Tuesday 27 July 2021

Figuring out what Jesus accomplished

This past Sunday, my thoughts were brought back to the question of Jesus. If I had been called to do a homily on the reading and the lesson at Evensong, here's what I might have said.

I began this journey of translating the Old Testament in 2006. At the time I had buried myself in the New Testament in lots of ways, also using software to analyze parallel passages in the Gospels, using a diagramming tool to image the keywords of the epistle to the Hebrews, reading with intensity in Revelation and Romans, and generally putting up with my surface knowledge of the NT. I had read the OT of course and even studied the sacrificial system with the help of some excellent scholars, like Jacob and Jo Milgrom 20 years ago (2001) at a conference in Cambridge. 

(I cannot find a record of this Cambridge conference online any more except on this blog under the label Milgrom. How frail are our memories. And we have such a noisy electronic record. I am currently reading East-West Street, the origins of genocide and crimes against humanity. Philippe Sands creates the personal history of several protagonists from fragments of paper evidence out of the silence of the Shoah. A contrast in method.)

Having translated the Tanach, what then do I make of Jesus? When Peter jumped to his conclusion, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." what did he mean? (Uh - Bob you don't like that word mean.)

But I love what Jesus has demonstrated: exactly what is implied though not so easy to read in the Epistle to the Hebrews. Jesus shows what it 'means' - yes I will use that word here - to be a fully accountable 'son' of God. (Interesting that Matthew adds 'living' to God. There is something present about that word.)

What is this 'son'? Having now having had to read the OT (known to Judaism as the Tanach) in some detail, I extend son to signify child and thereby to include all sorts and conditions of humanity, girls as well as boys, and all the variations in body parts and capacities that are demonstrated in the human condition, able or not.

The 'sonship' - what I might like to call 'the fullness of being a child of the living God', is 'described' in the Epistle to the Hebrews, how this human learned to hear with God's voice. I was reminded of my obligation to explain what I thought about Jesus this past Sunday since I had to read at Evensong. The first reading was a reading from Ecclesiasticus 38 - I think that's right - (have I already forgotten) and the second lesson was Hebrews 8. I think I can say that the Mystery called me back to church for that one lesson.

I can scarcely call Ecclesiasticus more than a reading (text is below) - but it is interesting. It describes a religious separation between attaining wisdom by study of the Word of God, something that the writer claims requires leisure, and all the other professions in the world, like shepherding (David), herdsman (Amos), potter (even the Most High), maker of seals, and so on. Nevertheless, Ecclesiasticus describes our time, when the Word of God is the property of the cult and the scholar, rather than of the people. 

But Hebrews is a lesson. How does it describe how Jesus learned 'the fullness of being a child of God'? 

Hebrews clearly points to the Tanach, and particularly to the Psalms as the working out of 'our childhood' and our responsibilities to each other in our full set of communities. According to the writer to the Hebrews, whoever it was, specifically quotes the psalms as the conversation between Father and Son, Parent and Child, couched of course in the language and expectations of the time. 

In other words, the homilist who writes the letter claims that Jesus demonstrates this knowledge of the conversation in the Psalms and lives his 'sonship', maturing and informed through the Psalms. (To be fair to Ecclesiasticus, the writer of chapter 38 does point to the Psalms as well, once to Psalms 1:2.)

Here is the list of the psalms used in Hebrews: (extracted from my book Seeing the Psalter, 2010)

  • Psalms 2:7, Hebrews 1:5, 5:5;
  • Psalms 8:5-7, Hebrews 2:6-9;
  • Psalms 22:23, Hebrews 2:12;
  • Psalms 40:6-8, Hebrews 10:5-7;
  • Psalms 45:7-8, Hebrews 1:8-9;
  • Psalms 50:14, Hebrews 13:15;
  • Psalms 56:11, Hebrews 13:6;
  • Psalms 95:7-11, Hebrews 3:7-11, 15, 4:7, 4:3-5;
  • Psalms 97:7, Hebrews 1:6;
  • Psalms 102:25-26, Hebrews 1:10-12;
  • Psalms 104:4, Hebrews 1:7;
  • Psalms 110:4, Hebrews 5:6, 7:17, 21;
  • Psalms 118:6, Hebrews 13:6;
  • Psalms 135:14, Hebrews 10:30.

Or for another view, here is the usage in the sequence of chapters in the homily called the letter to the Hebrews:

  • Psalms 2:7, Hebrews 1:5, 5:5;
  • Psalms 97:7, Hebrews 1:6;
  • Psalms 104:4, Hebrews 1:7;
  • Psalms 45:7-8, Hebrews 1:8-9;
  • Psalms 102:25-26, Hebrews 1:10-12;
  • Psalms 8:5-7, Hebrews 2:6-9;
  • Psalms 22:23, Hebrews 2:12;
  • Psalms 95:7-11, Hebrews 3:7-11, 15, 4:7, 4:3-5;
  • Psalms 110:4, Hebrews 5:6, 7:17, 21;
  • Psalms 40:6-8, Hebrews 10:5-7;
  • Psalms 135:14, Hebrews 10:30.
  • Psalms 50:14, Hebrews 13:15;
  • Psalms 56:11, Hebrews 13:6;
  • Psalms 118:6, Hebrews 13:6;
When I saw this 15 years ago, (it was presented as such in the conference in 2006), I knew I had to learn the psalms in the language that Jesus would have read them in. It's a long journey. Clearly, the psalms are the backbone of the epistle. What is learned through the epistle is also to be learned through the psalms and through the instruction that they address. The psalms are the canonical commentary on Torah and the Prophets. And these too are for our learning how to become a fully matured child of the Creator.

As we did on this blog and on Christopher's blog these past 3-4 months, Jesus too would have heard the voice of the oppressed, as the words of God, in the words of the Psalms.

It was not an 'opportunity of leisure', but I was given the opportunity over the last 15 years of studying the instruction 'of the Most High'. (Not law - that religious morphing of the root for throw or shoot (irh) is a hurtful and misleading translation; torh is derived from irh.)

My point: we must together become like this one who gave himself for others. I know there is a theology behind the NT that lies in opposition to a human view of this Jesus. But God is living, with us, in us. The point is that Jesus was in a living conversation with his Source. And so also can we be. Then we will become who we must be. Is this gift only for 'Christians'? God forbid. This gift is for everyone, bar none. 

No one needs to change religions to read Tanach, and particularly the Psalms, and learn wisdom (or the NT). No one needs to reduce these words to 'meaning' when the sense of them is demonstrated in a human life. 

All of us need to come to our senses, and leave behind the innumerable bindings that we impose on others. If we say we know what was accomplished by Jesus, let us show it then. It takes all of us in all our professions together, artisan and cleric alike, to do the work we are called to do.

The service is online here. (Begins about 10 minutes in.)

Ecclesiasticus 38: (not in the canon)
The wisdom of the scribe depends on the opportunity of leisure; only the one who has little business can become wise. How can one become wise who handles the plough, and who glories in the shaft of a goad, who drives oxen and is occupied with their work, and whose talk is about bulls?  He sets his heart on ploughing furrows, and he is careful about fodder for the heifers.  So it is with every artisan and master artisan who labours by night as well as by day; those who cut the signets of seals, each is diligent in making a great variety; they set their heart on painting a lifelike image, and they are careful to finish their work.  So it is with the smith, sitting by the anvil, intent on his ironwork; the breath of the fire melts his flesh, and he struggles with the heat of the furnace; the sound of the hammer deafens his ears, and his eyes are on the pattern of the object. He sets his heart on finishing his handiwork, and he is careful to complete its decoration.  So it is with is the potter sitting at his work and turning the wheel with his feet; he is always deeply concerned over his products, and he produces them in quantity.  He moulds the clay with his arm and makes it pliable with his feet; he sets his heart on finishing the glazing, and he takes care in firing the kiln.  All these rely on their hands, and all are skilful in their own work.  Without them no city can be inhabited, and wherever they live, they will not go hungry. Yet they are not sought out for the council of the people,  nor do they attain eminence in the public assembly. They do not sit in the judge’s seat, nor do they understand the decisions of the courts; they cannot expound discipline or judgement, and they are not found among the rulers.  But they maintain the fabric of the world, and their concern is for the exercise of their trade. How different the one who devotes himself to the study of the law of the Most High! 

Sunday 25 July 2021

Concordance and vowel patterns

 All 401 posts of the concordance have been refreshed. They now show the vowel pattern. I don't know about you, but I can now see and almost hear the SimHebrew as clearly, in fact more easily, than I can read the vowels of the square text. It's all there in the concordance and with some updated intro pages as well. The one on pronunciation is a copy of what I had on the SimHebrew Bible. That blog was one too many to handle so I have made it private. The concordance is a fixed set of pages - so only a slight regenerating pain when I have to change it. For the SimHebrew Bible, we won't use a blog apart from the few examples I have on this blog. You will need to buy the book. The wrappers are not yet finished. The Biblical text is done and designed, but we have the issue of getting just the right introductions and just the right set of 'helps' as appendices. And just the right set of acknowledgements etc.

The concordance will remain fully online. It is too useful as a teaching and analysis tool and the online format is perfect for it. It is my gift to y'all. It was not available anywhere in 2006 and now it is. 

< begin rant>The glossaries and dictionaries and analyses that I read when I began were like fighting with blankets in a nightmare. I met many people who learned just enough Hebrew to get through their exams for the ministry and then gave up with a sigh of relief. What a travesty for their learning. The 19th century analyses (the so-called Strong's numbers) have infected the learning of the last 2 centuries. All this exposure of a badly defined identifier is an atrocious way of teaching a language. A language can never live if you turn it into a bunch of numbers. (Unless you are writing AI speech recognition, but that's a different story.) </end rant>

Enough negatives. With the vowel patterns exposed, I think a little selective analysis will reveal some useful grammatical results. By all means study ctb again.

For instance: 

actbnh_e_:_:a_e_a_1אֶכְתֲּבֶ֑נָּהI will write it

Just look at the simplicity: the first /a/ in actbnh carries and _e_ vowel, the c carries a schwa, the t carries a lesser a vowel, the suffix is joined to the root ctb with a vowel pattern.

I expect to find consistent rules for forming vowel patterns, of course for the binyanim (conjugations  building blocks for verbs) and also for the prefixes and suffixes. I know, I could get them all from Lambdin or Gesenius or any of the many other online grammars, but just imagine if I were able to make it easier to learn with SimHebrew! To the point where you could read without the vowels. (That's not quite possible since there will be ambiguities, but when we can identify them, then perhaps we will know the language a little better.)

Notice too how actbnh is on a rest! You know where it's from, it's a unique form in Jeremiah 31. Just look at it.
Jeremiah 31:33

This was referred to in the lesson at Evensong today in Hebrews 8. Now there's a coincidence...

Moses may break the tablets, but God will write the law on their hearts. (Of course we all know how to break hearts!)

Thursday 22 July 2021

Last Months' carnivals

 I missed the carnival this month. Must have been too preoccupied. Here it is from Jim West.

And the prior month from The Library Musings: here.

Looks like I missed #181 too here.

A brief on the SimHebrew Bible

We have prepared an introduction to the SimHebrew Bible. This brief is not a final product but a necessary preliminary to the problem of creating a preface for the whole Bible. The text of the Bible is complete from the Hebrew point of view. Two complementary approaches have converged on a single result, each confirming the other.

Now what needs to be said?

First that the beauty of the text cannot be known well if it remains unread. It is somewhat valuable to read in translation, but we all should know that there are thousands of competing translations on the market today. The translation committees seem to have disbursed into social media. One can learn from these of course, but one cannot check out their claims and assumptions without some knowledge of the architecture and the music of the Hebrew language. That's where SimHebrew comes into the picture. It allows a non-Hebrew specialist to read the Hebrew accurately. And there is full online support from a complete SimHebrew concordance.

My English translation is also complete and has been lived with and adjusted for 3 years now.

Where is the writer of today who can justify his works the way the King James translators justified theirs?

• 1 Another thing we think good to admonish thee of, gentle reader, that we have not tied ourselves to an uniformity of phrasing, or to an identity of words, as some peradventure would wish that we had done, because they observe that some learned men somewhere have been as exact as they could that way.

• 2 Truly, that we might not vary from the sense of that which we had translated before, if the word signified the same thing in both places [πολυσημα.] (for there be some words that be not of the same sense everywhere) we were especially careful, and made a conscience, according to our duty.

• 3 But that we should express the same notion in the same particular word; as, for example, if we translate the Hebrew or Greek word once by purpose, never to call it intent; if one where journeying, never travelling; if one where think, never suppose; if one where pain, never ache; if one where joy, never gladness, etc.;

• 4 thus to mince the matter, we thought to savour more of curiosity than wisdom, and that rather it would breed scorn in the atheist than bring profit to the godly reader.

• 5 For is the kingdom of God become words or syllables?

• 6 Why should we be in bondage to them, if we may be free? use one precisely when we may use another no less fit as commodiously?

What shall I say, gentle reader, "Give me a break!" This section is fine for 16th century English literary effects, but that's not the way a Hebrew writer thought. How can you hear or see architecture when the sound in the host language does not mimic deliberately repeated sounds in the guest language?

Doubtless there is polysemy in Hebrew, but for one example among hundreds if not more than a thousand English lemmas, goi, which I gloss as nation, is not a polysemic word unless the translator or committee impose additional senses onto it, as the KJV does when it includes Gentile, heathen, and people, as synonyms. These synonyms are interpretive in 17th century culture. Besides this translation error, the failure to use a consistent gloss in this case obscures significant structural connections in the text (as we have seen in our recent study of Psalms 8-10).

I love their archaic purpose for amr, but today we might not be understood. You can see all my polysemic choices and my careful combing out of the tangled glosses of the authorized versions in the concordance, their hair not like a troop of she-goats curled up on the hillside of Gilead.

wir hwirim d Song 4
a hnç iph ryiiti hnç iph yiniiç ionim mbyd lxmtç
wyrç cydr hyizim wglwu mhr glyd
d:-3, h:-6, i:-12, c:-6, l:-3, m:-5, n:-4, y:-7, r:-4, w:-3,
gl: 2, hn: 2, nc: 3, ph: 2, ry: 1, yd: 3, yr: 1,
1 Just look at you, beautiful, my friend. Just look at you, beautiful, your eyes doves from within your headscarf,
your hair like a troop of she-goats curled up on the hillside of Gilead.

The brief is no longer available for review. If you would like to comment or write an intro or a blurb, or assist with graphic design or anything else, be sure to get in touch @drmacdonald.

Monday 19 July 2021

Testing a concordance page with a vowels column

Here's what a sample page of the concordance might look like if I include the vowels. Of course this page contains the typical verb ctb. Do you think this might be useful? Any thoughts on how to make it a bit more compact? Note how the combinations of columns clearly shows where the qamats becomes an 'o' rather than an 'a' vowel.

ctb Speak actbnh1_e_:_:a_e_a_ אֶכְתֲּבֶ֑נָּהI will write itlbJer 31:33(20)
actob1_e_:_a_ אֶ֨כְתָּבI writeHos 8:12(1)
bcotbo1_:_a_:_o בְּכָתְבוֹ֩when he had writtennrihJer 45:1(10)
bctb4_i_:_a_ בִּכְתָ֗בin the writing ofklq2Chr 35:4(5)
בִּכְתָ֛בin writingcl1Chr 28:19(2)
בִּכְתָ֔בin writingxvr2Chr 2:10(5)
בִּכְתָ֖בin the writtenrwmDan 10:21(6)
bctob1_i_:_o_ בִּכְת֣וֹבwhen he inscribessprPsa 87:6(3)
bctubim1_a-_:_u_i_ בַּכְּתֻבִ֔יםamong those writtenhmNum 11:26(15)
bmctb2_:_i_:_a_ ־בְּמִכְתָּ֖בin writinggmEzr 1:1(23) 2Chr 36:22(23)
hcotbim1_a-_o_:_i_ הַכֹּתְבִ֖יםthat wroteyvdJer 32:12(16)
hctb2_a-_:_a_ הַכְּתָ֗בthe writingprwgnEst 3:14(2) Est 8:13(2)
hctub8_a-_a_u_ ־הַכָּת֔וּבthat is writtenclJos 23:6(7)
־הַכָּת֖וּבthat is writtenclJos 8:34(11)
־הַכָּת֖וּבthe writingclJos 1:8(15) 2Chr 34:21(32)
־הַכָּת֥וּבthat is writtencl2Kgs 22:13(35)
־הַכָּת֥וּבthose writtenclIsa 4:3(10)
־הַכָּתוּב֙that is writtenclJer 25:13(13) 1Chr 16:40(11)
hctubh4_a-_:_u_a_ הַכְּתוּבָ֖הwrittenalhDeu 29:19(18)
הַכְּתוּבָ֕הwrittenbritDeu 29:20(10)
הַכְּתוּבָ֕הthose writtenkqDeu 30:10(9)
הַכְּתוּבָ֖הwrittenqllDeu 29:26(11)
hctubot1_a-_:_u_o_ הַכְּתוּב֣וֹתthat are writtenalh2Chr 34:24(15)
hctubim6_a-_:_u_i_ הַכְּתֻבִ֖יםwrittenalhJer 51:60(17)
הַכְּתוּבִ֨יםwrittenalh1Chr 4:41(3)
הַכְּתוּבִ֖יםwrittenbrit2Chr 34:31(26)
הַכְּתֻבִ֖יםthat is writtenzat2Kgs 23:3(28)
הַכְּתוּבִ֖יםwrittenzatDeu 28:58(10)
הַכְּתֻבִ֣יםthat were writtentvrh2Kgs 23:24(25)
vactob2_:_e_:_o_ וְאֶכְתֹּב֙and I will writeDeu 10:2(1)
וָאֶכְתֹּ֤בand I wroteJer 32:10(1)
ubctb1u_i_:_a_ וּבִכְתָ֤בand in the writing ofhihEze 13:9(13)
ubmctb1u_:_i_:_a-_ וּבְמִכְתַּ֖בand in the writing ofiwral2Chr 35:4(9)
vhmctb1_:_a-_i_:_a_ וְהַמִּכְתָּ֗בand the writinghmExo 32:16(5)
viictb6_a-_i_a_ei_ וַיִּכָּתֵ֣בand they wrotebEst 3:12(10) Est 8:9(14)
וַיִּכָּתֵ֥בand was writtenclEzr 8:34(4)
וַיִּכָּתֵ֗בand it was writtenyxEst 2:23(8)
וְיִכָּתֵ֛בand be writtenpnhEst 1:19(9)
וַ֠יִּכָּתֵבand was inscribedwmyMal 3:16(11)
viictbun1_:_i_a_:_u_ וְיִכָּתְב֣וּןso may be writtenphJob 19:23(4)
victbu2_:_i_:_:_u וְיִכְתְּב֥וּand they will describearxJos 18:4(10)
וַיִּכְתְּב֣וּand they wrote'thrExo 39:30(8)
victbuh1_a-_i_:_:_u_a וַיִּכְתְּב֧וּהָand described itarxJos 18:9(5)
victbm3_a-_i_:_:_ei_ וַֽיִּכְתְּבֵ֔םand he wrote themdbrDeu 4:13(11)
וַֽיִּכְתְּבֵ֗םand he wrote themispDeu 5:22(18)
וַֽיִּכְתְּבֵ֡םand wrote them1Chr 24:6(1)
victob19_a-_i_:_o_ וַיִּכְתֹּ֥בthat wrotebqr2Sa 11:14(3)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֣בand he wrotemlc1Sa 10:25(8)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֨בand wrotenrihJer 36:4(7)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֤בand he wrotesprJer 36:32(11)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֨בand he describedwalJdg 8:14(6)
וַיִּכְתֹּב֩and wrotewmrvn2Kgs 10:1(5)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֣בand he inscribedwthExo 34:28(15)
וַיִּכְתָּבand he wroteJos 8:32(1)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֗בand he wroteEst 8:10(1)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֣בand he wrote2Kgs 10:6(1)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֣בand wroteExo 24:4(1) Deu 31:9(1) Jer 51:60(1)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֣בso wroteEst 9:20(1)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֤בand wroteJos 24:26(1)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֥בand he wrote2Sa 11:15(1)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֥בand inscribedDeu 31:22(1)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֨בand he inscribedDeu 10:4(1)
וַיִּכְתֹּ֨בand wroteNum 33:2(1)
vcotbim1_:_o_:_i_ וְכֹתְבִ֑יםand writtenamnNeh 10:1(6)
vctb4_:_a_a-_ וְכָ֨תַבand he writesakrDeu 24:3(4)
וְכָ֨תַבthen let him writedbrDeu 24:1(17)
וְכָ֨תַבthat he will writemlcDeu 17:18(6)
uctb1u_:_a_ וּכְתָב֙and the writing ofprsEzr 4:7(13)
vctb4_:_a_a-_ וְ֠כָתַבand will writeNum 5:23(1)
uctba1u_:_a_a_ וּכְתָבָ֥אand the writing isidDan 5:24(8)
vctbu1_:_i_:_u וְכִתְב֤וּand describearxJos 18:8(15)
vctbn1_:_a_:_a_ וְכָֽתְבָן֙and they wroteanvwDan 5:5(8)
vctbt3_:_a_a-_:_a וְכָתַבְתָּ֣and writesprJer 36:2(5)
וְכָתַבְתָּ֣and you will writeDeu 27:3(1) Deu 27:8(1)
vctbti1_:_a_a-_:_i וְכָתַבְתִּי֙and I will writerawExo 34:1(11)
uctbtm2u_:_a-_:_a_ וּכְתַבְתָּ֛םand you will write themDeu 6:9(1) Deu 11:20(1)
uctob5u_:_o_ וּכְת֣וֹבand writeakdEze 37:16(17)
וּכְתֹ֤בand writeakdEze 37:16(8)
vctub2_:_a_u_ וְכָת֣וּבand writtenakvrEze 2:10(8)
uctob5u_:_o_ וּכְתֹ֣בand writeakrJer 36:28(6)
וּכְתֹ֖בand writeatEze 43:11(22)
וּכְתֹ֤בand writegdlIsa 8:1(8)
vctub2_:_a_u_ וְכָת֥וּבand wrotekpxEccl 12:10(6)
vctob1_:_a_o_ וְכָת֨וֹבand writeqnhJer 32:44(4)
uctobt1u_:_o_e_ וּכְתֹ֣בֶתand writingbwrLev 19:28(6)
umctbim1u_:_a-_:_i_ וּֽמְכַתְּבִ֥יםand those who inscribeavnIsa 10:1(5)
vnctb1_:_i_:_a_ וְנִכְתָּ֖בand it is writtenalhEst 9:32(7)
vtctob3_a-_i_:_o_ וַ֠תִּכְתֹּבand wroteEst 9:29(1)
וַתִּכְתֹּ֤בand she wrote1Kgs 21:8(1)
וַתִּכְתֹּ֥בand she wrote1Kgs 21:9(1)
iictb2_i_a_ei_ יִכָּתֵ֖בlet it be written'tvbEst 3:9(5)
יִכָּתֵ֞בlet it be writtenyinEst 8:5(17)
iictbu4_i_a_ei_u ־יִכָּתֵֽבוּlet them be writtenalPsa 69:29(7)
יִכָּתֵ֔בוּwill be writtenarxJer 17:13(9)
יִכָּ֫תֵ֥בוּwere writtenclPsa 139:16(7)
יִכָּתֵ֔בוּthey will be writtenlaEze 13:9(17)
ictbm1_i_:_:_ei_ יִכְתְּבֵֽםcould describe themnyrIsa 10:19(7)
ictob1_i_:_o_ יִכְתֹּ֤בwill inscribezhIsa 44:5(10)
cotb1_o_ei_ כֹּתֵ֥בwroteaniJer 36:18(12)
cotbh1_a_:_a_ כָתְבָ֥הּwritebvaIsa 30:8(3)
cotbm2_a_:_ei_ כָּ֝תְבֵ֗םwrite themaxbyPro 7:3(4)
כָּ֝תְבֵ֗םwrite themgrrPro 3:3(8)
citbu1_i_ei_u כִּתֵּֽבוּfor their inscriptionsymlIsa 10:1(7)
cctb1_i_:_a_ כִּכְתָ֖בas written inirvwlmEzr 6:18(11)
cctbh3_i_:_a_a_ כִּכְתָבָ֔הּaccording to its writingdinEst 1:22(10) Est 3:12(30) Est 8:9(36)
cctbm2_i_:_a_a_ כִּכְתָבָ֖םaccording to their writingalhEst 9:27(19)
כִּכְתָבָ֖םaccording to their writingihvdiEst 8:9(42)
cctub16_a-_a_u_ כַּכָּת֕וּבas it is writtenalvh2Kgs 23:21(11)
כַּכָּת֖וּבas it is writtenalvhNeh 10:35(23)
כַּכָּת֖וּבas it is writtenbhmhNeh 10:37(5)
כַכָּת֑וּבas it is writtenbl2Chr 30:18(16)
כַּכָּת֖וּבare as writtenksd2Chr 35:26(5)
כַּכָּת֖וּבas it is writtenihvh2Chr 35:12(11)
כַּכָּת֛וּבas it is writtenihvh2Chr 23:18(18)
כַּכָּת֖וּבas are writteniyd2Chr 31:3(13)
כַּכָּתוּב֙as it is writteniwralJos 8:31(9)
כַכָּת֣וּבas it is writtenci2Chr 25:4(6)
כַּכָּת֣וּבas it is writtenmvt2Kgs 14:6(6)
כַּכָּת֑וּבas it is writtensccEzr 3:4(5)
כַּכָּתֽוּבas it is writtensccNeh 8:15(26)
כַּכָּת֖וּבas it is writtenydh1Kgs 2:3(13)
כַּכָּת֕וּבas it is writtenylhEzr 3:2(19)
כַּכָּתֽוּבas it is writtenywh2Chr 30:5(22)
cmctb1_a-_i_:_a_ כַּמִּכְתָּ֣בlike inscriptionlvkDeu 10:4(4)
ctb14_a_a-_ כָּתַב֙wroteagra2Chr 30:1(9)
כָּתַ֛בwroteakr2Chr 26:22(6)
כָּתַ֨בwroteartkwwtaEzr 4:7(3)
־כָּתַ֥בhad writtenawrEst 9:23(9)
כָּתַ֔בhe wroteawrJos 8:32(10)
כָּתַ֗בhe wroteawrEst 8:5(27)
כָּתַ֣בhe wroteawr2Kgs 17:37(8)
כָּתַ֥בwroteawrJer 36:27(14)
כְתַ֔בhe wroteklmDan 7:1(15)
־כְתָ֞בthe writingciEst 8:8(13)
כְתָֽבrequisitionlaEzr 7:22(20)
כְּ֠תַבwrotemlcDan 6:26(4)
כָּ֝תַ֗בhad writtensprJob 31:35(11)
כָּתַ֔בhe wrotespr2Chr 32:17(2)
ctba7_:_a_a_ כְּתָבָא֙the writingbrmDan 5:17(14)
כְתָבָ֖אthe writingdnDan 5:25(2)
כְּתָבָ֜אthe writingiclDan 5:16(13)
כְּתָבָא֙the writingiclDan 5:8(8)
כְּתָבָ֑אthe writingrwmDan 6:9(6)
כְּתָבָ֖אthe writingrwmDan 6:10(7)
כְּתָבָא֙the writingrwmDan 6:11(6)
ctbh3_:_a_a_ ־כְתָבָ֤הwritingdiDan 5:15(7)
כָתְבָֽהwrotediDan 5:5(23)
כְּתָבָ֣הwritingqrhDan 5:7(18)
ctbu5_i_:_u כִּתְב֨וּyou writeatmEst 8:8(2)
כִּתְב֞וּwriteihvhJer 22:30(4)
כָּתְב֣וּthey wrotemlcEzr 4:6(5)
כְּתַ֛בוּwrotesprEzr 4:8(6)
כִּתְב֤וּyou writeythDeu 31:19(2)
ctbm2_:_a_a_ כְתָבָ֛םtheir registerbqwEzr 2:62(3) Neh 7:64(3)
ctbt4_a_a-_:_a כָּתַ֛בְתָּyou have writtenaicJer 36:17(9)
־כָּתַֽבְתָּyou have writtenawrJer 36:6(6)
כָּתָֽבְתָּyou have writtenawrExo 32:32(11)
כָּתַ֨בְתָּhave you writtenmdvyJer 36:29(16)
ctbti2_a_a-_:_i כָּתַ֖בְתִּיI have writtenawrExo 24:12(18)
כָתַ֣בְתִּיhave I writtenlaPro 22:20(2)
ctob6_:_a_ כְּתָבwriteadmEze 24:2(3)
כְּת֣וֹבwriteamrHab 2:2(4)
כְּתָבwriteamrJer 30:2(7)
ctub12_a_u_ כָּתוּב֙inscribedawr1Kgs 21:11(14) Dan 9:13(2)
כָת֔וּבis inscribedlaDeu 28:61(8)
כָת֗וּבinscribedmxaEst 6:2(2)
כָּת֣וּבinscribedmxaNeh 8:14(2) Neh 13:1(9)
כָּת֥וּבinscribedmxaDan 12:1(28) Neh 7:5(19)
ctob6_:_a_ כְּתָבwritemwhExo 34:27(5)
כְּתֹ֨בwritemwhExo 17:14(5)
ctub12_a_u_ כָּת֥וּבwas inscribed innwtvnEzr 4:7(15)
כָּת֥וּבis inscribedsprPsa 40:8(7)
ctob6_:_a_ כְּתָֽבthe writing ofprwgnEst 4:8(3)
ctub12_a_u_ כָּת֗וּבinscribedwp'tPsa 149:9(4)
כָּת֣וּבwrittenNeh 6:6(1)
ctubh6_:_u_a_ כְּתוּבָה֙is writtenawrDan 9:11(15)
כְתוּבָ֖הwas writtenhiaEze 2:10(5)
כְתוּבָ֖הwrittenhiaJos 10:13(11)
כְתוּבָ֖הit is writtenhnh2Sa 1:18(7) Isa 65:6(2)
כְּתוּבָ֛הis writtenihvdhJer 17:1(3)
ctubim57_:_u_i_ כְּתוּבִ֕יםare writtenabNeh 12:23(5)
כְּתֻבִ֖יםwrittenabnExo 31:18(14) Deu 9:10(8)
כְּתוּבִ֕יםare writtendbr2Chr 13:22(6)
כְתוּבִ֗יםwrittenhm1Kgs 14:29(9) 1Kgs 15:23(15) 2Kgs 1:18(8)
כְּתֻבִ֔יםare writtenhm1Kgs 11:41(10)
כְּתֻבִֽיםare writtenhmExo 32:15(17)
כְּתוּבִ֗יםwrittenhm1Kgs 15:7(9) 1Kgs 15:31(9) 1Kgs 16:5(9) 1Kgs 16:14(9) 1Kgs 16:20(9) 1Kgs 16:27(11) 1Kgs 22:39(17) 1Kgs 22:46(11) 2Kgs 8:23(9) 2Kgs 10:34(11) 2Kgs 12:20(9) 2Kgs 13:8(10) 2Kgs 13:12(16) 2Kgs 14:15(15) 2Kgs 14:18(6) 2Kgs 14:28(20) 2Kgs 15:6(9) 2Kgs 15:21(9) 2Kgs 15:36(8) 2Kgs 16:19(8) 2Kgs 20:20(18) 2Kgs 21:17(12) 2Kgs 21:25(8) 2Kgs 23:28(9) 2Kgs 24:5(9) Est 10:2(13) 2Chr 9:29(8)
כְּתוּבִ֜יםwrittenhm2Chr 12:15(7)
כְּתֻבִ֗יםthey are writtenhnh2Kgs 15:15(8)
כְּתוּבִ֔יםare writtenhnh2Chr 28:26(8)
כְּתוּבִ֔יםit is writtenhnh1Chr 9:1(5)
כְּתוּבִ֔יםwrittenhnh2Chr 24:27(9) 2Chr 25:26(8) 2Chr 27:7(8) 2Chr 33:19(18) 2Chr 35:27(5)
כְּתוּבִ֖יםwrittenhnh2Chr 35:25(19)
כְּתוּבִ֗יםthey are writtenhnh2Kgs 15:11(5) 2Kgs 15:26(8) 2Kgs 15:31(8)
כְּתוּבִ֗יםwrittenhnh1Kgs 14:19(9) 1Chr 29:29(7) 2Chr 20:34(7) 2Chr 32:32(6) 2Chr 36:8(10)
כְּתוּבִים֙writtenhnh2Chr 16:11(7)
כְּתוּבִ֖יםinscribed asidvyNeh 12:22(7)
כְּתֻבִים֙writtenlvkExo 32:15(11)
ctib2_:_i_ כְּתִ֣יבwrittendnEzr 5:7(5)
־כְּתִ֥יבwrittencnEzr 6:2(10)
lctob2_i_:_o_ לִכְתֹּ֨בto describehlcJos 18:8(8)
לִכְתֹּ֛בwritingmwhDeu 31:24(4)
mctb4_i_:_a_ מִכְתָּ֔בwritingal2Chr 21:12(3)
מִכְתַּ֤בwas the writing ofctbExo 32:16(6)
מִכְתַּב֙writingylExo 39:30(10)
מִכְתָּ֖בthe writing ofIsa 38:9(1)
nctb2_i_:_a_ נִכְתָּ֔בit was writtenakwvrvwEst 3:12(37)
־נִכְתָּ֣בis writtenawrEst 8:8(15)
nctub1_i_:_u_ נִכְתֻּ֥בwe will writediEzr 5:10(7)
nctm1_i_:_a_ נִכְתָּ֤םinscribedbrrJer 2:22(8)
tictb1_i_a_e_ תִּכָּ֣תֶבwill be writtenPsa 102:19(1)
tctbu1_i_:_:_u תִּכְתְּב֤וּwill describeatJos 18:6(2)
tctob4_i_:_o_ תִּכְתֹּ֖בyou will writeahrnNum 17:18(4)
־תִּכְתֹּ֧בyou wroteawrEze 37:20(4)
־תִכְתֹּ֣בyou writeciJob 13:26(2)
תִּכְתֹּ֖בyou will writewmNum 17:17(22)
ctim Location citiim2_i_ii_ כִתִּיִּים֙KittimaiJer 2:10(4)
כִּתִּיִּֽיםKittimaiEze 27:6(11)
citim4_i_i_ כִּתִּ֖יםKittimarxIsa 23:1(11)
כִּתִּ֔יםKittimidNum 24:24(3)
כִּתִּים֙KittimxiDan 11:30(4)
כִּתִּים֙KittimxidvnIsa 23:12(10)
Person citim2_i_i_ כִּתִּ֖יםKittimtrwwGen 10:4(5) 1Chr 1:7(5)
ctl City bcutlia1_:_u_:_a-_a_ בְּכֻתְלַיָּ֑אin its embankmentswvmEzr 5:8(17)
cotlnu1_a_:_ei_u כָּתְלֵ֔נוּour embankmentakrSong 2:9(11)
ctl1_:_a-_ ־כְתַ֥לthe embankment ofdiDan 5:5(14)
ctliw Location vctliw1_:_i_:_i_ וְכִתְלִֽישׁand KitlishkmsJos 15:40(3)
ctm Speak bctm4_:_e_e_ בְּכֶ֥תֶםin the finest goldkgrDan 10:5(12)
בְּכֶ֣תֶםin the fine gold ofimnPsa 45:10(7)
בְּכֶ֥תֶםin fine goldcvwJob 28:19(5)
בְּכֶ֣תֶםin the fine gold ofslhJob 28:16(3)
hctm1_a-_e_e_ הַכֶּ֣תֶםthe finest goldwnaLam 4:1(5)
vlctm1_:_a-_e_e_ וְ֝לַכֶּ֗תֶםor to fine goldcslJob 31:24(5)
ctm2_a_e_ ־כָ֑תֶםfine goldklhPro 25:12(4)
כֶּ֣תֶםis fine goldrawSong 5:11(2)
mctm7_i_e_e_ מִכֶּ֥תֶםthan the finest gold ofadmIsa 13:12(5)
מִ֫כְתָּ֥םa miktamdvdPsa 59:1(5)
מִכְתָּ֑םa miktamdvdPsa 56:1(7) Psa 57:1(5)
מִכְתָּֽםa miktamdvdPsa 58:1(5)
מִכְתָּ֖םa miktamyvdPsa 60:1(5)
מִכְתָּ֥םFrom gold, concerning atonement, through inscriptionPsa 16:1(1)
ctn Clothe bcutonotm1_:_u_:a_o_a_ בְּכֻתֳּנֹתָ֔םin their coatsnwaLev 10:5(3)
hcutont3_a-_u_o_e_ ־הַכֻּתֹּ֔נֶתthe coatatExo 29:5(8)
־הַכֻּתֹּ֖נֶתthe coatatGen 37:31(10)
־הַכֻּתֹּ֗נֶתthe coatatLev 8:7(4)
hcotnot1_a-_a_:_o_ ־הַכָּתְנֹ֥תcoats ofatExo 39:27(3)
hctont2_a-_:_o_e_ הַכְּתֹ֧נֶתthe coat ofnaGen 37:32(13)
הַכְּתֹ֣נֶתthe coats ofwbxExo 28:39(2)
vcotnot2_:_a_:_o_ וְכָתְנֹ֥תand coatsalpEzr 2:69(14) Neh 7:71(12)
uctont1u_:_o_e_ וּכְתֹ֧נֶתand coatraw2Sa 13:19(6)
cutonot4_u_:a_o_ כֻּתֳּנֹֽתcoatsatExo 40:14(6)
כֻּתֳּנֹֽתcoatslbwExo 29:8(5)
כֻּתֳּנֹת֙coatslbwLev 8:13(7)
כֻתֳּנֹ֔תcoatsywhExo 28:40(4)
cutonto2_u_a_:_o ־כֻּתָּנְתּ֔וֹfrom his coatatGen 37:23(11)
כֻּתָּנְתּ֔וֹhis coatqry2Sa 15:32(15)
cutonti2_u_a_:_i ־כֻּתָּנְתִּ֔יmy coatatSong 5:3(3)
כֻתָּנְתִּ֣יmy coatphJob 30:18(6)
cutontç1_u_a_:_e_a כֻּתָּנְתֶּ֗ךָyour coatlbwIsa 22:21(2)
cotnot2_a_:_o_ כָּתְנ֥וֹתcoats ofawhGen 3:21(6)
כָּתְנוֹת֙coatskmwNeh 7:69(14)
ctont7_:_o_e_ כְּתֹ֣נֶתthe coat ofamrGen 37:33(3)
־כְּתֹ֣נֶתcoatatGen 37:31(3) Gen 37:32(3)
־כְּתֹ֥נֶתcoatatGen 37:23(13)
כְּתֹ֥נֶתa coatlGen 37:3(14)
כְּתֹ֣נֶתa coatyl2Sa 13:18(2)
כְּתֹֽנֶתa coat ofLev 16:4(1)
ctp Bodypart bctf3_a-_a_ei_ בַּכָּתֵ֑ףon a shouldernwa2Chr 35:3(23)
בְכָתֵ֤ףon the shoulder ofyvpIsa 11:14(2)
בַּכָּתֵ֖ףon a shoulderylNum 7:9(9)
bctpm1_i_:_ei_a_ בִּכְתֵפָ֥םon their shouldersihvh1Chr 15:15(12)
hctf4_a-_a_ei_ ־הַכָּתֵ֑ףthe shoulderalExo 38:14(6)
־הַכָּתֵ֣ףthe shoulderalEze 40:40(2) Eze 40:40(11)
־הַכָּתֵ֖ףthe shouldermnEze 47:2(18)
hctpot1_a-_:_ei_o_ הַכְּתֵפֹ֣תthe shoulder-bracketscvr1Kgs 7:30(14)
ubctf1u_:_a_ei_ וּבְכָתֵף֙and with shoulderxdEze 34:21(3)
uctont1u_:_o_e_ וּכְתֹ֥נֶתand a shoulder-strapmyilExo 28:4(8)
vctf1_:_a_ei_ וְכָתֵ֑ףand shoulderircEze 24:4(8)
vctpot1_:_i_:_o_ וְכִתְפ֣וֹתand the shoulder ofamhEze 41:2(5)
vlctf2_:_a-_a_ei_ וְלַכָּתֵ֣ףand for shoulderExo 38:15(1)
וְלַכָּתֵף֙and for shoulderExo 27:15(1)
ctf29_e_e_ ־כֶּ֙תֶף֙the shoulder ofalEze 40:44(10) Eze 40:44(18)
־כֶּ֣תֶףthe shoulder ofalJos 15:11(4) Jos 18:19(4) Eze 40:18(3)
־כֶּ֤תֶףshoulderalJos 15:8(7)
־כֶּ֤תֶףthe shoulder ofalJos 18:13(6) Jos 18:16(20)
־כֶּ֥תֶףshoulder ofal1Kgs 6:8(5)
־כֶּ֥תֶףthe shoulder ofalJos 18:18(3)
־כֶּ֧תֶףthe shoulder ofalJos 15:10(10)
־כֶּ֨תֶףthe shoulder ofalJos 18:12(11)
־כָּתֵ֤ףa shoulderalEze 12:12(5)
־כֶּ֤תֶףthe shoulder ofatEze 25:9(5)
־כָּתֵ֑ףshoulderclEze 29:7(8)
־כָּתֵ֖ףshoulderclEze 29:18(17)
כָתֵ֖ףa shoulderntnZec 7:11(4)
כָתֵף֙a shoulderntnNeh 9:29(20)
־כֶּ֤תֶףshoulder ofyd2Kgs 11:11(10) 2Chr 23:10(12)
־כֶּ֣תֶףthe shoulder ofylEze 46:19(5)
־כֶּ֤תֶףthe shoulder ofyl1Kgs 7:39(6)
־כֶּ֥תֶףthe shoulder ofylNum 34:11(11) 1Kgs 7:39(11)
־כֶּ֨תֶףthe shoulder ofylIsa 30:6(15)
־כָּתֵ֤ףa shoulderylEze 12:6(3)
־כָּתֵ֥ףa shoulderylIsa 49:22(19)
־כָּתֵ֥ףthe shoulderylEze 12:7(18)
־כָּתֵ֨ףa shoulderylIsa 46:7(3)
ctpot11_i_:_o_ ־כִּתְפ֖וֹתthe shoulders ofalEze 41:26(7)
־כִּתְפ֥וֹתthe shoulders ofylExo 28:25(12)
־כִּתְפֹ֥תthe shoulder-straps ofylExo 39:18(12)
כִּתְפֹ֣תthe shoulder-straps ofylExo 28:12(6) Exo 39:7(4)
כְּתֵפֹ֣תshoulder-bracketspym1Kgs 7:30(10)
כְּתֵפ֔וֹתshoulder-bracketsrby1Kgs 7:34(2)
כְתֵפֹ֣תshoulderswnhExo 28:7(2)
כִתְפ֨וֹתshoulders ofwnhExo 28:27(9)
כִתְפֹ֨תthe shoulder-straps ofwnhExo 39:20(8)
כְּתֵפֹ֥תshouldersExo 39:4(1)
ctpi1_:_ei_i כְּ֭תֵפִיmy shoulderJob 31:22(1)
ctpih1_:_ei_e_a כְּתֵפֶֽיהָits shouldercvn1Kgs 7:34(10)
ctpiv4_:_ei_a_ כְּתֵיפָ֖יוhis shouldersbinDeu 33:12(13)
כְּתֵפָֽיוhis shouldersbin1Sa 17:6(8)
־כְּתֵפָ֑יוhis shouldersylJdg 16:3(20)
כְתֵפָ֖יוhis shoulderswnhExo 28:12(20)
lctf2_:_e_e_ לְכֶ֣תֶףof the shoulder ofphEze 40:41(7)
לַכָּתֵ֑ףfor the shoulderqlyExo 27:14(5)
mctf5_i_e_e_ מִכֶּ֨תֶףfrom shoulder ofid2Kgs 11:11(6) 2Chr 23:10(8)
מִכֶּ֧תֶףon the shoulder ofntn2Chr 4:10(4)
מִכֶּ֨תֶףon shoulder ofntn1Kgs 7:39(17)
מִכֶּ֤תֶףthe shoulder oftktEze 47:1(19)
ctr Protect bctr1_:_e_e_ בְּכֶ֣תֶרin a diademmlcEst 1:11(7)
hcotrot6_a-_o_a_o_ ־הַכֹּֽתָרֹת֙the diademsat1Kgs 7:18(12)
הַכֹּֽתָר֔וֹתthe diademsglh2Chr 4:12(15) 2Chr 4:13(16)
הַכֹּֽתָרֹ֔תthe diademsglh1Kgs 7:41(16) 1Kgs 7:42(16)
הַכֹּתָרֹ֛תthe diademsglh1Kgs 7:41(4)
hcotrt3_a-_o_e_e_ הַכֹּתֶ֥רֶתdiademyl1Kgs 7:20(17)
הַכֹּתֶ֣רֶתdiademqvm1Kgs 7:16(13)
הַכֹּתֶ֥רֶתdiademqvm1Kgs 7:16(18)
vhcotrot1_:_a-_o_a_o_ וְהַכֹּתָר֛וֹתand the diademsglh2Chr 4:12(4)
vcotrot2_:_o_a_o_ וְכֹֽתָרֹ֗תand the diadems1Kgs 7:19(1)
וְכֹתָרֹ֗תand the diadems1Kgs 7:20(1)
vcotrt2_:_o_e_e_ וְכֹתֶ֨רֶתand encirclingakd2Kgs 25:17(7)
וְכֹתֶ֨רֶתand encirclingJer 52:22(1)
ictiru2_a-_:_i_u יַכְתִּ֣רוּlet encirclebPsa 142:8(8)
יַכְתִּ֥רוּlet encircleyrmPro 14:18(5)
cotrot1_o_a_o_ כֹתָרֹ֜תdiademswnh1Kgs 7:16(2)
citru1_i_:_u כִּתְּר֤וּthey encircledJdg 20:43(1)
citruni1_i_:_u_i כִּתְּרֽוּנִיencircled mebwnPsa 22:13(6)
ctr3_e_e_ כֶּ֥תֶרa diademntnEst 6:8(15)
כֶּֽתֶרa diademwvmEst 2:17(14)
כַּתַּרencircleJob 36:2(1)
lcotrot1_a-_o_a_o_ לַכֹּ֣תָרֹ֔תfor the diademswrwrh1Kgs 7:17(7)
lcotrt4_a-_o_e_e_ לַכֹּתֶ֤רֶתof the diadembit1Kgs 7:31(3)
לַכֹּתֶ֖רֶתfor diademywh1Kgs 7:18(19)
לַכֹּתֶ֣רֶתfor diademwby1Kgs 7:17(13)
לַכֹּתֶ֥רֶתfor diademwby1Kgs 7:17(16)
mctir1_a-_:_i_ מַכְתִּ֣ירencirclesrwyHab 1:4(11)
ctw Work bmctw1_a-_a-_:_ei_ בַּֽמַּכְתֵּ֡שׁin a crumbleravilPro 27:22(5)
tctow1_i_:_o_ תִּכְתּֽוֹשׁyou crumbleamPro 27:22(2)
ctt Destroy bmcitto1_i_:_i_a_o בִמְכִתָּתוֹ֙from its beatingmxaIsa 30:14(10)
vacot1_a_e_o_ וָאֶכֹּ֨תand I beatawDeu 9:21(11)
victu1_a-_a-_:_u וַֽיַּכְּת֥וּand they beatdbrDeu 1:44(12)
victum1_a-_a-_:_u_ וַֽיַּכְּת֖וּםand beat themnchNum 14:45(8)
vcuttu1_:_u_:_u וְכֻתְּת֥וּand they will beat2Chr 15:6(1)
vcitt1_:_i_a-_ וְכִתַּת֩and beatawrh2Kgs 18:4(11)
vcittu3_:_i_:_u וְכִתְּתוּ֙and they will beatmlcZec 11:6(20)
וְכִתְּת֨וּand they will beatrbIsa 2:4(7)
וְכִתְּת֨וּand they will beatrkqMic 4:3(10)
vctut1_:_a_u_ וְכָתוּת֙or the beatenmycLev 22:24(2)
vctoti1_:_a-_o_i וְכַתּוֹתִ֣יand I have beatenPsa 89:24(1)
iuct1_u_a-_ יֻכַּתthe beating ofwahIsa 24:12(5)
iuctu3_u_a-_u יֻכַּ֔תּוּbeatengbrJer 46:5(8)
יֻכַּ֑תּוּthey are beatenyrbJob 4:20(3)
יֻכַּ֗תּוּwill be beatenpslMic 1:7(3)
cotu1_o_u כֹּ֤תּוּbeatJoe 4:10(1)
citt1_i_a-_ כִּתַּ֣תhad beatenpsl2Chr 34:7(7)
ctut1_a_u_ כָּת֖וּתbeatenixrIsa 30:14(5)
ctit5_a_i_ כָּתִ֖יתbeatenzchExo 27:20(11) Lev 24:2(10)
כָּתִ֑יתbeatenwmn1Kgs 5:25(13)
כָּתִ֖יתbeatenwmnNum 28:5(7)
כָּתִית֙beatenwmnExo 29:40(5)

Total for ct is: 448. Updated: 2021.07.20