Tuesday, August 14, 2018

2 Samuel 23

Poetry. David's oracle. What does it begin with but governance! Let no one say that we can vote for a “carnal person” (as if that were an excuse) and expect good governance. Let no one say that because church is separate from state that we are not to be responsible for our leaders and the actions we have taken part in.

Church is separate from state because church does not know what it is doing. Church is divided from itself and persecutes those who are different. This is what it is to be not-church. Church must change to do what is right in the fear of God, not simply to act without responsibility and live in its own prejudice. Why would David begin with righteousness and the fear of God? If it were not that governance, God's priority, would be poor at best in the line of the succession of kings (verse 5).

This being poetry, we don't hear what must or must not be done. We must figure it out.

Then we rehearse the roll of David's champs (a gloss I have not used). There is violence and it is easy to read into the text an I'm better than you attitude.

Why would one reference in the margin 1 Samuel 17 as the incident in verse 9 as JB does? That seems like a shot in the dark. Why would one translate in verse 9 עלה as retreat (JB, NIV) or gone away (KJV)? This stem always has the idea of going up not away.

JB and NIV are not rendering the Hebrew, but the parallel passage in 1 Chronicles 11:13. They do admit this in a footnote but it would seem more honest to put the reconstruction from the parallel in the footnote. What will readers do in an edition that hides the footnotes? They will believe in some fringe thread of English inerrancy!

I find myself asking, who is Yahweh that this violence is considered a great salvation? Yahweh appears to me to represent the emerging hope of the group (נפשׁ) that represents the chosen over the period of the canonical history. The history has been constructed around that hope. Some of this history, if literal (and why would it not be in part), is no different than the actions of a brutal ruler today against his own subjects. For there is no ruler who destroys today who is not genetically and socially related to a plurality of peoples under governance. This chapter is like 'successful' clan warfare, or gang violence, or suppression of opposition by the stronger over the weaker. It is like strong man politics.

Why would we celebrate these champions as if might were right? Perhaps it is not for nothing that the poetry, verses 1 to 7, precedes this section. The Philistines, like Amaleq can be read as parable (משׁל, also govern.) So what governs us? Self or other? The tension is unavoidable. And what spirit are we of?

There are a number of spelling issues in this list when compared to 1 Chronicles 11. I wondered for a moment if Hiddai הדי and Huri הורי are the same person but with the dalet changed to a resh and a mater included. But a very detailed analysis would be required. The word by word view might help.

2 Samuel 23 Fn Min Max Syll
וְאֵ֛לֶּה דִּבְרֵ֥י דָוִ֖ד הָאַֽחֲרֹנִ֑ים
נְאֻ֧ם דָּוִ֣ד בֶּן־יִשַׁ֗י וּנְאֻ֤ם הַגֶּ֙בֶר֙ הֻ֣קַם עָ֔ל מְשִׁ֙יחַ֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וּנְעִ֖ים זְמִר֥וֹת יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
1 And these are the words of David, the last ones.
An oracle of David the son of Jesse, and an oracle of the valiant, upheld concerning the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the pleasure of the psalmists of Israel.
3c 4C 12
ר֥וּחַ יְהוָ֖ה דִּבֶּר־בִּ֑י
וּמִלָּת֖וֹ עַל־לְשׁוֹנִֽי
2 f The spirit of Yahweh spoke in me,
and his speech was on my tongue.
3e 4A 7
אָמַר֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לִ֥י דִבֶּ֖ר צ֣וּר יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
מוֹשֵׁל֙ בָּאָדָ֔ם צַדִּ֕יק מוֹשֵׁ֖ל יִרְאַ֥ת אֱלֹהִֽים
3 The God of Israel said to me, the rock of Israel spoke,
Who governs for humanity, ... righteous governing in the fear of God.
3e 4B 15
וּכְא֥וֹר בֹּ֖קֶר יִזְרַח־שָׁ֑מֶשׁ
בֹּ֚קֶר לֹ֣א עָב֔וֹת מִנֹּ֥גַהּ מִמָּטָ֖ר דֶּ֥שֶׁא מֵאָֽרֶץ
4 Then as the light of morning, sun will rise,
morning without thick clouds, from the luminous, from the rain, vegetation from the land.
3e 4C 8
כִּֽי־לֹא־כֵ֥ן בֵּיתִ֖י עִם־אֵ֑ל
כִּי֩ בְרִ֨ית עוֹלָ֜ם שָׂ֣ם לִ֗י עֲרוּכָ֤ה בַכֹּל֙ וּשְׁמֻרָ֔ה כִּֽי־כָל־יִשְׁעִ֥י וְכָל־חֵ֖פֶץ כִּֽי־לֹ֥א יַצְמִֽיחַ
5 Though my house is not so with God,
yet a covenant everlasting he set for me, arranged in all, and kept for all my salvation and all delight, though it does not grow.
3e 4C 6
וּבְלִיַּ֕עַל כְּק֥וֹץ מֻנָ֖ד כֻּלָּ֑הַם
כִּֽי־לֹ֥א בְיָ֖ד יִקָּֽחוּ
6 But are worthless, as bramble sequestered, all of them,
for not by a hand will they be taken.
3e 4A 11
וְאִישׁ֙ יִגַּ֣ע בָּהֶ֔ם יִמָּלֵ֥א בַרְזֶ֖ל וְעֵ֣ץ חֲנִ֑ית
וּבָאֵ֕שׁ שָׂר֥וֹף יִשָּׂרְפ֖וּ בַּשָּֽׁבֶת
7 For anyone touching them must be inlaid with iron or the timber of a spear.
And in fire they will be incinerated where they sit.
3e 4B 15
אֵ֛לֶּה שְׁמ֥וֹת הַגִּבֹּרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר לְדָוִ֑ד
יֹשֵׁ֨ב בַּשֶּׁ֜בֶת תַּחְכְּמֹנִ֣י ׀ רֹ֣אשׁ הַשָּׁלִשִׁ֗י ה֚וּא עֲדִינ֣וֹ הָֽעֶצְנִ֔י עַל־שְׁמֹנֶ֥ה מֵא֛וֹת חָלָ֖ל בְּפַ֥עַם אֶחָֽת
8 d These are the names of the valiant that are David's.
Who sat on the seat, a Taxkmonite, head of the equerry, he was Adino the Etsnite. Over eight hundred he profaned at one time.
3d 4C 13
וְאַחֲרָ֛יו אֶלְעָזָ֥ר בֶּן־דֹּד֖וֹ בֶּן־אֲחֹחִ֑י
בִּשְׁלֹשָׁ֨ה הַגִּבֹּרִ֜ים עִם־דָּוִ֗ד בְּחָֽרְפָ֤ם בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים נֶאֶסְפוּ־שָׁ֣ם לַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וַֽיַּעֲל֖וּ אִ֥ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
9 And after him Eleazar, child of Dodo, child of the Axohite,
among the three valiant with David when they reproached the Philistines gathered there to battle, when the men of Israel came up.
3d 4C 14
ה֣וּא קָם֩ וַיַּ֨ךְ בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּ֜ים עַ֣ד ׀ כִּֽי־יָגְעָ֣ה יָד֗וֹ וַתִּדְבַּ֤ק יָדוֹ֙ אֶל־הַחֶ֔רֶב וַיַּ֧עַשׂ יְהוָ֛ה תְּשׁוּעָ֥ה גְדוֹלָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא
וְהָעָ֛ם יָשֻׁ֥בוּ אַחֲרָ֖יו אַךְ־לְפַשֵּֽׁט
10 B He arose and he struck against the Philistines until his hand was weary and his hand cleaved to the sword, and Yahweh undertook a great salvation in that day.
And the people returned after him but to pillage.
3c 4C 37
וְאַחֲרָ֛יו שַׁמָּ֥א בֶן־אָגֵ֖א הָרָרִ֑י
וַיֵּאָסְפ֨וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֜ים לַחַיָּ֗ה וַתְּהִי־שָׁ֞ם חֶלְקַ֤ת הַשָּׂדֶה֙ מְלֵאָ֣ה עֲדָשִׁ֔ים וְהָעָ֥ם נָ֖ס מִפְּנֵ֥י פְלִשְׁתִּֽים
11 And after him Shammah, child of Agee the Hararite.
And the Philistines gathered toward Jawbone, and there was a parcel of a field full of lentils, and the people withdrew before Philistines.
3d 4C 12
וַיִּתְיַצֵּ֤ב בְּתוֹךְ־הַֽחֶלְקָה֙ וַיַּצִּילֶ֔הָ וַיַּ֖ךְ אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים
וַיַּ֥עַשׂ יְהוָ֖ה תְּשׁוּעָ֥ה גְדוֹלָֽה
12 But he stationed himself in the midst of the parcel and delivered it, and he struck the Philistines.
And Yahweh undertook a great salvation.
3e 4C 20
וַיֵּרְד֨וּ שְׁלֹשָׁ֜ה מֵהַשְּׁלֹשִׁ֣ים רֹ֗אשׁ וַיָּבֹ֤אוּ אֶל־קָצִיר֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד אֶל־מְעָרַ֖ת עֲדֻלָּ֑ם
וְחַיַּ֣ת פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים חֹנָ֖ה בְּעֵ֥מֶק רְפָאִֽים
13 And three of the thirty came down first. And they came at the harvest to David, to the cave of Adullam.
And the revived of the Philistines were encamped in the valley of the titans.
3e 4C 27
וְדָוִ֖ד אָ֣ז בַּמְּצוּדָ֑ה
וּמַצַּ֣ב פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים אָ֖ז בֵּ֥ית לָֽחֶם
14 And David was then in the fortress.
And the garrison of the Philistines was then Bethlehem.
3e 4B 7
וַיִּתְאַוֶּ֥ה דָוִ֖ד וַיֹּאמַ֑ר
מִ֚י יַשְׁקֵ֣נִי מַ֔יִם מִבֹּ֥אר בֵּֽית־לֶ֖חֶם אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּשָּֽׁעַר
15 And David intensely desired, and said,
Who will give me a drink of water from the well of Bethlehem that is at the gate?
3e 4C 9
וַיִּבְקְעוּ֩ שְׁלֹ֨שֶׁת הַגִּבֹּרִ֜ים בְּמַחֲנֵ֣ה פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים וַיִּֽשְׁאֲבוּ־מַ֙יִם֙ מִבֹּ֤אר בֵּֽית־לֶ֙חֶם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּשַּׁ֔עַר וַיִּשְׂא֖וּ וַיָּבִ֣אוּ אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד
וְלֹ֤א אָבָה֙ לִשְׁתּוֹתָ֔ם וַיַּסֵּ֥ךְ אֹתָ֖ם לַֽיהוָֽה
16 And the three valiant split the camp of the Philistines in two, and they drew water from the well of Bethlehem that was at the gate, and they bore and they came to David.
But he did not consent to imbibe it, and he spilled it out to Yahweh.
3e 4C 43
וַיֹּ֡אמֶר חָלִילָה֩ לִּ֨י יְהוָ֜ה מֵעֲשֹׂ֣תִי זֹ֗את הֲדַ֤ם הָֽאֲנָשִׁים֙ הַהֹלְכִ֣ים בְּנַפְשׁוֹתָ֔ם וְלֹ֥א אָבָ֖ה לִשְׁתּוֹתָ֑ם
אֵ֣לֶּה עָשׂ֔וּ שְׁלֹ֖שֶׁת הַגִּבֹּרִֽים
17 And he said far be it from me, O Yahweh, to do this with the blood of persons who went in peril to themselves. And he did not consent to imbibe it.
These things the three valiant have done.
3e 4C 34
וַאֲבִישַׁ֞י אֲחִ֣י ׀ יוֹאָ֣ב בֶּן־צְרוּיָ֗ה ה֚וּא רֹ֣אשׁ הַשְּׁלֹשָׁ֔ה וְהוּא֙ עוֹרֵ֣ר אֶת־חֲנִית֔וֹ עַל־שְׁלֹ֥שׁ מֵא֖וֹת חָלָ֑ל
וְלוֹ־שֵׁ֖ם בַּשְּׁלֹשָֽׁה
18 And Abishai, brother of Joab, child of Tseruyah, was himself head of the three, and he unleashed his spear over three hundred profaned.
And he had a name among the three.
3e 4C 32
מִן־הַשְּׁלֹשָׁה֙ הֲכִ֣י נִכְבָּ֔ד וַיְהִ֥י לָהֶ֖ם לְשָׂ֑ר
וְעַד־הַשְּׁלֹשָׁ֖ה לֹא־בָֽא
19 From the three, was he not more glorious? And he became their chief.
But till the three, he had not entered.
3e 4B 14
וּבְנָיָ֨הוּ בֶן־יְהוֹיָדָ֧ע בֶּן־אִֽישׁ־חַ֛יִל רַב־פְּעָלִ֖ים מִֽקַּבְצְאֵ֑ל
ה֣וּא הִכָּ֗ה אֵ֣ת שְׁנֵ֤י אֲרִאֵל֙ מוֹאָ֔ב וְ֠הוּא יָרַ֞ד וְהִכָּ֧ה אֶֽת־הָאֲרִ֛י בְּת֥וֹךְ הַבֹּ֖אר בְּי֥וֹם הַשָּֽׁלֶג
20 And Beniah, child of Jehoiada, son of a man of ability, of many works from Qavtseil.
He himself struck two lion-men of Moab, and he himself came down and struck the lion in the midst of the well on the day of the snow.
3c 4C 21
וְהוּא־הִכָּה֩ אֶת־אִ֨ישׁ מִצְרִ֜י אִ֣ישׁ מַרְאֶ֗ה וּבְיַ֤ד הַמִּצְרִי֙ חֲנִ֔ית וַיֵּ֥רֶד אֵלָ֖יו בַּשָּׁ֑בֶט
וַיִּגְזֹ֤ל אֶֽת־הַחֲנִית֙ מִיַּ֣ד הַמִּצְרִ֔י וַיַּהַרְגֵ֖הוּ בַּחֲנִיתֽוֹ
21 And he himself struck an Egyptian man, a man to see. And in the hand of the Egyptian was a spear, and he went down to him with a sceptre,
and robbed the spear from the hand of the Egyptian, and slew him with his own spear.
3e 4C 26
אֵ֣לֶּה עָשָׂ֔ה בְּנָיָ֖הוּ בֶּן־יְהוֹיָדָ֑ע
וְלוֹ־שֵׁ֖ם בִּשְׁלֹשָׁ֥ה הַגִּבֹּרִֽים
22 B These things did Benaiah, child of Jehoiada,
and had a name among the valiant three.
3e 4B 13
מִן־הַשְּׁלֹשִׁ֣ים נִכְבָּ֔ד וְאֶל־הַשְּׁלֹשָׁ֖ה לֹא־בָ֑א
וַיְשִׂמֵ֥הוּ דָוִ֖ד אֶל־מִשְׁמַעְתּֽוֹ
23 From the thirty he was more glorious, but to the three he had not come.
And David set him up about his fame.
3e 4B 12
עֲשָׂה־אֵ֥ל אֲחִֽי־יוֹאָ֖ב בַּשְּׁלֹשִׁ֑ים
אֶלְחָנָ֥ן בֶּן־דֹּד֖וֹ בֵּ֥ית לָֽחֶם
24 Asahel brother of Joab, among the thirty,
Elxanan, child of Dodo of Bethlehem,
3e 4A 9
שַׁמָּה֙ הַֽחֲרֹדִ֔י אֱלִיקָ֖א הַחֲרֹדִֽי 25 Shammah the Xarodite, Eliqa the Xarodite, 3e 3g 13
חֶ֚לֶץ הַפַּלְטִ֔י עִירָ֥א בֶן־עִקֵּ֖שׁ הַתְּקוֹעִֽי 26 C Helets the Paltiite, Ira, child of Devious the Tekoan, 3e 4C 13
אֲבִיעֶ֙זֶר֙ הָֽעַנְּתֹתִ֔י מְבֻנַּ֖י הַחֻשָׁתִֽי 27 Abiezer the Antothite, Mebunni the Xushty, 3e 3g 15
צַלְמוֹן֙ הָֽאֲחֹחִ֔י מַהְרַ֖י הַנְּטֹפָתִֽי 28 Salmon the Axohite, Swiftie the Dropper, 3e 3g 12
חֵ֥לֶב בֶּֽן־בַּעֲנָ֖ה הַנְּטֹפָתִ֑י
אִתַּי֙ בֶּן־רִיבַ֔י מִגִּבְעַ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י בִנְיָמִֽן
29 f Xeleb, child of Baanah the Netophatite,
Itai, child of Contention of Gibeah, the children of Benjamin,
3e 4A 10
בְּנָיָ֙הוּ֙ פִּרְעָ֣תֹנִ֔י הִדַּ֖י מִנַּ֥חֲלֵי גָֽעַשׁ 30 Benaiah the Pirathonite, Hiddai from the torrents of Gaash, 3e 4B 16
אֲבִֽי־עַלְבוֹן֙ הָֽעַרְבָתִ֔י עַזְמָ֖וֶת הַבַּרְחֻמִֽי 31 Abialbon the Arbatite, Azmaveth the Barxumite, 3e 3g 15
אֶלְיַחְבָּא֙ הַשַּׁ֣עַלְבֹנִ֔י בְּנֵ֥י יָשֵׁ֖ן יְהוֹנָתָֽן 32 Eliahba the Shaalbonite, the children of Yashen, Jonathan, 3e 4B 16
שַׁמָּה֙ הַֽהֲרָרִ֔י אֲחִיאָ֥ם בֶּן־שָׁרָ֖ר הָארָרִֽי 33 Shammah the Harorite, Axiam, child of Watcher the Hararite, 3e 3g 15
אֱלִיפֶ֥לֶט בֶּן־אֲחַסְבַּ֖י בֶּן־הַמַּֽעֲכָתִ֑י
אֱלִיעָ֥ם בֶּן־אֲחִיתֹ֖פֶל הַגִּלֹנִֽי
34 Eliphelet child of Axasbi, child of the Maakatite,
Elyam child of Axitophel the Gilonite,
3e 4A 14
חֶצְרַי֙ הַֽכַּרְמְלִ֔י פַּעֲרַ֖י הָאַרְבִּֽי 35 Xetsrai the Carmelite, Paarai the Arbite, 3e 3g 12
יִגְאָ֤ל בֶּן־נָתָן֙ מִצֹּבָ֔ה בָּנִ֖י הַגָּדִֽי 36 Yigael child of Nathan, from Tsobah, Bani the Gadite, 3e 4C 13
צֶ֖לֶק הָעַמֹּנִ֑י
נַחְרַי֙ הַבְּאֵ֣רֹתִ֔י נֹשֵׂ֕א כְּלֵ֖י יוֹאָ֥ב בֶּן־צְרֻיָֽה
37 g Tseleq the Ammonite,
Naxari the Beerotite, the bearer of cargo for Joab child of Tseruyah,
3e 4B 6
עִירָא֙ הַיִּתְרִ֔י גָּרֵ֖ב הַיִּתְרִֽי 38 Ira the Yiterite, Scab the Yiterite, 3e 3g 10
אֽוּרִיָּה֙ הַֽחִתִּ֔י כֹּ֖ל שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים וְשִׁבְעָֽה 39 Uriah the Hittite, totaling thirty seven. 3e 3g 13

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