Thursday 30 April 2020

Comparing SimHebrew with the WLC

All my youth as a Hebrew student, I have used the Aleppo and Westminster Leningrad traditions. I am now into my teen-aged years as a student of this tongue, and I have recently come across the undotted version of the text that is common in modern usage. My colleague and coach, Jonathan Orr-Stav has invented a new and simple method of encoding undotted Hebrew or Aramaic (of any sort) in English (Latin) characters called simulated Hebrew, or SimHebrew for short. (You can find an introduction here.) Jonathan explains:
ḥaser in the context of ktiv (spelling) means 'lacking, deficient'—as opposed to malé, which means 'full'. 
The former refers to the austere use of yods and vavs to indicate /i/ and /o/ or /u/ sounds — limiting them to where they are actually part of the word stem, and relying on niqqud to dispel misunderstandings. The latter refers to the generous use of yods and vavs to indicate /i/, /o/ or /u/. [and as will be noted below, sometimes qamats and patah (a)].
Undotted Hebrew (both today and in the Second Temple era) tends to use malé, esp. for secular purposes. 
I was wondering if it was possible to write a program that would analyse the WLC (a ḥaser text) and produce an undotted version (malé). I think it is.

And it is very clear to me that information is lost in this conversion process, notably vowels and accents, but this does simulate the ancient versions that had no vowels (though I would not rush to say that they had no accents). And with that simulation plus a few extra mater lectiones, (vavs and yods that aid the reader), we do have a text that could be subject to text mining without the need to manage Unicode.

I am holding my breath about putting the SimHebrew text into the music. At present that will have to wait. But the exercise of programming 9 chapters of test data has proven very instructive so far. One thing it has taught me is how illogical I am at times, thinking one thing and coding another. This is common in programming, especially I imagine in old programmers, but that is anecdotal.

I am now going to try and 'explain' my rules in English.

There is an easy mapping from Unicode to Latin characters. For the sake of understanding I mapped the members of the non-grammatical team first. A straightforward replace. The Unicode values translate unambiguously:
1490 - g, 1491 - d, 1494 - z, 1495 - k, 1496 - +, 1505 - s,
1506 - y, 1508 - p, 1507 - f, 1510 - x, 1509 - x, 1511 - q, 1512 - r
Note I use + for tet (internally). It does have the odd use grammatically, but not for hitting runs, just keeping score.
Then the grammatical letters:
1488 - a, 1489 - b, 1492 - h, 1493 - v, 1497 - i, 1499 - c, 1498 - ç,
1500 - l, 1502 - m, 1501 - m, 1504 - n, 1503 - n, 1513 - w, 1514 - t
These all have significant impacts on the placement and usage of i's and o's in the SimHebrew representation of the malé square text. Yod and vav have the most complex problems. There is an initial quick conversion for vav, vav+1460 is vi, vav+other vowels are vv, vav+1466 is vo. There's some nuance here since these are not final decisions. They depend on other variables. The holam 1465 can follow many letters and has a number of rules. 1466 is used only with vav and is generally fixed.

I also allow myself the generality of converting some common suffixes. It's a bit surprising, but it saves a lot of hunting later.
t-1461 c-1462;mticm
l-1461 c-1462;mlicm
l-1461 h-1462;mlihm
n-1464 i-1460;mni*im
t-1463 i-1460;mti*im
(The * is to prevent this as being seen as a double i which might be prevented per later rules. The * like the + is removed as a last step in constructing the full version of the verse.)

Some of the above may need restricting, e.g. there are 291 rows with the last combo and they might not all behave the same way in the rest of the WLC.

This is the beginning. And I won't continue this level of detail. I need to explain that each of the remaining rules by stem are processed in sequence. They allow one to see if a vowel in the text will cause a conversion to a mater lectionis. All the jots and tittles gradually disappear.

This is the matrix: (It will extend - and who knows, may become simpler if the rules appear to have patterns, particularly with respect to some diphthongs.)

It is similar to doing a program to deal with English lemmas. So many exceptions. I began my career as a programmer 54 years ago. I got the job because I could remember a host of three-character nonsense syllables. This program seems to be my bookend.

This table breaks down to three sections: Getting to the o's, Getting to the i's, A. vowels that undergo strange transformations, and B. Finally getting to the real i.

Rule abbreviatedApplies to stem (+ = ט)Comment
tsere vavnvh exceptions to vav+vowel becomes vv
qamats qatanycrn nsy mlc krm ahl
awih azn +rk krb kpry lcd pyl sll
render vowel a (Unicode 1464) as o
qamats qatan afxpqd acl render a as o except for some affixes
qamats qatan bwmy render a as o for prefix b
allow o lacl allow holam with prefix l
allow o bywh allow holam with prefix b
allow o vywh allow holam with prefix v
allow o eywh allow holam with segol
allow o sfywh allow holam with some suffixes
prevent oywh acl aph azn ch la mwh
pry raw xan zat
prevent holam
prevent o prefamr prevent holam with some common prefixes

tsere hireqrcc yrc rgn zrh wrq wrp kth kmr kln bar aph yvr ird pl+ wpl +vb render tsere (1461) as i (some conditions)
tsere hireqmman allow for some stems beginning with m but prevent i for single prefix mem with tsere
tsere hireq trpa ywh allow hireq from tsere for t
patah hireqrcc wnh mdi avli ybd pnh kq dbr yin al ph becomes ii but not for prefixed vai
patah hireqiild ird יַ ip (1497-1463) becomes ii
qamats upqd הָת ht becomes hut -- specialized prefix
qamats hireqvwlv ikd 'ָv' qamats-v (1464-1493) becomes iv
qamats hireqhih pnh yl qamats i becomes ii except for suffix ' th nh '
qamats hireq pfitr ivm qamats i becomes ii - except for prefix 'vָi'
prevent final ikih suppress rendering of final ai as ii
allow init pilvn wby allow initial patah-i as ii
allow init pi exciwb lqk allow initial patah-i as ii except for trailing u

allow iww yzz rpa qxx nsy ywr nqb nkl lvn ktt abd acr am amn awh aw at azn bxr clm csh cpr cys dbr dmm gbr gll hlc hll hnm kmw kx lb lbb lqk mxa mla ml+ nba ntc npl ntn npx pla psl q+r qnh rgy rnn wqx wbr wck wvb +vb tmm xvh xih yl yll ycb yxb yxmallow hireq (1460) to be realized -- too generous?
Note that hireq is rendered as i when a step contains an i anywhere.
allow i tqrb nwa ntn mxa ngp lcd lkm allow hireq to be realized for prefix t
allow i hwlv wby rby lvi kll nqm nsc lkm allow hireq to be realized for prefix h
allow i itmm wmm lkm allow hireq to be realized for prefix i
allow i vzvd wlk wlm tpw rmh nwa nqm nkm itr allow hireq to be realized for prefix v
allow i lpnh allow hireq to be realized for prefix v
allow i cxpkt allow hireq to be realized for prefix c
allow i mzmm allow hireq to be realized for prefix m
prevent iymindb ymihvd ynqi xvriwdi wlmial pgyial wyir tnin sin sini sir lvi ymiwdi gdyni cnyni brik bin di riq kih acl abidn cid rib irmih hia yir ci mi kli nbia csdi ihvdi cwdi ict itr bli ikm ial id idy anci bnimn iwb cli bit iwral ivm hih ani prevent hireq -- too restrictive?
And what will happen with names?
prevent i nwbr rpa lkm ird mxa qnh csh suppress hireq prefix n
prevent i hixg ixt hlc rgy +tb q+r suppress hireq prefix h
prevent i mdmm suppress hireq prefix m
prevent i cdbr suppress hireq prefix c
prevent i aww ird suppress tsere or hireq prefix aleph or h - may need refining
prevent i ioird suppress hireq prefix yod vav
prevent i vqrb lqk dmm suppress hireq prefix vav --
prevent i tsuppress hireq for prefix t
prevent i ilqk qnh suppress hireq for preterite/imperfect yod
prevent i l-xxx suppress hireq for prefix l
prevent i umla mxa suppress hireq for suffix u
allow dbl ircc wmm lqk ixt iin mdi bxr nplti yl yvr dmm igy wbr qnh kq ntn ml+ pla irw yll ixm gvi npl allow initial double hireq
prevent dbl iwlk wlm xpkt wby rpa rby yzz ywr ww nqm nkl mni tmm mla mim kx lvn ill ild nptli ixg nwa cpr kmw npx gmlial gll amn dbr azn mah +vb aliab aliwmy alixvr ink amr at ail ain akiry akiyzr  adryi iyd iwb aim psl ptiw abir xvh xih xivn wit bvw wvb aiw awh gbr anci lb cys brit ira bli idy nsc q+r pl+prevent double hireq
except forlkm ensures leading ii for stem, no ii anywhere else. There is supposedly a rule that with a prefix, the i is not doubled. Sometimes...

Wednesday 29 April 2020

Psalm 119 SimHebrew with sharpened tools

After several weeks of programming, my conversion of Psalm 119 to SimHebrew with what I have learned from transforming the WLC to a malé unpointed text has resulted in many changes to the Psalm that I published at the beginning of the month. [refreshed again after examining 100 or so differences, and again as a retest fixing the internal spaces in the verse 'alphabets' greater than q.]
a awri tmimi-drç
hholcim btort ihvh.
1 All joy for the complete of the way,
who walk in the instruction of Yahweh.
b awri noxri ydotiv bcl-lb idrwuhu.
2 All joy for those observing his testimonies. With a whole heart they search him out.
g af la-pylu yvvlh
bdrciv hlcu.
3 Also they do not work injustice,
in his ways they walk.
d ath xivvit piqudiç lwmor maod.
4 And you commanded your precepts to keep in full.
h aklii iiconu drcii lwmor kuqiç.
5 Ah that established were my ways to keep your statutes.
v az la-abow
bhbi'ti al-cl-mxvotiç.
6 And then I would not be ashamed,
to take note of all your commandments.
z aodç biowr lbb
blomdi mwp'ti xdqç.
7 And I will thank you with an upright heart,
when I learn the judgments of your righteousness.
k at-kuqiç awmor
al-tyzbni yd-maod.
8 And your statutes I will keep.
Do not forsake me in full for ever.
't bmh izch-nyr at-aorko
lwmor cdbrç?
9 But how will a youth clear his path,
to keep it according to your word?
i bcl-libi drwtiç
al-twgni mmxvotiç.
10 By all my heart I have searched you out.
Do not let me stray from your commandments.
ia blibi xpnti amrtç
lmyn la ak'ta-lç.
11 By my heart I have treasured your promise,
in order that I will not sin against you.
ib bruç ath ihvh lmdni kuqiç.
12 Blessed are you Yahweh. Teach me your statutes.
ig bwptii siprti
col mwp'ti-piç.
13 By my lips I have recounted,
all the judgments of your mouth.
id bdrç ydvotiç wwti cyl cl-hon.
14 By the way of your testimonies I joy as above all value.
'tv bpiqudiç awikh
vabi'th aorkotiç.
15 By your precepts I will ponder,
and I will take note of your paths.
'tz bkuqotiç awtywy
la awck dbrç.
16 By your statutes I will revel,
nor will I forget your word.
iz gmol yl-ybdç akih vawmrh dbrç.
17 Grow your servant. I will live and keep your word.
ik gl-yinii vabi'th
nplaot mtortç.
18 Give discovery to my eyes,
and I will take note of wonders in your instruction.
i't gr anoci barx
al-tstr mmni mxvotiç.
19 Guest I am on the earth,
do not hide from me your commandments.
c grsh npwi ltabh
al-mwp'tiç bcl-yt.
20 Ground down is my being for longing,
for your judgments at all times.
ca gyrt zdim arurim
hwogim mmxvotiç.
21 Giving, you rebuke the presumptuous, cursed,
straying from your commandments.
cb gl mylii krph vbuz
ci ydotiç nxrti.
22 Get from me reproach and contempt,
for your testimonies I have observed.
cg gm iwbu wrim bi nidbru
ybdç iwik bkuqiç.
23 Grand sultans sat. Against me they spoke.
Your servant will ponder on your statutes.
cd gm-ydotiç wywuyii anwi yxti.
24 Grand your testimonies and my revel. They are my personal counsels.
ch dbqh lypr npwi
kiini cdbrç.
25 Dust-cleaved is my being.
give me life according to your word.
cv drcii siprti vtynni lmdni kuqiç.
26 Declared have I my ways and you answered me. Teach me your statutes.
cz drç-piqudiç hbinni
vawikh bnplaotiç.
27 Direct my discernment in the way of your precepts,
and I will ponder on your wonderful works.
ck dlph npwi mtugh
qiimni cdbrç.
28 Drips my being with sadness.
Raise me according to your word.
c't drç-wqr hsr mmni
vtortç konni.
29 Deceitful way put aside from me,
and with your instruction grace me.
l drç-amunh bkrti
mwp'tiç wivviti.
30 Deliberated have I a way of faith.
With your judgments I have agreed.
la dbqti bydvotiç
ihvh al-tbiwni.
31 Determined I cleave to your testimonies.
Yahweh, do not put me to shame.
lb drç-mxvotiç arux
ci trkib libi.
32 Directed by your commandments I will race,
for you enlarge my heart.
lg hvrni ihvh drç kuqiç vaxrnh yqb.
33 Help me learn Yahweh the way of your statutes and I will observe with foot firmly planted.
ld hbinni vaxrh tortç vawmrnh bcl-lb.
34 Have me understand and I will observe your instruction, and I will keep it with a whole heart.
lh hdricni bntib mxvotiç
ci-bo kpxti.
35 Have me go in the pathway of your commandments,
for in it I have delighted.
lv h't-libi al-ydvotiç val al-bxy.
36 Hearten me to your testimonies and not to extortion.
lz hybr yinii mraot wva
bdrcç kiini.
37 Hide my eyes from seeing vanity.
In your way give me life.
lk hqm lybdç amrtç
awr liratç.
38 Hold high to your servant your promise,
which is to your fear.
l't hybr krpti awr igorti
ci mwp'tiç 'tobim.
39 Hide my reproach that I am afraid of,
for your judgments are good.
m hnh tabti lpiqudiç
bxdqtç kiini.
40 Here I have longed for your precepts.
In your righteousness give me life.
ma viboauni ksdiç ihvh
twuytç camrtç.
41 Well come to me is your mercy, Yahweh,
your salvation as your promise.
mb vaynh korpi dbr
ci-b'tkti bdbrç.
42 With which I will answer a word to one reproaching me,
for I trust in your word.
mg val-txl mpi dbr-amt yd-maod
ci lmwp'tiç ikltii.
43 Word of truth do not remove from my mouth utterly,
for of your judgments, I have hope.
md vawmrh tortç tmid lyolm vyd.
44 Watch over your instruction I will continually forever and ever.
mh vathlch brkbh
ci piqudiç drwti.
45 Walk in a spacious room I will,
for your precepts I have searched out.
mv vadbrh bydotiç ngd mlcim vla abow.
46 Words I will have of your testimonies before kings and I will not be ashamed.
mz vawtywy bmxvotiç awr ahbti.
47 Wherefore my revel will be in your commandments which I have loved.
mk vawa-cpii al-mxvotiç awr ahbti vawikh bkuqiç.
48 Wave my palms I will to your commandments, which I have loved and I will ponder on your statutes.
m't zcor-dbr lybdç
yl awr ikltnii.
49 You remember a word to your servant,
on which you give me hope.
n zat nkmti byonii
ci amrtç kiitni.
50 Yes - this is my comfort in my poverty,
for your promise gives me life.
na zdim hlixuni yd-maod
mtortç la n'titi.
51 Yet though the presumptuous hold me in much scorn,
from your instruction I have not swerved.
nb zcrti mwp'tiç myolm ihvh vatnkm.
52 Your judgments I bring to remembrance from of old Yahweh and I comfort myself.
ng zlyph akztni mrwyim
yozbi tortç.
53 Yang of fire grasps me from the wicked,
forsaking your instruction.
nd zmirot hiu-li kuqiç bbit mgurii.
54 Yin of psalms your statutes have become to me in the house where I am guest.
nh zcrti blilh wmç ihvh
vawmrh tortç.
55 Your name I have remembered in the night, Yahweh.
I have kept your instruction.
nv zat hiith-li
ci piqudiç nxrti.
56 You are mine,
for your precepts I have observed.
nz klqi ihvh amrti lwmor dbriç.
57 Chosen share, mine you are, Yahweh. I have promised to keep your word.
nk kiliti pniç bcl-lb
konni camrtç.
58 Craved have I your presence with a whole heart,
be gracious to me according to your promise.
n't kiwbti drcii
vawibh rglii al-ydotiç.
59 Considered have I my ways,
and turned my feet to your testimonies.
s kwti vla htmhmhti
lwmor mxvotiç.
60 Came quickly I did and I would not linger,
to keep your commandments.
sa kbli rwyim yivvduni
tortç la wckti.
61 Companies of the wicked continue around me.
Your instruction I have not forgotten.
sb kxot-lilh aqum lhodot lç
yl mwp'ti xdqç.
62 Come midnight I arise to give thanks to you,
over the judgments of your righteousness.
sg kbr ani lcl-awr irauç
ulwomri piqudiç.
63 Companion am I to all who fear you,
and are keepers of your precepts.
sd ksdç ihvh mlah harx kuqiç lmdni.
64 Covenant mercy yours, Yahweh, has filled the earth. Your statutes you will teach me.
sh 'tob ywit ym-ybdç
ihvh cdbrç.
65 Too well you have dealt with your servant,
Yahweh, through your word.
sv 'tub 'tym vdyt lmdni
ci bmxvotiç hamnti.
66 Teach me good taste and knowledge,
for in your commandments I have believed.
sz 'trm aynh ani wogg
vyth amrtç wmrti.
67 Time past, afflicted I was going astray,
but now your promise I have kept.
sk 'tob-ath um'tib lmdni kuqiç.
68 Too good are you and doing good. Teach me your statutes.
s't 'tplu ylii wqr zdim
ani bcl-lb axor piqudiç.
69 The presumptuous smear falsehood over me.
As for me, with a whole heart I will observe your precepts.
y 'tpw cklb libm
ani tortç wiywyti.
70 Their heart is grossly inert.
As for me, in your instruction I will revel.
ya 'tob-li ci-yuniti
lmyn almd kuqiç.
71 That I was afflicted is good for me,
so I will learn your statutes.
yb 'tob-li tort-piç
malpi zhb vcsf.
72 The instruction of your mouth is good to me,
more than thousands in gold and silver.
yg idiç ywuni viconnuni
hbinni valmdh mxvotiç.
73 Your hands have made me and established me.
Give me understanding and I will teach your commandments.
yd iraiç irauni viwmku
ci ldbrç ikltii.
74 Yes - those who fear you when they see me will be glad,
for of your word I have hoped.
yh idyti ihvh ci-xdq mwp'tiç
vamunh yinitni.
75 Yet I know Yahweh that righteous are your judgments,
and in faithfulness you afflicted me.
yv ihi-na ksdç lnkmni
camrtç lybdç.
76 Your mercy to comfort me, may it be,
according to your promise to your servant.
yz iboauni rkmiç vakih
ci-tortç wywuyii.
77 You will come to me in your compassion and I will live,
for your instruction is my revel.
yk ibowu zdim ci-wqr yivvtuni
ani awik bpiqudiç.
78 Yon presumptuous will be shamed for in falsehood they subverted me.
As for me, I will ponder on your precepts.
y't iwubu li iraiç
viodyi ydotiç.
79 You will let those who fear you turn to me,
and those knowing your testimonies.
p ihi-libi tmim bkuqiç
lmyn la abow.
80 Yea, let my heart be complete in your statutes,
so I will not be ashamed.
pa clth ltwuytç npwi
ldbrç ikltii.
81 Faints my being for your salvation.
Of your word I have hoped.
pb clu yinii lamrtç
lamor mtii tnkmni?
82 Faint my eyes for your promise,
saying, When will you comfort me?
pg ci-hiiti cnad bqi'tor
kuqiç la wckti.
83 For I have become like a bottle in vapour.
Your statutes I have not forgotten.
pd cmh imi-ybdç
mtii tywh brodpii mwp't?
84 For how are the days of your servant?
When will you do judgment against my persecutors?
ph cru-li zdim wikot
awr la ctortç.
85 For me the presumptuous dig ditches,
that are not of your instruction.
pv cl-mxvotiç amunh
wqr rdpuni yozrni.
86 Faithful are all your commandments.
In falsehood they persecute me. Help me.
pz cmy't ciluni barx
vani la-yzbti piqudiç.
87 For scarcely they consume me in the earth,
but as for me, I do not forsake your precepts.
pk cksdç kiini
vawmrh ydut piç.
88 For your mercy give me life,
and I will keep the testimony of your mouth.
p't lyolm ihvh
dbrç nixb bwmiim.
89 LORD (Yahweh) forever your word,
stands firm in heaven.
t ldor vdor amuntç
connt arx vtymod.
90 Lo from generation to generation is your faithfulness.
You established earth and she stands.
ta lmwp'tiç ymdu hiom
ci hcol ybdiç.
91 Living in your judgments they stand this day,
for they all are your servants.
tb luli tortç wywuyii
az abdti byonii.
92 Love, unless your instruction is my revel,
then I have perished in my poverty.
tg lyolm la-awck piqudiç
ci bm kiitni.
93 Let me never forget your precepts,
for in them you have made me live.
td lç-ani howiyni
ci piqudiç drwti.
94 Love, to you I myself belong, save me,
for your precepts I have searched out.
th li qivu rwyim labdni
ydotiç atbonn.
95 Lying in wait for me to make me perish are the wicked.
Your testimonies I will understand.
tv lcl-tclh raiti qx
rkbh mxvvtç maod.
96 Lo, to all consummation I saw an end.
Very spacious are your commandments.
tz mh-ahbti tortç
cl-hiom hia wikti.
97 My - how I love your instruction.
All the day long it is my pondering.
tk maoibii tkcmni mxvotç
ci lyolm hia-li.
98 Making me wiser than my enemies by your commandment,
for it is mine forever.
t't mcl-mlmdii hwclti
ci ydvotiç wikh li.
99 Midst all my teachers I have insight,
for your testimonies are my pondering.
q mzqnim atbonn
ci piqudiç nxrti.
100 More than the aged I understand,
for your precepts I have observed.
qa mcl-aork ry clati rglii
lmyn awmor dbrç.
101 Missing every path of evil I have restrained my feet,
so that I will keep your word.
qb mmwp'tiç la-srti
ci-ath horitni.
102 Mid your judgments I have not been stubborn,
for you yourself have instructed me.
qg mh-nmlxu lkici amrtç mdbw lpi.
103 More than gratifying to my palate, your promise than honey to my mouth.
qd mpiqudiç atbonn
yl cn wnati cl-aork wqr.
104 Minding your precepts I have discernment,
therefore I have hated every path of falsehood.
qh nr-lrgli dbrç
vaor lntibti.
105 Nigh a lamp to my feet is your word,
and light to my pathway.
qv nwbyti vaqiimh
lwmor mwp'ti xdqç.
106 Now I have sworn and I will arise to it,
to keep the judgments of your righteousness.
qz nyniti yd-maod
ihvh kiini cdbrç.
107 Near to much poverty am I, Yahweh.
Give me life according to your word.
qk ndbot pi rxh-na ihvh
umwp'tiç lmdni.
108 Now may you accept, Yahweh, the freewill offerings of my mouth,
and your judgments teach me.
q't npwi bcpi tmid
vtortç la wckti.
109 Now my being is in the palm of my hand continually,
and your instruction I have not forgotten.
qi ntnu rwyim pk li
umpiqudiç la tyiti.
110 Netted the wicked a snare for me,
but from your precepts I did not wander.
qia nklti ydvotiç lyolm
ci-wwon libi hmh.
111 Near are your testimonies, my inheritance forever,
for the joy of my heart are they.
qib n'titi libi lywot kuqiç lyolm yqb.
112 Nuanced have I my heart to do your statutes, forever with foot firmly planted.
qig sypim wnati
vtortç ahbti.
113 Schismatics I hate,
and your instruction I have loved.
qid stri umgini ath
ldbrç ikltii.
114 Secret mine and my shield are you.
Of your word I have hoped.
q'tv suru-mmni mryim
vaxrh mxvot alohii.
115 Stay from me, you evildoers,
for I will observe the commandments of my God.
q'tz somcni camrtç vakih
val-tbiwni mwbri.
116 Support me according to your promise so I will live.
Let me not be ashamed of my reliance.
qiz sydni vaivvwyh
vawyh bkuqiç tmid.
117 Sustain me and I will be saved,
and I will look to your statutes continually.
qik slit cl-wogim mkuqiç
ci-wqr trmitm.
118 Suspended have you all who stray from your statutes,
for falsehood is their deceit.
qi't sigim hwbt cl-rwyi-arx
lcn ahbti ydotiç.
119 Swill you eradicated all the wicked of the earth,
so I have loved your testimonies.
qc smr mpkdç bwri
ummwp'tiç irati.
120 Shivers from your dread my flesh,
and your judgments I fear.
qca ywiti mwp't vxdq
bl-tnikni lyowqii.
121 I have dealt judgment and righteousness.
Do not leave me to those oppressing me.
qcb yrob ybdç l'tob
al-iywquni zdim.
122 Insure your servant for good.
Do not let the presumptuous oppress me.
qcg yinii clu liwuytç
ulamrt xdqç.
123 I - I - my eyes - faint for your salvation,
and for the promise of your righteousness.
qcd ywh ym-ybdç cksdç vkuqiç lmdni.
124 I ask you to deal with your servant according to your mercy, and your statutes to teach me.
qch ybdç-ani hbinni
vadyh ydotiç.
125 I am your servant, let me understand,
that I may know your testimonies.
qcv yt lywot lihvh
hpru tortç.
126 It is time to act, Yahweh.
Your instruction they have thwarted.
qcz yl-cn ahbti mxvotiç
mzhb umpz.
127 I have loved your commandments therefore,
above gold and above pure gold.
qck yl-cn cl-piqvdi col iwrtii
cl-aork wqr wnati.
128 Indeed all your precepts, all I find upright.
Every path of falsehood I hate.
qc't plaot ydvotiç
yl-cn nxrtm npwi.
129 Plentiful of wonders are your testimonies,
therefore my being will observe them.
ql ptk dbriç iair mbin ptiim.
130 Penetration of your words gives light, giving understanding to the simple.
qla pi-pyrti vawaph
ci lmxvotiç iabti.
131 Parting mouth, gaping, I sigh heavily,
for to your commandments is my longing.
qlb pnh-alii vkonni
cmwp't laohbi wmç.
132 Put your face to me and be gracious to me,
for judgment to those who love your name.
qlg pymii hcn bamrtç
val-twl't-bi cl-aovn.
133 Prepare my footfalls in your promise,
and do not let any mischief dominate me.
qld pdni myowq adm
vawmrh piqudiç.
134 Pray ransom me from the oppression of a human,
and I will keep your precepts.
qlh pniç har bybdç
vlmdni at-kuqiç.
135 Pyre your face on your servant,
and teach me your statutes.
qlv plgi-mim irdu yinii
yl la-wmru tortç.
136 Pouring streams of waters descend from my eyes,
that they do not keep your instruction.
qlz xdiq ath ihvh
viwr mwp'tiç.
137 So righteous you are, Yahweh,
and upright are your judgments.
qlk xivvit xdq ydotiç
vamunh maod.
138 Set you have the righteousness of your testimonies,
and much faithfulness.
ql't ximttni qnati
ci-wcku dbriç xrii.
139 Stricken I was for my zeal,
for my foes forgot your words.
qm xruph amrtç maod vybdç ahbh.
140 Supremely refined is your promise and your servant loves it.
qma xyir anoci vnbzh
piqudiç la wckti.
141 Small am I and despised.
Your precepts I have not forgotten.
qmb xdqtç xdq lyolm
vtortç amt.
142 Saving righteousness, yours, is righteousness forever,
and your instruction is truth.
qmg xr-umxoq mxauni
mxvotiç wywuyii.
143 Strain and distress find me out.
Your commandments are my revel.
qmd xdq ydvotiç lyolm hbinni vakih.
144 Such righteousness of your testimonies forever let me understand, and I will live.
qmh qrati bcl-lb ynni ihvh kuqiç axorh.
145 Queried I with a whole heart, answer me Yahweh. Your statutes I will observe.
qmv qratiç howiyni
vawmrh ydotiç.
146 Queried I you, save me,
and I will keep your testimonies.
qmz qidmti bnwf vawvvyh
ldbrç ikltii.
147 Quested I in a twilight hour and I cried for help.
Of your word I have hoped.
qmk qidmv yinii awmurot
lwik bamrtç.
148 Quested my eyes in the night watches,
to ponder on your promise.
qm't qoli wmyh cksdç
ihvh cmwp'tiç kiini.
149 Quest of mine, hear for your mercy, Yahweh.
In your judgments give me life.
qn qrbu rodpi zimh
mtortç rkqu.
150 Quite near are those pursuing an agenda.
From your instruction they are distant.
qna qrob ath ihvh
vcl-mxvotiç amt.
151 Quite near are you, Yahweh,
and all your commandments are truth.
qnb qdm idyti mydotiç
ci lyolm isdtm.
152 Quite from of old I knew from your testimonies,
for you founded them forever.
qng rah-yonii vklxni
ci-tortç la wckti.
153 Regard my poverty and rescue me,
for your instruction I do not forget.
qnd ribh ribi ugalni
lamrtç kiini.
154 Reason my reason and redeem me.
Of your promise give me life.
qnh rkoq mrwyim iwuyh
ci kuqiç la drwu.
155 Remote from the wicked is salvation,
for your statutes they do not search out.
qnv rkmiç rbim ihvh
cmwp'tiç kiini.
156 Richly abundant are your compassions Yahweh.
According to your judgments give me life.
qnz rbim rodpii vxrii
mydvotiç la n'titi.
157 Running after me are many foes.
From your testimonies I do not swerve.
qnk raiti bogdim vatqo't'th
awr amrtç la wmru.
158 Regarding the treacherous I was upset,
that your promise they disregard.
qn't rah ci-piqudiç ahbti
ihvh cksdç kiini.
159 Regard for your precepts I love Yahweh.
According to your mercy give me life.
qs raw-dbrç amt
ulyolm cl-mwp't xdqç.
160 Right true is your word,
and forever is every judgment of your righteousness.
qsa wrim rdpuni kinm
umdbrç pkd libi.
161 Sultans persecute me for nothing,
but from your word my heart stands in dread.
qsb ww anoci yl-amrtç
cmoxa wll rb.
162 Singing I joy over your promise,
as finding abundant spoil.
qsg wqr wnati vatybh
tortç ahbti.
163 Scandal I hate and abhor.
Your instruction I love.
qsd wby biom hilltiç
yl mwp'ti xdqç.
164 Seven times a day do I praise you,
for the judgments of your righteousness.
qsh wlom rb laohbi tortç
vain-lmo mcwol.
165 Such abundant peace to those who love your instruction,
and there is for them no stumbling.
qsv wibrti liwuytç ihvh
umxvotiç ywiti.
166 Steadfast my reliance on your salvation Yahweh,
and your commandments I have done.
qsz wmrh npwi ydotiç
vaohbm maod.
167 Shelters my being your testimonies,
and I love them much.
qsk wmrti piqudiç vydotiç
ci cl-drcii ngdç.
168 So I shelter your precepts and your testimonies,
for all my ways are before you.
qs't tqrb rinti lpniç ihvh
cdbrç hbinni.
169 To your presence let my shout of joy come near, Yahweh.
According to your word, give me understanding.
qy tboa tkinti lpniç
camrtç hxilni.
170 To your presence let my supplication come.
According to your promise deliver me.
qya tbynh wptii thilh
ci tlmdni kuqiç.
171 Tumbling from my lips is praise,
for you have taught me your statutes.
qyb tyn lwoni amrtç
ci cl-mxvotiç xdq.
172 Tongue of mine will answer your promise,
for all your commandments are righteous.
qyg thi-idç lyozrni
ci piqudiç bkrti.
173 There your hand will be to help me,
for your precepts I have chosen.
qyd tabti liwuytç ihvh
vtortç wywuyii.
174 To your salvation I have longed to come, Yahweh,
and your instruction is my revel.
qyh tki-npwi uthllç
umwp'tiç iyzruni.
175 To live let my being and it will praise you,
and from your judgments you will help me.
qyv tyiti cwh aobd bqw ybdç
ci mxvotiç la wckti.
176 Time and again I wander like a newborn lamb that is perishing. Seek your servant,
for your commandments I do not forget.

Monday 27 April 2020

THink Issue 5

This magazine may be worth a read. I have enjoyed them before. I was struck by C.S. Lewis's comment that they cite in the email notice:
In 1939, CS Lewis preached to a group of students in Oxford about the value of scholarship for a nation being tested: “The war creates no absolutely new situation,” he said, “it simply aggravates the permanent human situation so that we can no longer ignore it. Human life has always been lived on the edge of a precipice...
I have been busy with simulated Hebrew - processing the 'defective' WLC to see the 'rules' behind the modern 'full' spelling versions of Hebrew (without vowel points but with additional yods and vavs and for sim Hebrew the odd o and u). More to come...

Monday 20 April 2020

SimHebrew by Stem

Here are all the uses of לצד in Jeremiah. Just for an exercise as I examine SimHebrew.
Where I have an established word (Right hand column), you can see the difference between just converting consonants (sim cons) and actually deriving the SimHebrew from the Leningrad Codex.

BookChVsWLC Derived
TranslationGlossSim consEst Sim
JEREMIAH526כִּי־נִמְצְא֥וּ בְעַמִּ֖י רְשָׁעִ֑ים
יָשׁוּר֙ כְּשַׁ֣ךְ יְקוּשִׁ֔ים הִצִּ֥יבוּ מַשְׁחִ֖ית אֲנָשִׁ֥ים יִלְכֹּֽדוּ
ci-nmxau bymi rwyim
iwur cwç iquwiim hxibu mwkit anwim ilcodu
For the wicked are found in my people.
They scrutinize subsidies as traps. They stand firm impairing. They catch persons.
ילכדו they catchilcdv(not available if blank)
JEREMIAH611וְאֵת֩ חֲמַ֨ת יְהוָ֤ה ׀ מָלֵ֙אתִי֙ נִלְאֵ֣יתִי הָכִ֔יל שְׁפֹ֤ךְ עַל־עוֹלָל֙ בַּח֔וּץ וְעַ֛ל ס֥וֹד בַּחוּרִ֖ים יַחְדָּ֑ו
כִּֽי־גַם־אִ֤ישׁ עִם־אִשָּׁה֙ יִלָּכֵ֔דוּ זָקֵ֖ן עִם־מְלֵ֥א יָמִֽים
vat kmt ihvh mlatii nlaiti hcil wpoç yl-yoll bkux vyl sod bkurim ikdiv
ci-gm-aiw ym-aiwh ilocdu zqn ym-mla imim
So with the heat of Yahweh I am filled. I am exasperated with abiding from pouring out over the progeny in the street, and over the council of the chosen together.
For even man with woman will be caught, the old with one who is full of days.
ילכדו will be caughtilcdv
JEREMIAH89הֹבִ֣ישׁוּ חֲכָמִ֔ים חַ֖תּוּ וַיִּלָּכֵ֑דוּ
הִנֵּ֤ה בִדְבַר־יְהוָה֙ מָאָ֔סוּ וְחָכְמַֽת־מֶ֖ה לָהֶֽם
hobiwu kcmim ktu vilocdu
hnh bdbr-ihvh masu vkcmt-mh lhm
Ashamed are the shrewd, dismayed, but they are caught out.
Behold, in the word of Yahweh, they refused, so what is shrewdness for them?
וילכדו but they are caught outvilcdv
JEREMIAH1822תִּשָּׁמַ֤ע זְעָקָה֙ מִבָּ֣תֵּיהֶ֔ם כִּֽי־תָבִ֧יא עֲלֵיהֶ֛ם גְּד֖וּד פִּתְאֹ֑ם
כִּֽי־כָר֤וּ שׁוּחָה֙ לְלָכְדֵ֔נִי וּפַחִ֖ים טָמְנ֥וּ לְרַגְלָֽי
twmy zyqh mbtihm ci-tbia ylihm gdud ptaom
ci-cru wukh llocdni upkim 'tmnu lrgli
Let an appeal be heard from their houses when you bring upon them a raiding party suddenly,
for they have dug a ditch to catch me, and snares they have buried for my feet.
ללכדני to catch mellcdni
JEREMIAH323אֲשֶׁ֣ר כְּלָא֔וֹ צִדְקִיָּ֥הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר
מַדּוּעַ֩ אַתָּ֨ה נִבָּ֜א לֵאמֹ֗ר כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה הִנְנִ֨י נֹתֵ֜ן אֶת־הָעִ֥יר הַזֹּ֛את בְּיַ֥ד מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֖ל וּלְכָדָֽהּ
awr clao xdqiihu mlç-ihudh lamor
mduy ath niba lamor ch amr ihvh hnni notn at-hyir hzat bid mlç-bbl ulcdh
Zedekiah king of Judah had been happy to restrain him, saying,
For what purpose are you to prophesy, saying, Thus says Yahweh, Note me well giving this city into the hand of the king of Babel, and he will conquer it?
ולכדה and he will conquer itvlcdhulcdh
JEREMIAH3224הִנֵּ֣ה הַסֹּלְל֗וֹת בָּ֣אוּ הָעִיר֮ לְלָכְדָהּ֒ וְהָעִ֣יר נִתְּנָ֗ה בְּיַ֤ד הַכַּשְׂדִּים֙ הַנִּלְחָמִ֣ים עָלֶ֔יהָ מִפְּנֵ֛י הַחֶ֥רֶב וְהָרָעָ֖ב וְהַדָּ֑בֶר
וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֛רְתָּ הָיָ֖ה וְהִנְּךָ֥ רֹאֶֽה
hnh hsollot bau hyir llocdh vhyir nitnh bid hcwdim hnlkmim ylih mpni hkrb vhryb vhdbr
vawr dibrt hih vhnç roah
Behold the ramps. They enter the city to conquer it, and the city is given into the hand of the Chaldeans that fight against it, in the face of the sword and the famine and the pestilence.
And what you have spoken has happened. Here you are, seeing.
ללכדה to conquer itllcdhllocdh
JEREMIAH3228לָכֵ֕ן כֹּ֖ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה
הִנְנִ֣י נֹתֵן֩ אֶת־הָעִ֨יר הַזֹּ֜את בְּיַ֣ד הַכַּשְׂדִּ֗ים וּבְיַ֛ד נְבֽוּכַדְרֶאצַּ֥ר מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֖ל וּלְכָדָֽהּ
lcn ch amr ihvh
hnni notn at-hyir hzat bid hcwdim ubid nbucdraxr mlç-bbl ulcdh
Therefore thus says Yahweh, Note me well, giving this city into the hand of the Chaldeans and into the hand of Nebukadretsar, king of Babel,
and he will conquer it.
ולכדה and he will conquer itvlcdhulcdh
JEREMIAH3422הִנְנִ֨י מְצַוֶּ֜ה נְאֻם־יְהוָ֗ה וַהֲשִׁ֨בֹתִ֜ים אֶל־הָעִ֤יר הַזֹּאת֙ וְנִלְחֲמ֣וּ עָלֶ֔יהָ וּלְכָד֖וּהָ וּשְׂרָפֻ֣הָ בָאֵ֑שׁ
וְאֶת־עָרֵ֧י יְהוּדָ֛ה אֶתֵּ֥ן שְׁמָמָ֖ה מֵאֵ֥ין יֹשֵֽׁב
hnni mxvvh naum-ihvh vhwibotim al-hyir hzat vnilkmu ylih ulcduh uwrpuh baw
vat-yri ihudh atn wmmh main iowb
Note me well, a command, an oracle of Yahweh. And I will have them return against this city, and they will fight against it and conquer it, and he will incinerate it in the fire,
and the cities of Judah I will consign to desolation, without inhabitant.
ולכדוה and conquer itvlcdvh
JEREMIAH378וְשָׁ֙בוּ֙ הַכַּשְׂדִּ֔ים וְנִלְחֲמ֖וּ עַל־הָעִ֣יר הַזֹּ֑את
וּלְכָדֻ֖הָ וּשְׂרָפֻ֥הָ בָאֵֽשׁ
vwbu hcwdim vnilkmu yl-hyir hzat
ulcduh uwrpuh baw
And the Chaldeans will return, and they will fight this city,
and they will conquer it, and will incinerate it in the fire.
ולכדה and they will conquer itvlcdh
JEREMIAH383כֹּ֖ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה
הִנָּתֹ֨ן תִּנָּתֵ֜ן הָעִ֣יר הַזֹּ֗את בְּיַ֛ד חֵ֥יל מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֖ל וּלְכָדָֽהּ
ch amr ihvh
hinton tintn hyir hzat bid kil mlç-bbl ulcdh
Thus says Yahweh,
This city is given into the hand of the force of the king of Babel, and he will conquer it.
ולכדה and he will conquer itvlcdh
JEREMIAH3828וַיֵּ֤שֶׁב יִרְמְיָ֙הוּ֙ בַּחֲצַ֣ר הַמַּטָּרָ֔ה עַד־י֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־נִלְכְּדָ֣ה יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וְהָיָ֕ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר נִלְכְּדָ֖ה יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם
viwb irmihu bkxr hm'trh yd-iom awr-nlcdh iruwlim
vhiih cawr nlcdh iruwlim
And Jeremiah settled in the court of the cell until the day that Jerusalem was conquered.
And there he was when Jerusalem was conquered.
נלכדה was conquerednlcdh
JEREMIAH3828וַיֵּ֤שֶׁב יִרְמְיָ֙הוּ֙ בַּחֲצַ֣ר הַמַּטָּרָ֔ה עַד־י֖וֹם אֲשֶׁר־נִלְכְּדָ֣ה יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וְהָיָ֕ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר נִלְכְּדָ֖ה יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם
viwb irmihu bkxr hm'trh yd-iom awr-nlcdh iruwlim
vhiih cawr nlcdh iruwlim
And Jeremiah settled in the court of the cell until the day that Jerusalem was conquered.
And there he was when Jerusalem was conquered.
נלכדה was conquerednlcdh
JEREMIAH481לְמוֹאָ֡ב כֹּֽה־אָמַר֩ יְהוָ֨ה צְבָא֜וֹת אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל ה֤וֹי אֶל־נְבוֹ֙ כִּ֣י שֻׁדָּ֔דָה הֹבִ֥ישָׁה נִלְכְּדָ֖ה קִרְיָתָ֑יִם
הֹבִ֥ישָׁה הַמִּשְׂגָּ֖ב וָחָֽתָּה
lmoab ch-amr ihvh xbaot alohi iwral hoi al-nbo ci wuddh hobiwh nlcdh qiritiim
hobiwh hmwgb vkth
For Moab, thus says Yahweh of hosts, the God of Israel, Alas for Nebo, for she is devastated. Dried up, conquered is Qiryatym,
Dried up the retreat, and dismayed.
נלכדה conquered isnlcdh
JEREMIAH487כִּ֠י יַ֣עַן בִּטְחֵ֤ךְ בְּמַעֲשַׂ֙יִךְ֙ וּבְא֣וֹצְרוֹתַ֔יִךְ גַּם־אַ֖תְּ תִּלָּכֵ֑דִי
וְיָצָ֤א כְמוֹשׁ֙ בַּגּוֹלָ֔ה כֹּהֲנָ֥יו וְשָׂרָ֖יו יַחְדָּֽיו
ci iyn b'tkç bmywiç ubaoxrotiç gm-at tlocdi
vixa cmow bgolh cohniv vwriv ikdiv
For because you have trusted in your deeds and in your treasuries, even you will be caught.
And Kemosh will go forth into exile, his priests and his nobility together.
תלכדי you will be caughttlcdi
JEREMIAH4841נִלְכְּדָה֙ הַקְּרִיּ֔וֹת וְהַמְּצָד֖וֹת נִתְפָּ֑שָׂה
וְֽ֠הָיָה לֵ֞ב גִּבּוֹרֵ֤י מוֹאָב֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא כְּלֵ֖ב אִשָּׁ֥ה מְצֵרָֽה
nlcdh hqriiot vhmxdot ntpwh
vhiih lb gibori moab biom hhua clb aiwh mxrh
Conquered is Kirioth, and fortresses occupied.
And the heart of the valiant of Moab will be in that day like the heart of a woman in her anguish.
נלכדה conquered isnlcdh
JEREMIAH4844הַנָּ֞ס מִפְּנֵ֤י הַפַּ֙חַד֙ יִפֹּ֣ל אֶל־הַפַּ֔חַת וְהָֽעֹלֶה֙ מִן־הַפַּ֔חַת יִלָּכֵ֖ד בַּפָּ֑ח
כִּֽי־אָבִ֨יא אֵלֶ֧יהָ אֶל־מוֹאָ֛ב שְׁנַ֥ת פְּקֻדָּתָ֖ם נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה
hns mpni hpkd iipol al-hpkt vhyolh mn-hpkt ilocd bpk
ci-abia alih al-moab wnt pqudtm naum-ihvh
Who withdraws facing dread will fall into the crater. And who goes up from the crater will be caught in the snare.
For I will bring to her, to Moab, the year of their visitation. An oracle of Yahweh.
ילכד will be caughtilcd
JEREMIAH502הַגִּ֨ידוּ בַגּוֹיִ֤ם וְהַשְׁמִ֙יעוּ֙ וּֽשְׂאוּ־נֵ֔ס הַשְׁמִ֖יעוּ אַל־תְּכַחֵ֑דוּ
אִמְרוּ֩ נִלְכְּדָ֨ה בָבֶ֜ל הֹבִ֥ישׁ בֵּל֙ חַ֣ת מְרֹדָ֔ךְ הֹבִ֣ישׁוּ עֲצַבֶּ֔יהָ חַ֖תּוּ גִּלּוּלֶֽיהָ
hgidu bgoiim vhwmiyu uwau-ns hwmiyu al-tckdu
amru nlcdh bbl hobiw bl kt mrodç hobiwu yxbih ktu gilulih
Make it clear among the nations, and broadcast, and lift up a standard. Broadcast. do not conceal.
Say, Conquered is Babel. Dried up is Bel. Dismayed is Merodak. Ashamed are her idols, dismayed, her figurines.
נלכדה conquered isnlcdh
JEREMIAH509כִּ֣י הִנֵּ֣ה אָנֹכִ֡י מֵעִיר֩ וּמַעֲלֶ֨ה עַל־בָּבֶ֜ל קְהַל־גּוֹיִ֤ם גְּדֹלִים֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ צָפ֔וֹן וְעָ֣רְכוּ לָ֔הּ מִשָּׁ֖ם תִּלָּכֵ֑ד
חִצָּיו֙ כְּגִבּ֣וֹר מַשְׁכִּ֔יל לֹ֥א יָשׁ֖וּב רֵיקָֽם
ci hnh anoci myir umylh yl-bbl qhl-goiim gdolim marx xpon vyrcu lh mwm tlocd
kixiv cgibor mwcil la iwub riqm
For behold, I myself will arouse and will have the great congregation of nations come up against Babel from the land of the north, and they will arrange themselves for her. From there she will be conquered.
Their arrows will prevail, bereaving. None will turn empty.
תלכד she will be conqueredtlcd
JEREMIAH5024יָקֹ֨שְׁתִּי לָ֤ךְ וְגַם־נִלְכַּדְתְּ֙ בָּבֶ֔ל וְאַ֖תְּ לֹ֣א יָדָ֑עַתְּ
נִמְצֵאת֙ וְגַם־נִתְפַּ֔שְׂתְּ כִּ֥י בַֽיהוָ֖ה הִתְגָּרִֽית
iqowtii lç vgm-nlcdt bbl vat la idyt
nmxat vgm-ntpwt ci bihvh htgrit
I have entrapped you and even you are caught, O Babel, and you did not know.
You are found and even arrested, because in Yahweh you have meddled.
נלכדת you are caughtnlcdt
JEREMIAH5131רָ֤ץ לִקְרַאת־רָץ֙ יָר֔וּץ וּמַגִּ֖יד לִקְרַ֣את מַגִּ֑יד
לְהַגִּיד֙ לְמֶ֣לֶךְ בָּבֶ֔ל כִּֽי־נִלְכְּדָ֥ה עִיר֖וֹ מִקָּצֶֽה
rx lqrat-rx irux umgid lqrat mgid
lhgid lmlç bbl ci-nlcdh yiro mqxh
Footman races to encounter footman, and herald to encounter herald,
to make clear to the king Babel, that his city is conquered from the extremity,
נלכדה is conquerednlcdh
JEREMIAH5141אֵ֚יךְ נִלְכְּדָ֣ה שֵׁשַׁ֔ךְ וַתִּתָּפֵ֖שׂ תְּהִלַּ֣ת כָּל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
אֵ֣יךְ הָיְתָ֧ה לְשַׁמָּ֛ה בָּבֶ֖ל בַּגּוֹיִֽם
aiç nlcdh wwç vttpw thlt cl-harx
aiç hiith lwmh bbl bgoiim
How Sheshak is conquered, and the praise of all the earth arrested.
How Babel has become desolated among the nations.
נלכדה is conquerednlcdh
JEREMIAH5156כִּי֩ בָ֨א עָלֶ֤יהָ עַל־בָּבֶל֙ שׁוֹדֵ֔ד וְנִלְכְּדוּ֙ גִּבּוֹרֶ֔יהָ חִתְּתָ֖ה קַשְּׁתוֹתָ֑ם
כִּ֣י אֵ֧ל גְּמֻל֛וֹת יְהוָ֖ה שַׁלֵּ֥ם יְשַׁלֵּֽם
ci ba ylih yl-bbl wodd vnlcdu giborih ktth qwtotm
ci al gmulot ihvh wlm iwlm
For a devastator is going to her, against Babel, and her valiant are conquered. Dismayed are their bows,
for the God of rewards, Yahweh, he will repay.
ונלכדו and are conqueredvnlcdv