Wednesday, August 22, 2018

Deuteronomy 24

It's been a while since we have read from Deuteronomy. We have 71 chapters left at the time I am writing, 2 from Exodus, 1 from Leviticus and 4 from the 17 others I have not yet completed. It really is a very long poke to read the whole of Tanakh. It is even longer for some Christian traditions that include other books in their canon.

verse 1 - a bill of divorce - this phrase is a 16th century commonplace so we hardly think about it. I have already used divorce for גרשׁ. The stem is כרת cut (for a covenant) or in this case cut off. The bill is ספר, a book, a record. I haven't used bill but it doesn't seem necessary to use it here.

What is it that offends? We don't know. The word is vague, something דבר exposed (ערה related to nakedness). דבר also may be pestilence. So there could be an illness of some sort. But that is not the point. The point is in verses 2 to 4.

Verse 6 is another stark use of נפשׁ. JB has life itself, NIV livelihood (too individual in this case). JB's ambiguity is a good move here. The business serves the worker, the owner, and the community. Their lives are the נפשׁ in view. Our case law in the west is highly individualized in our thoughts. At the same time, a pledge must target the one who benefits from the loan. There is an individual, but its life is never sufficient to itself. With my rules, I cannot use life, even with itself as modifier. I leave these words and verses for days sometimes as I think about my options.

Verse 7 uses נפשׁ in a completely different way. JB uses kidnap. Nice move. Here it is the question of slavery or making merchandise of one's kin. I have left this verse in the neuter pronouns. The נפשׁ in question may have already been a cadaver. This could cover enforced organ donations today.

Verse 9 seems an out of the blue precedent in this case law (Numbers 12). Why bring Miriam into the example? Yet it illustrates how to learn from the text, by reasoning with its components.

Verse 10 - every move here with my concordance rules is difficult. I see a repetition of pledge in some translations. I looked in vain for a recurring stem. I thought perhaps the precedent in verse 9 was surrounded, but it is not. Word recurrence can only be seen in the most concordant of translations. Most of its deliberate usage is in poetry. I must have decided that take / took was an acceptable compromise for נשא. So some earlier work can now allow that gloss. That decision has freed up fetch for verse 10.

The law in verse 16 is also cited in 2 Kings 14:6 and 2 Chronicles 25:4.

In the remainder of the chapter, the trio of guest, orphan, and widow is a theme. These three occur several times particularly in Deuteronomy (11). Note also Psalm 46:9, Yahweh's statement of character.

Deuteronomy 24 Fn Min Max Syll
כִּֽי־יִקַּ֥ח אִ֛ישׁ אִשָּׁ֖ה וּבְעָלָ֑הּ
וְהָיָ֞ה אִם־לֹ֧א תִמְצָא־חֵ֣ן בְּעֵינָ֗יו כִּי־מָ֤צָא בָהּ֙ עֶרְוַ֣ת דָּבָ֔ר וְכָ֨תַב לָ֜הּ סֵ֤פֶר כְּרִיתֻת֙ וְנָתַ֣ן בְּיָדָ֔הּ וְשִׁלְּחָ֖הּ מִבֵּיתֽוֹ
1 If a man takes a woman and marries her,
and it happens that she finds no grace in his eyes, for he has found in her something exposed, then let him write her a record of being cut off, to give into her hand, and let him send her from his house.
3c 4C 8
וְיָצְאָ֖ה מִבֵּית֑וֹ
וְהָלְכָ֖ה וְהָיְתָ֥ה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵֽר
2 And she will go out from his house.
And she may go and become another man's.
3e 4A 6
וּשְׂנֵאָהּ֮ הָאִ֣ישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן֒ וְכָ֨תַב לָ֜הּ סֵ֤פֶר כְּרִיתֻת֙ וְנָתַ֣ן בְּיָדָ֔הּ וְשִׁלְּחָ֖הּ מִבֵּית֑וֹ
א֣וֹ כִ֤י יָמוּת֙ הָאִ֣ישׁ הָאַחֲר֔וֹן אֲשֶׁר־לְקָחָ֥הּ ל֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה
3 And the other man hates her, and he writes her a record of being cut off to give into her hand, and he sends her from his house,
or if the other man dies who has taken her as his wife,
3e 4C 30
לֹא־יוּכַ֣ל בַּעְלָ֣הּ הָרִאשׁ֣וֹן אֲשֶֽׁר־שִׁ֠לְּחָהּ לָשׁ֨וּב לְקַחְתָּ֜הּ לִהְי֧וֹת ל֣וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֗ה אַחֲרֵי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֻטַּמָּ֔אָה כִּֽי־תוֹעֵבָ֥ה הִ֖וא לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
וְלֹ֤א תַחֲטִיא֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַחֲלָֽה
4 The first husband who sent her away can not return to take her to become his wife after she is unclean, for an abomination it is, in the presence of Yahweh.
And you will not make the land sin that Yahweh your God is giving to you as inheritance.
3c 4C 39
כִּֽי־יִקַּ֥ח אִישׁ֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה חֲדָשָׁ֔ה לֹ֤א יֵצֵא֙ בַּצָּבָ֔א וְלֹא־יַעֲבֹ֥ר עָלָ֖יו לְכָל־דָּבָ֑ר
נָקִ֞י יִהְיֶ֤ה לְבֵיתוֹ֙ שָׁנָ֣ה אֶחָ֔ת וְשִׂמַּ֖ח אֶת־אִשְׁתּ֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־לָקָֽח
5 If a man takes a new wife, he will not go out in the host, and he will not pass through against himself for any matter.
Exempt he will be for his house, one year, and let him make his wife glad whom he has taken.
3e 4C 24
לֹא־יַחֲבֹ֥ל רֵחַ֖יִם וָרָ֑כֶב
כִּי־נֶ֖פֶשׁ ה֥וּא חֹבֵֽל
6 You will not take in pledge both millstones or what they ride on,
for that takes a group as pledge.
3e 4A 8
כִּי־יִמָּצֵ֣א אִ֗ישׁ גֹּנֵ֨ב נֶ֤פֶשׁ מֵאֶחָיו֙ מִבְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְהִתְעַמֶּר־בּ֖וֹ וּמְכָר֑וֹ
וּמֵת֙ הַגַּנָּ֣ב הַה֔וּא וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ
7 If a person is found stealing anyone from its kin, from the children of Israel, and making it merchandise, and selling it,
then this thief will die, and you will shrive the evil from within you.
3e 4C 24
הִשָּׁ֧מֶר בְּנֶֽגַע־הַצָּרַ֛עַת לִשְׁמֹ֥ר מְאֹ֖ד וְלַעֲשׂ֑וֹת
כְּכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁר־יוֹר֨וּ אֶתְכֶ֜ם הַכֹּהֲנִ֧ים הַלְוִיִּ֛ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּיתִ֖ם תִּשְׁמְר֥וּ לַעֲשֽׂוֹת
8 Keep watch in the contagion of leprosy, to keep especially and do,
everything the priests, the Levites instruct you. As I commanded them, you will keep to do.
3c 4A 18
זָכ֕וֹר אֵ֧ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֛ה יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לְמִרְיָ֑ם
בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶ֥ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם
9 Remember what Yahweh your God did to Miriam,
in the journey, when you came out from Egypt.
3c 4A 16
כִּֽי־תַשֶּׁ֥ה בְרֵֽעֲךָ מַשַּׁ֣את מְא֑וּמָה
לֹא־תָבֹ֥א אֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ לַעֲבֹ֥ט עֲבֹטֽוֹ
10 If you give your associate credit with usury for anything whatever,
you will not come into his house to fetch his collateral.
3e 4B 11
בַּח֖וּץ תַּעֲמֹ֑ד
וְהָאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתָּה֙ נֹשֶׁ֣ה ב֔וֹ יוֹצִ֥יא אֵלֶ֛יךָ אֶֽת־הַעֲב֖וֹט הַחֽוּצָה
11 Outside you will stand.
And the person with whom you yourself contracted debt will bring forth to you the collateral outside.
3d 4C 5
וְאִם־אִ֥ישׁ עָנִ֖י ה֑וּא
לֹ֥א תִשְׁכַּ֖ב בַּעֲבֹטֽוֹ
12 And if that person is poor,
you will not lie down with the collateral.
3e 4A 6
הָשֵׁב֩ תָּשִׁ֨יב ל֤וֹ אֶֽת־הַעֲבוֹט֙ כְּבֹ֣א הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ וְשָׁכַ֥ב בְּשַׂלְמָת֖וֹ וּבֵֽרֲכֶ֑ךָּ
וּלְךָ֙ תִּהְיֶ֣ה צְדָקָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ
13 You will return and restore to him the collateral at the going down of the sun, that he may lie down in his own habit, and bless you.
And for you it will be righteousness in the presence of Yahweh your God.
3e 4C 26
לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁ֥ק שָׂכִ֖יר עָנִ֣י וְאֶבְי֑וֹן
מֵאַחֶ֕יךָ א֧וֹ מִגֵּרְךָ֛ אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּאַרְצְךָ֖ בִּשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ
14 You will not oppress a poor and needy wage-earner,
from your kin or from a guest who is in your land, in your gates.
3c 4B 10
בְּיוֹמוֹ֩ תִתֵּ֨ן שְׂכָר֜וֹ וְֽלֹא־תָב֧וֹא עָלָ֣יו הַשֶּׁ֗מֶשׁ כִּ֤י עָנִי֙ ה֔וּא וְאֵלָ֕יו ה֥וּא נֹשֵׂ֖א אֶת־נַפְשׁ֑וֹ
וְלֹֽא־יִקְרָ֤א עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא
15 By day you will give his wages, and the sun will not set upon it, for he is poor, and on it he himself lifts up his very self.
and let him not call against you to Yahweh, and it be in you, sin.
3c 4C 29
לֹֽא־יוּמְת֤וּ אָבוֹת֙ עַל־בָּנִ֔ים וּבָנִ֖ים לֹא־יוּמְת֣וּ עַל־אָב֑וֹת
אִ֥יש בְּחֶטְא֖וֹ יוּמָֽתוּ
16 You will not put to death fathers for children, nor will children be put to death for fathers.
Each in his sin will die.
3e 4C 17
לֹ֣א תַטֶּ֔ה מִשְׁפַּ֖ט גֵּ֣ר יָת֑וֹם
וְלֹ֣א תַחֲבֹ֔ל בֶּ֖גֶד אַלְמָנָֽה
17 B You will not bend judgment for a guest, or orphan,
and you will not take as pledge the garment of a widow.
3e 4B 8
וְזָכַרְתָּ֗ כִּ֣י עֶ֤בֶד הָיִ֙יתָ֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם וַֽיִּפְדְּךָ֛ יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מִשָּׁ֑ם
עַל־כֵּ֞ן אָנֹכִ֤י מְצַוְּךָ֙ לַעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֶת־הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּֽה
18 And remember that a servant you were in Egypt, and Yahweh your God ransomed you from there,
therefore I am commanding you to do this word.
3d 4C 25
כִּ֣י תִקְצֹר֩ קְצִֽירְךָ֨ בְשָׂדֶ֜ךָ וְשָֽׁכַחְתָּ֧ עֹ֣מֶר בַּשָּׂדֶ֗ה לֹ֤א תָשׁוּב֙ לְקַחְתּ֔וֹ לַגֵּ֛ר לַיָּת֥וֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָ֖ה יִהְיֶ֑ה
לְמַ֤עַן יְבָרֶכְךָ֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל מַעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָדֶֽיךָ
19 B When you reap your harvest in your field, and you forget a bale in the field, you will not return back to take it. For the guest, for the orphan, and for the widow it will be.
So that Yahweh your God will bless you in all the deeds of your hands.
3c 4C 37
כִּ֤י תַחְבֹּט֙ זֵֽיתְךָ֔ לֹ֥א תְפָאֵ֖ר אַחֲרֶ֑יךָ
לַגֵּ֛ר לַיָּת֥וֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָ֖ה יִהְיֶֽה
20 C When you beat out your olive tree, you will not comb again after you.
For the guest, for the orphan, and for the widow it will be.
3d 4C 13
כִּ֤י תִבְצֹר֙ כַּרְמְךָ֔ לֹ֥א תְעוֹלֵ֖ל אַחֲרֶ֑יךָ
לַגֵּ֛ר לַיָּת֥וֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָ֖ה יִהְיֶֽה
21 C When you gather grapes from your vineyard, you will not glean grapes after you.
For the guest, for the orphan, and for the widow it will be.
3d 4C 14
וְזָ֣כַרְתָּ֔ כִּי־עֶ֥בֶד הָיִ֖יתָ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם
עַל־כֵּ֞ן אָנֹכִ֤י מְצַוְּךָ֙ לַעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֶת־הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּֽה
22 And remember that a servant you were in the land of Egypt,
therefore I am commanding you to do this word.
3e 4C 15

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