ֑ם
וְלָאִ֤ישׁ הַזֶּה֙ לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֔וּ דְּבַ֖ר הַנְּבָלָ֥ה הַזֹּֽאת
24 Behold my maiden daughter and his courtesan. Let me bring them out please, and afflict them, and do to them what is good in your sight.
But to this man, you will not do this senseless thing.
3e 4C 34
וְלֹֽא־אָב֤וּ הָאֲנָשִׁים֙ לִשְׁמֹ֣עַֽ ל֔וֹ וַיַּחֲזֵ֤ק הָאִישׁ֙ בְּפִ֣ילַגְשׁ֔וֹ וַיֹּצֵ֥א אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם הַח֑וּץ
וַיֵּדְע֣וּ א֠וֹתָהּ וַיִּֽתְעַלְּלוּ־בָ֤הּ כָּל־הַלַּ֙יְלָה֙ עַד־הַבֹּ֔קֶר וַֽיְשַׁלְּח֖וּהָ כַּעֲל֥וֹת הַשָּֽׁחַר
25 But the men would not consent to hear him, and the man was resolute with his courtesan, and brought out to them outside.
And they knew her, and were wanton with her all the night long till the morning, and they sent her away as the dawn ascended.
3e 4C 29
וַתָּבֹ֥א הָאִשָּׁ֖ה לִפְנ֣וֹת הַבֹּ֑קֶר
וַתִּפֹּ֞ל פֶּ֧תַח בֵּית־הָאִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אֲדוֹנֶ֥יהָ שָּׁ֖ם עַד־הָאֽוֹר
26 And the woman came before the morning,
and fell at the door of the house of the man where her master was, until it was light.
3c 4B 11
וַיָּ֨קָם אֲדֹנֶ֜יהָ בַּבֹּ֗קֶר וַיִּפְתַּח֙ דַּלְת֣וֹת הַבַּ֔יִת וַיֵּצֵ֖א לָלֶ֣כֶת לְדַרְכּ֑וֹ
וְהִנֵּ֧ה הָאִשָּׁ֣ה פִֽילַגְשׁ֗וֹ נֹפֶ֙לֶת֙ פֶּ֣תַח הַבַּ֔יִת וְיָדֶ֖יהָ עַל־הַסַּֽף
27 And her master arose in the morning, and opened the gateways of the house, and came out to go his way,
and behold the woman, his courtesan, fallen at the door of the house, and her hands were on the threshold.
3c 4B 27
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר אֵלֶ֛יהָ ק֥וּמִי וְנֵלֵ֖כָה וְאֵ֣ין עֹנֶ֑ה
וַיִּקָּחֶ֙הָ֙ עַֽל־הַחֲמ֔וֹר וַיָּ֣קָם הָאִ֔ישׁ וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ לִמְקֹמֽוֹ
28 And he said to her, Arise and we will go. And there was no answer.
And he took her on the ass, and the man arose, and he went to his place.
3c 4B 16
וַיָּבֹ֣א אֶל־בֵּית֗וֹ וַיִּקַּ֤ח אֶת־הַֽמַּאֲכֶ֙לֶת֙ וַיַּחֲזֵ֣ק בְּפִֽילַגְשׁ֔וֹ וַֽיְנַתְּחֶ֙הָ֙ לַעֲצָמֶ֔יהָ לִשְׁנֵ֥ים עָשָׂ֖ר נְתָחִ֑ים
וַֽיְשַׁלְּחֶ֔הָ בְּכֹ֖ל גְּב֥וּל יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
29 And he entered his house, and he took the knife, and he was resolute with his courtesan, and he cut her to her bones in twelve pieces,
and he sent her into every border of Israel.
3e 4C 39
וְהָיָ֣ה כָל־הָרֹאֶ֗ה וְאָמַר֙ לֹֽא־נִהְיְתָ֤ה וְלֹֽא־נִרְאֲתָה֙ כָּזֹ֔את לְמִיּ֞וֹם עֲל֤וֹת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם עַ֖ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה
שִֽׂימוּ־לָכֶ֥ם עָלֶ֖יהָ עֻ֥צוּ וְדַבֵּֽרוּ
30 And that is all that was seen. And he said, Never has been and never was seen such as this since the day the children of Israel came up from the land of Egypt to this day.
Set it in place for yourselves. Take counsel, and speak.
3e 4C 41
Note the differing spellings of heart, לב in verse 6 לבב in verses 8 and 9, לב in 22.