Saturday, August 18, 2018

Daniel 8

I thought צפיר could reduce to the stem צפר, but no. My coach informs me that
"צפיר has no relation to ציפור. It is the Hebrew name for Rupicapra pyrenaica, a type of mountain goat that today appears only in southwestern Europe, but in ancient times was native throughout southern Europe, as far as Turkey, as well, so I would speculate it entered the language during the Israelite ancestors’ stay in Harran."
OK - so it's a he-goat.

Now about dreams and fulfillment, this is so specific, it is written to be understood after the fact - if you will - so that the idea of riddle, and symbolism, and metaphor may be made abundantly clear. We need riddles to avoid doing what these war-lords do to each other. One might say, Greece had science, so I suppose Alexander didn't know any better than to be a conqueror. Did they lack humility?

I have long avoided Daniel though the stories are really fun. People make more of it than they should. They seem to revel in interpretation rather than hearing the cry of the needy around them. I could have been distracted by this and many probably thought I was.

Numerous, עצם. I think it is in The Decline of the American Empire by Denys Arcand (1986) that he begins his lesson in history with: Il y a trois choses importantes en histoire, Premièrement, le nombre. Deuxièmement, le nombre. Troisièmement, le nombre. All history is is a consequence of numbers numbers, numbers. It is traditional to use strong for this stem, עצם. The dominant glosses are bones and numerous, occasionally staunch, and occasionally sheer numbers, and once (to my chagrin) numbers alone. I have not allowed strength because that is עזז. The two are used together in Psalm 68:36.

ה֤וּא נֹתֵ֨ן ׀ עֹ֖ז וְתַעֲצֻמ֥וֹת לָעָ֗ם He gives strength and numbers to the people.

Having seen them together, I could let one substitute for the other in a different context. Perhaps that is what happened over time, but it would belie the truth of history (according to Arcand). In the case of number I have been forced to allow overlap between the Aramaic מנא and the Hebrew ספר plus the one instance above.

In the case of תמיד, an modifier meaning continual, the word has come to mean here the continual sacrifice. Several aspects of the offering and of light are continual in Exodus and Leviticus. They are the processes of a going concern. Such are made to cease in this vision. It is odd that they are lifted high, רום. They are not taken away or abolished. It may be the intended meaning, but it is not what is written.

The merism evening-morning is used in verse 14 (and 26) presumably measuring a day as in Genesis 1.

wight, הלזה an archaic version of person, make this person understand! Understand = discern = בין. The stem הלזה by itself is just this

Daniel 8 Fn Min Max Syll
בִּשְׁנַ֣ת שָׁל֔וֹשׁ לְמַלְכ֖וּת בֵּלְאשַׁצַּ֣ר הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
חָז֞וֹן נִרְאָ֤ה אֵלַי֙ אֲנִ֣י דָנִיֵּ֔אל אַחֲרֵ֛י הַנִּרְאָ֥ה אֵלַ֖י בַּתְּחִלָּֽה
1 In the third year of the reign of Belshazzar the king,
a vision appeared to me, (I am Daniel), after what had appeared to me at the start.
3d 4C 14
23
וָֽאֶרְאֶה֮ בֶּחָזוֹן֒ וַיְהִי֙ בִּרְאֹתִ֔י וַאֲנִי֙ בְּשׁוּשַׁ֣ן הַבִּירָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּעֵילָ֣ם הַמְּדִינָ֑ה
וָאֶרְאֶה֙ בֶּֽחָז֔וֹן וַאֲנִ֥י הָיִ֖יתִי עַל־אוּבַ֥ל אוּלָֽי
2 And I saw in a vision, and it happened in my seeing. And I was in Shushan, the temple precincts, that is in Elam, the province.
And I saw in a vision, and I was over the waterway Ulai.
3e 4B 28
17
וָאֶשָּׂ֤א עֵינַי֙ וָאֶרְאֶ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֣ה ׀ אַ֣יִל אֶחָ֗ד עֹמֵ֛ד לִפְנֵ֥י הָאֻבָ֖ל וְל֣וֹ קְרָנָ֑יִם
וְהַקְּרָנַ֣יִם גְּבֹה֗וֹת וְהָאַחַת֙ גְּבֹהָ֣ה מִן־הַשֵּׁנִ֔ית וְהַ֨גְּבֹהָ֔ה עֹלָ֖ה בָּאַחֲרֹנָֽה
3 And I lifted up my eyes, and I saw, and behold, one ram standing before the waterway, and he had two horns.
And the two horns were high and lofty, but the one was more lofty than the second, and the more lofty ascended in the other.
3d 4C 28
29
רָאִ֣יתִי אֶת־הָאַ֡יִל מְנַגֵּחַ֩ יָ֨מָּה וְצָפ֜וֹנָה וָנֶ֗גְבָּה וְכָל־חַיּוֹת֙ לֹֽא־יַֽעַמְד֣וּ לְפָנָ֔יו וְאֵ֥ין מַצִּ֖יל מִיָּד֑וֹ
וְעָשָׂ֥ה כִרְצֹנ֖וֹ וְהִגְדִּֽיל
4 I saw the ram pushing back, seaward and northward and southward, and of the animals, none could stand before him, and there was none to deliver from his hand.
And he did what he found acceptable and he grew.
3e 4B 37
9
וַאֲנִ֣י ׀ הָיִ֣יתִי מֵבִ֗ין וְהִנֵּ֤ה צְפִיר־הָֽעִזִּים֙ בָּ֤א מִן־הַֽמַּעֲרָב֙ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י כָל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְאֵ֥ין נוֹגֵ֖עַ בָּאָ֑רֶץ
וְהַ֨צָּפִ֔יר קֶ֥רֶן חָז֖וּת בֵּ֥ין עֵינָֽיו
5 And I, I was discerning, and behold, a he-goat of the she-goats came from the sunset over the face of the whole earth,
and without touching on the earth. And the he-goat, a horn manifest between his eyes.
3e 4C 37
11
וַיָּבֹ֗א עַד־הָאַ֙יִל֙ בַּ֣עַל הַקְּרָנַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֣ר רָאִ֔יתִי עֹמֵ֖ד לִפְנֵ֣י הָאֻבָ֑ל
וַיָּ֥רָץ אֵלָ֖יו בַּחֲמַ֥ת כֹּחֽוֹ
6 And he came to the ram, the owner of the two horns, that I had seen standing before the waterway,
and raced to him in the heat of his power.
3e 4B 24
10
וּרְאִיתִ֞יו מַגִּ֣יעַ ׀ אֵ֣צֶל הָאַ֗יִל וַיִּתְמַרְמַ֤ר אֵלָיו֙ וַיַּ֣ךְ אֶת־הָאַ֔יִל וַיְשַׁבֵּר֙ אֶת־שְׁתֵּ֣י קְרָנָ֔יו וְלֹא־הָ֥יָה כֹ֛חַ בָּאַ֖יִל לַעֲמֹ֣ד לְפָנָ֑יו
וַיַּשְׁלִיכֵ֤הוּ אַ֙רְצָה֙ וַֽיִּרְמְסֵ֔הוּ וְלֹא־הָיָ֥ה מַצִּ֛יל לָאַ֖יִל מִיָּדֽוֹ
7 And I saw him touch next to the ram. And he was embittered at him, and he struck the ram, and he broke his two horns, and there was no power with the ram to stand before him.
And he flung him earthward, and trampled him, and none there was to deliver the ram from his hand.
3d 4C 46
23
וּצְפִ֥יר הָעִזִּ֖ים הִגְדִּ֣יל עַד־מְאֹ֑ד
וּכְעָצְמ֗וֹ נִשְׁבְּרָה֙ הַקֶּ֣רֶן הַגְּדוֹלָ֔ה וַֽתַּעֲלֶ֜נָה חָז֤וּת אַרְבַּע֙ תַּחְתֶּ֔יהָ לְאַרְבַּ֖ע רוּח֥וֹת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם
8 And the he-goat of the she-goats grew excessively.
And when he was numerous, the great horn was broken, and a vision of four came up instead of it, to the four winds of the heavens.
3e 4C 10
33
וּמִן־הָאַחַ֣ת מֵהֶ֔ם יָצָ֥א קֶֽרֶן־אַחַ֖ת מִצְּעִירָ֑ה
וַתִּגְדַּל־יֶ֛תֶר אֶל־הַנֶּ֥גֶב וְאֶל־הַמִּזְרָ֖ח וְאֶל־הַצֶּֽבִי
9 And from one of them, the first horn of lesser account went forth,
and it grew to advantage to the south, and to the sunrise, and to status.
3d 4B 16
19
וַתִּגְדַּ֖ל עַד־צְבָ֣א הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם
וַתַּפֵּ֥ל אַ֛רְצָה מִן־הַצָּבָ֥א וּמִן־הַכּוֹכָבִ֖ים וַֽתִּרְמְסֵֽם
10 And it grew to the host of the heavens.
And it caused fallout earthward from the host and from the stars, and it trampled them.
3d 4B 10
19
וְעַ֥ד שַֽׂר־הַצָּבָ֖א הִגְדִּ֑יל
וּמִמֶּ֙נּוּ֙ הוּרַ֣ם הַתָּמִ֔יד וְהֻשְׁלַ֖ךְ מְכ֥וֹן מִקְדָּשֽׁוֹ
11 And to the chief of the host it grew.
And from him the continual sacrifice was lifted high, and the base of his sanctuary was cast down.
3e 4B 8
17
וְצָבָ֛א תִּנָּתֵ֥ן עַל־הַתָּמִ֖יד בְּפָ֑שַׁע
וְתַשְׁלֵ֤ךְ אֱמֶת֙ אַ֔רְצָה וְעָשְׂתָ֖ה וְהִצְלִֽיחָה
12 And a host was given over the continual sacrifice in transgression.
And truth was cast down earthward. And he acted, and he prospered.
3d 4C 13
14
וָאֶשְׁמְעָ֥ה אֶֽחָד־קָד֖וֹשׁ מְדַבֵּ֑ר
וַיֹּאמֶר֩ אֶחָ֨ד קָד֜וֹשׁ לַפַּֽלְמוֹנִ֣י הַֽמְדַבֵּ֗ר עַד־מָתַ֞י הֶחָז֤וֹן הַתָּמִיד֙ וְהַפֶּ֣שַׁע שֹׁמֵ֔ם תֵּ֛ת וְקֹ֥דֶשׁ וְצָבָ֖א מִרְמָֽס
13 And I heard a holy one speaking.
And a holy one said what was suitable in the wilderness, How long the vision of the continual sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to permit both sanctuary and host to be trampled.
3d 4C 11
38
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י עַ֚ד עֶ֣רֶב בֹּ֔קֶר אַלְפַּ֖יִם וּשְׁלֹ֣שׁ מֵא֑וֹת
וְנִצְדַּ֖ק קֹֽדֶשׁ
14 And such said to me, Till evening-morning, two thousand three hundred,
and the sanctuary will be made righteous.
3e 4C 16
5
וַיְהִ֗י בִּרְאֹתִ֛י אֲנִ֥י דָנִיֵּ֖אל אֶת־הֶחָז֑וֹן
וָאֲבַקְשָׁ֣ה בִינָ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֛ה עֹמֵ֥ד לְנֶגְדִּ֖י כְּמַרְאֵה־גָֽבֶר
15 So it was that when I had seen, (I am Daniel) the vision,
and I had sought out discernment, then, behold, there stood in front of me one who appeared as valiant.
3d 4B 15
19
וָאֶשְׁמַ֥ע קוֹל־אָדָ֖ם בֵּ֣ין אוּלָ֑י
וַיִּקְרָא֙ וַיֹּאמַ֔ר גַּבְרִיאֵ֕ל הָבֵ֥ן לְהַלָּ֖ז אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶֽה
16 And I heard the voice of a human between Ulai,
and he called out, and he said, Gabriel, make this wight discern the appearance.
3e 4B 9
18
וַיָּבֹא֙ אֵ֣צֶל עָמְדִ֔י וּבְבֹא֣וֹ נִבְעַ֔תִּי וָאֶפְּלָ֖ה עַל־פָּנָ֑י
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלַי֙ הָבֵ֣ן בֶּן־אָדָ֔ם כִּ֖י לְעֶת־קֵ֥ץ הֶחָזֽוֹן
17 And he came next to where I stood, and in his coming I was alarmed, and I fell on my face.
And he said to me, Discern, child of humanity, for in due time is the end of the vision.
3e 4C 19
17
וּבְדַבְּר֣וֹ עִמִּ֔י נִרְדַּ֥מְתִּי עַל־פָּנַ֖י אָ֑רְצָה
וַיִּ֨גַּע־בִּ֔י וַיַּֽעֲמִידֵ֖נִי עַל־עָמְדִֽי
18 When he had spoken with me, I was in a trance on my face earthward.
Then he touched me, and installed me in my standing-place.
3e 4B 13
13
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הִנְנִ֣י מוֹדִֽיעֲךָ֔ אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶ֖ה בְּאַחֲרִ֣ית הַזָּ֑עַם
כִּ֖י לְמוֹעֵ֥ד קֵֽץ
19 And he said, Here I am. I will have you know what will be in the aftermath of the indignation,
for at an appointed time will be the end.
3e 4B 21
5
הָאַ֥יִל אֲשֶׁר־רָאִ֖יתָ בַּ֣עַל הַקְּרָנָ֑יִם
מַלְכֵ֖י מָדַ֥י וּפָרָֽס
20 The ram that you have seen, the owner of the two horns,
the kings of Media and Persia.
3e 4B 14
7
וְהַצָּפִ֥יר הַשָּׂעִ֖יר מֶ֣לֶךְ יָוָ֑ן
וְהַקֶּ֤רֶן הַגְּדוֹלָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בֵּין־עֵינָ֔יו ה֖וּא הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ הָרִאשֽׁוֹן
21 And the he-goat, the kid, the king of Greece,
and the great horn that was between his eyes, this is the first king.
3e 4C 11
19
וְהַ֨נִּשְׁבֶּ֔רֶת וַתַּֽעֲמֹ֥דְנָה אַרְבַּ֖ע תַּחְתֶּ֑יהָ
אַרְבַּ֧ע מַלְכֻי֛וֹת מִגּ֥וֹי יַעֲמֹ֖דְנָה וְלֹ֥א בְכֹחֽוֹ
22 And the one being broken, and four standing instead of it,
four kingdoms from a nation will stand, but not by its own power.
3c 4A 15
17
וּֽבְאַחֲרִית֙ מַלְכוּתָ֔ם כְּהָתֵ֖ם הַפֹּשְׁעִ֑ים
יַעֲמֹ֛ד מֶ֥לֶךְ עַז־פָּנִ֖ים וּמֵבִ֥ין חִידֽוֹת
23 And in the aftermath of their kingdoms, when the transgressors are complete,
a king will stand with strength of presence, and understanding of riddles.
3d 4A 13
13
וְעָצַ֤ם כֹּחוֹ֙ וְלֹ֣א בְכֹח֔וֹ וְנִפְלָא֥וֹת יַשְׁחִ֖ית וְהִצְלִ֣יחַ וְעָשָׂ֑ה
וְהִשְׁחִ֥ית עֲצוּמִ֖ים וְעַם־קְדֹשִֽׁים
24 And the sheer numbers of his power, but not by his own power, and wonderful things, he will destroy, and he will prosper and act,
and he will destroy the numerous and the people of holy things.
3e 4C 23
11
וְעַל־שִׂכְל֗וֹ וְהִצְלִ֤יחַ מִרְמָה֙ בְּיָד֔וֹ וּבִלְבָב֣וֹ יַגְדִּ֔יל וּבְשַׁלְוָ֖ה יַשְׁחִ֣ית רַבִּ֑ים
וְעַ֤ל־שַׂר־שָׂרִים֙ יַעֲמֹ֔ד וּבְאֶ֥פֶס יָ֖ד יִשָּׁבֵֽר
25 And against his insight, he will make deceit prosper in his hand, and in his heart he will be great, and in peace will destroy many.
And against the chief of chiefs he will stand, but not by a hand will he be broken.
3e 4C 26
15
וּמַרְאֵ֨ה הָעֶ֧רֶב וְהַבֹּ֛קֶר אֲשֶׁ֥ר נֶאֱמַ֖ר אֱמֶ֣ת ה֑וּא
וְאַתָּה֙ סְתֹ֣ם הֶֽחָז֔וֹן כִּ֖י לְיָמִ֥ים רַבִּֽים
26 And the appearance of the evening and the morning that was said, true it is.
But you, be discreet about the vision, for it is for many days.
3c 4B 18
14
וַאֲנִ֣י דָנִיֵּ֗אל נִהְיֵ֤יתִי וְנֶֽחֱלֵ֙יתִי֙ יָמִ֔ים וָאָק֕וּם וָאֶֽעֱשֶׂ֖ה אֶת־מְלֶ֣אכֶת הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
וָאֶשְׁתּוֹמֵ֥ם עַל־הַמַּרְאֶ֖ה וְאֵ֥ין מֵבִֽין
27 And I, Daniel, was becoming, and was sick for days. And I arose and did the lines of work for the king.
And I made myself desolate over the appearance, and there was none who understood.
3e 4C 31
12