Tuesday, November 10, 2015

Nahum

Nahum like Malachi has a load to deliver. Load (משא) is derived from the word used for lifting up or bearing (נשא) . There is much to be borne in these chapters. At times he addresses Nineveh directly and even encodes the country name (Ashur) in a verse (1:12). The text is choppy from a grammatical point of view and sometimes incoherent. The point of view and conversation partner may change without warning mid verse.

What is going on in chapter 2? Is that Nineveh or Jerusalem destroyed (verse 4)? REB has Yahweh restoring the pride of Jacob. I don't think so. Nineveh may be judged, but I wonder if it is a code name for the Holy city. Why is the pronoun in verse 4 masculine? Perhaps we will come back to this phrase 'pride of Jacob' - when we read Amos. And whose is the city of blood? (more on this perhaps after we have read Habakkuk).

Much of Nahum's load is disjointed and I have made little attempt to paper over the joints. Who is Nineveh? Who is the locust? (I don't know the etymology of the grub of grubs - the great grub of verse 3:17 - it's a rare combination of letters and great grub, grasshopper of grasshoppers, or whatever singular and plural, collective? - I am stumped at the moment.)

One could make a detailed study of animals in this text - lions (compare Job 4 with Nahum 2)
הוא is it
JOB 4:7הוא
כאשׁר for as
JOB 4:8אשׁר
אריה a lion's
JOB 4:10ארי
כפירים cubs'
JOB 4:10כפר
טרף prey
JOB 4:11טרף
לביא old lion's
JOB 4:11לביא
אשׁר that
JOB 4:19אשׁר
אריות lions'
NAH 2:12ארי
הוא that
NAH 2:12הוא
לכפרים for the cubs
NAH 2:12כפר
אשׁר where
NAH 2:12אשׁר
אריה lion
NAH 2:12ארי
לביא an old lion
NAH 2:12לביא
אריה a lion's
NAH 2:12ארי
אריה a lion
NAH 2:13ארי
טרף tore
NAH 2:13טרף
ללבאתיו for his old lions
NAH 2:13לביא
טרף with tearing
NAH 2:13טרף
טרפה with prey
NAH 2:13טרף
and locusts (Joel 1 with Nahum 3).
בימיכם in your days
JOE 1:2יום
בימי in the days of
JOE 1:2יום
אכל ate
JOE 1:4אכל
הארבה the locust
JOE 1:4ארבה
הארבה the locust
JOE 1:4ארבה
אכל ate
JOE 1:4אכל
הילק the pygmy
JOE 1:4ילק
הילק the pygmy
JOE 1:4ילק
אכל ate
JOE 1:4אכל
תאכלך will devour you
NAH 3:15אכל
תאכלך will devour you
NAH 3:15אכל
כילק cankerworm
NAH 3:15ילק
כילק as the cankerworm
NAH 3:15ילק
כארבה as the locust
NAH 3:15ארבה
ילק cankerworm
NAH 3:16ילק
כארבה are as locusts
NAH 3:17ארבה
ביום on a day
NAH 3:17יום
Hint - these are not just animals and bugs.

I have left object and verb in Hebrew order more frequently than usual. I may change style later but such a translation would fit the music better, if anyone wanted to do an underlay syllable by syllable in English. I can juxtapose automatically the English phrase with the music as a comment, but I don't know how I would go about syllabifying an English libretto for the music using automation.

In the middle of this turmoil is a reflection of Isaiah 52:7 (see next post).
How lovely on the hills the feet of one who publishes, broadcasting peace, one who publishes good, broadcasting salvation
saying to Zion, your God reigns.

Nahum 1
מַשָּׂ֖א נִֽינְוֵ֑ה
סֵ֧פֶר חֲז֛וֹן נַח֖וּם הָאֶלְקֹשִֽׁי
1 The load of Nineveh,
the record of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite.
אֵ֣ל קַנּ֤וֹא וְנֹקֵם֙ יְהוָ֔ה נֹקֵ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה וּבַ֣עַל חֵמָ֑ה
נֹקֵ֤ם יְהוָה֙ לְצָרָ֔יו וְנוֹטֵ֥ר ה֖וּא לְאֹיְבָֽיו
2 God is jealous and Yahweh is avenging. Yahweh is avenging and is husband of heat.
Yahweh is avenging to his adversaries and himself holds back to his enemies.
יְהֹוָ֗ה אֶ֤רֶךְ אַפַּ֙יִם֙ וּגְדָל כֹּ֔חַ וְנַקֵּ֖ה לֹ֣א יְנַקֶּ֑ה
יְהוָ֗ה בְּסוּפָ֤ה וּבִשְׂעָרָה֙ דַּרְכּ֔וֹ וְעָנָ֖ן אֲבַ֥ק רַגְלָֽיו
3 Yahweh is slow to anger but great in power and does not acquit or hold innocent.
Yahweh is in the storm-wind and in sweeping his way, and clouds are the powder of his feet.
גּוֹעֵ֤ר בַּיָּם֙ וַֽיַּבְּשֵׁ֔הוּ וְכָל הַנְּהָר֖וֹת הֶֽחֱרִ֑יב
אֻמְלַ֤ל בָּשָׁן֙ וְכַרְמֶ֔ל וּפֶ֥רַח לְבָנ֖וֹן אֻמְלָֽל
4 He rebukes the sea and dries it up, and all the rivers he drains,
Enfeebled are Bashan and Carmel. The brood of Lebanon is enfeebled.
הָרִים֙ רָעֲשׁ֣וּ מִמֶּ֔נּוּ וְהַגְּבָע֖וֹת הִתְמֹגָ֑גוּ
וַתִּשָּׂ֤א הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ מִפָּנָ֔יו וְתֵבֵ֖ל וְכָל יֹ֥שְׁבֵי בָֽהּ
5 Hills quaked from him, and the hillocks are undermined
and the earth is lifted up from his presence. Such is the world and all her inhabitants.
לִפְנֵ֤י זַעְמוֹ֙ מִ֣י יַֽעֲמ֔וֹד וּמִ֥י יָק֖וּם בַּחֲר֣וֹן אַפּ֑וֹ
חֲמָתוֹ֙ נִתְּכָ֣ה כָאֵ֔שׁ וְהַצֻּרִ֖ים נִתְּצ֥וּ מִמֶּֽנּוּ
6 In the face of his indignation who will stand and who will arise in the burning of his anger?
His heat is poured forth as fire, and the rocks are overcome from him.
ט֣וֹב יְהוָ֔ה לְמָע֖וֹז בְּי֣וֹם צָרָ֑ה
וְיֹדֵ֖עַ חֹ֥סֵי בֽוֹ
7 Yahweh is good for a stronghold in the day of trouble
and he knows those who take refuge in him.
וּבְשֶׁ֣טֶף עֹבֵ֔ר כָּלָ֖ה יַעֲשֶׂ֣ה מְקוֹמָ֑הּ
וְאֹיְבָ֖יו יְרַדֶּף חֹֽשֶׁךְ
8 And in the downpour of fury he will make a consuming end of her place
and his enemies, darkness will pursue.
מַה תְּחַשְּׁבוּן֙ אֶל יְהוָ֔ה כָּלָ֖ה ה֣וּא עֹשֶׂ֑ה
לֹֽא תָק֥וּם פַּעֲמַ֖יִם צָרָֽה
9 What do you reckon to Yahweh? A consuming end, he will himself make.
Trouble will not arise time after time.
כִּ֚י עַד סִירִ֣ים סְבֻכִ֔ים וּכְסָבְאָ֖ם סְבוּאִ֑ים
אֻ֨כְּל֔וּ כְּקַ֥שׁ יָבֵ֖שׁ מָלֵֽא
10 For while prickles are interwoven, and as they are besotted sots,
they will be devoured as stubble dried up fully.
מִמֵּ֣ךְ יָצָ֔א חֹשֵׁ֥ב עַל יְהוָ֖ה רָעָ֑ה
יֹעֵ֖ץ בְּלִיָּֽעַל ס
11 From you emerges one reckoning evil over Yahweh,
one counseling worthlessness.
כֹּ֣ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה אִם שְׁלֵמִים֙ וְכֵ֣ן רַבִּ֔ים וְכֵ֥ן נָגֹ֖זּוּ וְעָבָ֑ר
וְעִ֨נִּתִ֔ךְ לֹ֥א אֲעַנֵּ֖ךְ עֽוֹד
12 Thus says Yahweh, א If שׁ those at peace ו and so ר many! And so they will be sheared. And he passes through.
Though I have afflicted you, I will not afflict you any more.
וְעַתָּ֕ה אֶשְׁבֹּ֥ר מֹטֵ֖הוּ מֵֽעָלָ֑יִךְ
וּמוֹסְרֹתַ֖יִךְ אֲנַתֵּֽק
13 So now I will break his hegemony from over you,
and your bonds I will snap.
וְצִוָּ֤ה עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ יְהוָ֔ה לֹֽא יִזָּרַ֥ע מִשִּׁמְךָ֖ ע֑וֹד
מִבֵּ֨ית אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ אַכְרִ֨ית פֶּ֧סֶל וּמַסֵּכָ֛ה אָשִׂ֥ים קִבְרֶ֖ךָ כִּ֥י קַלּֽוֹתָ פ
14 And Yahweh commands concerning you: your name will not be sown any more.
From the house of your God I will cut off graven image and molten metal. I will set up your tomb, for you are a disgrace.
Nahum 2
הִנֵּ֨ה עַל הֶהָרִ֜ים רַגְלֵ֤י מְבַשֵּׂר֙ מַשְׁמִ֣יעַ שָׁל֔וֹם חָגִּ֧י יְהוּדָ֛ה חַגַּ֖יִךְ שַׁלְּמִ֣י נְדָרָ֑יִךְ
כִּי֩ לֹ֨א יוֹסִ֥יף ע֛וֹד לַֽעֲבָר בָּ֥ךְ בְּלִיַּ֖עַל כֻּלֹּ֥ה נִכְרָֽת
1 Behold over the hills are the feet of one who publishes, broadcasting peace. In my festive sacrifices, Judah, be festive. Pay your vows,
for worthlessness will not again pass through you any more. All of it is cut off.
עָלָ֥ה מֵפִ֛יץ עַל פָּנַ֖יִךְ נָצ֣וֹר מְצֻרָ֑ה
צַפֵּה דֶ֙רֶךְ֙ חַזֵּ֣ק מָתְנַ֔יִם אַמֵּ֥ץ כֹּ֖חַ מְאֹֽד
2 Ascending is one who disperses over against you. Preserve fortification.
Be on lookout for a way. Make resolute endowments. Assure power excessively.
כִּ֣י שָׁ֤ב יְהוָה֙ אֶת גְּא֣וֹן יַעֲקֹ֔ב כִּגְא֖וֹן יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
כִּ֤י בְקָקוּם֙ בֹּֽקְקִ֔ים וּזְמֹרֵיהֶ֖ם שִׁחֵֽתוּ
3 For Yahweh has turned the pride of Jacob as the pride of Israel,
for evacuators are evacuating. Their sprigs they have destroyed.
מָגֵ֨ן גִּבֹּרֵ֜יהוּ מְאָדָּ֗ם אַנְשֵׁי חַ֙יִל֙ מְתֻלָּעִ֔ים בְּאֵשׁ פְּלָד֥וֹת הָרֶ֖כֶב בְּי֣וֹם הֲכִינ֑וֹ
וְהַבְּרֹשִׁ֖ים הָרְעָֽלוּ
4 The shield of his valiant ones is made red. Forceful mortals are in crimson. Fiery cressets the chariots in the day they have prepared.
And the fir trees are staggering.
בַּֽחוּצוֹת֙ יִתְהוֹלְל֣וּ הָרֶ֔כֶב יִֽשְׁתַּקְשְׁק֖וּן בָּרְחֹב֑וֹת
מַרְאֵיהֶן֙ כַּלַּפִּידִ֔ם כַּבְּרָקִ֖ים יְרוֹצֵֽצוּ
5 In the streets blusters the chariot, shiftless in the plazas.
They appear like torches. Like lightnings they race.
יִזְכֹּר֙ אַדִּירָ֔יו יִכָּשְׁל֖וּ בַּהֲלִֽיכָתָ֑ם
יְמַֽהֲרוּ֙ חֽוֹמָתָ֔הּ וְהֻכַ֖ן הַסֹּכֵֽךְ
6 He will remember his majestic ones. They will stumble in their walk
They rush headlong toward the wall and the screen is prepared.
שַׁעֲרֵ֥י הַנְּהָר֖וֹת נִפְתָּ֑חוּ
וְהַֽהֵיכָ֖ל נָמֽוֹג
7 The gates of the rivers opened,
and the palace is undermined.
וְהֻצַּ֖ב גֻּלְּתָ֣ה הֹֽעֲלָ֑תָה
וְאַמְהֹתֶ֗יהָ מְנַֽהֲגוֹת֙ כְּק֣וֹל יוֹנִ֔ים מְתֹפְפֹ֖ת עַל לִבְבֵהֶֽן
8 And the one who stood firm is laid bare. She will be brought up
and her maidservants impelled as with the voice of doves drumming over their hearts.
וְנִינְוֵ֥ה כִבְרֵֽכַת מַ֖יִם מִ֣ימֵי הִ֑יא
וְהֵ֣מָּה נָסִ֔ים עִמְד֥וּ עֲמֹ֖דוּ וְאֵ֥ין מַפְנֶֽה
9 Now Nineveh is like a blessing pool of water from these days
but they will withdraw. Stand! Stand! But there is no one present.
בֹּ֥זּוּ כֶ֖סֶף בֹּ֣זּוּ זָהָ֑ב
וְאֵ֥ין קֵ֙צֶה֙ לַתְּכוּנָ֔ה כָּבֹ֕ד מִכֹּ֖ל כְּלִ֥י חֶמְדָּֽה
10 Despoil silver. Despoil gold.
And there is no extreme to balance the glory from all such attractive equipment.
בּוּקָ֥ה וּמְבוּקָ֖ה וּמְבֻלָּקָ֑ה
וְלֵ֨ב נָמֵ֜ס וּפִ֣ק בִּרְכַּ֗יִם וְחַלְחָלָה֙ בְּכָל מָתְנַ֔יִם וּפְנֵ֥י כֻלָּ֖ם קִבְּצ֥וּ פָארֽוּר
11 Vacant and with vacancy and depopulated,
and heart melted, thinned knees, and writhing in all endowments, and the faces of all of them collect pallor.
אַיֵּה֙ מְע֣וֹן אֲרָי֔וֹת וּמִרְעֶ֥ה ה֖וּא לַכְּפִרִ֑ים
אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָלַךְ֩ אַרְיֵ֨ה לָבִ֥יא שָׁ֛ם גּ֥וּר אַרְיֵ֖ה וְאֵ֥ין מַחֲרִֽיד
12 Where there is the lions' habitation and that pasture for the cubs
where lion walks, an old lion there, a lion's whelp and there is none that will make you apprehensive.
אַרְיֵ֤ה טֹרֵף֙ בְּדֵ֣י גֹֽרוֹתָ֔יו וּמְחַנֵּ֖ק לְלִבְאֹתָ֑יו
וַיְמַלֵּא טֶ֣רֶף חֹרָ֔יו וּמְעֹֽנֹתָ֖יו טְרֵפָֽה
13 A lion tore enough for its whelps and strangled for his old lions
and he filled with tearing his holes, his dens with prey.
הִנְנִ֣י אֵלַ֗יִךְ נְאֻם֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וְהִבְעַרְתִּ֤י בֶֽעָשָׁן֙ רִכְבָּ֔הּ וּכְפִירַ֖יִךְ תֹּ֣אכַל חָ֑רֶב
וְהִכְרַתִּ֤י מֵאֶ֙רֶץ֙ טַרְפֵּ֔ךְ וְלֹֽא יִשָּׁמַ֥ע ע֖וֹד ק֥וֹל מַלְאָכֵֽכֵה
14 Behold me against you. An oracle of Yahweh of hosts. And I will kindle with smoke her chariot, and a sword your cubs will devour.
And I will cut off from the land your prey, and no more will be heard the voice of your messengers.
Nahum 3
ה֖וֹי עִ֣יר דָּמִ֑ים
כֻּלָּ֗הּ כַּ֤חַשׁ פֶּ֙רֶק֙ מְלֵאָ֔ה לֹ֥א יָמִ֖ישׁ טָֽרֶף
1 Alas city of blood
faint with cringing, rent apart, full of unfeeling prey,
ק֣וֹל שׁ֔וֹט וְק֖וֹל רַ֣עַשׁ אוֹפָ֑ן
וְס֣וּס דֹּהֵ֔ר וּמֶרְכָּבָ֖ה מְרַקֵּדָֽה
2 The voice of a scourge and the voice of quaking wheel
and horse prancing and chariot skipping.
פָּרָ֣שׁ מַעֲלֶ֗ה וְלַ֤הַב חֶ֙רֶב֙ וּבְרַ֣ק חֲנִ֔ית וְרֹ֥ב חָלָ֖ל וְכֹ֣בֶד פָּ֑גֶר
וְאֵ֥ין קֵ֙צֶה֙ לַגְּוִיָּ֔ה וְכָשְׁל֖וּ בִּגְוִיָּתָֽם
3 A cavalier offers up both flaming sword and glittering spear and a multitude of profanity and a heaviness of carcasses.
And there is no limit to the bodies. And they stumble over the bodies,
מֵרֹב֙ זְנוּנֵ֣י זוֹנָ֔ה ט֥וֹבַת חֵ֖ן בַּעֲלַ֣ת כְּשָׁפִ֑ים
הַמֹּכֶ֤רֶת גּוֹיִם֙ בִּזְנוּנֶ֔יהָ וּמִשְׁפָּח֖וֹת בִּכְשָׁפֶֽיהָ
4 from the abundance of the harlotries of those who prostitute themselves, the well-graced owner of sorceries,
the seller of nations into her harlotries and families into her sorceries.
הִנְנִ֣י אֵלַ֗יִךְ נְאֻם֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת וְגִלֵּיתִ֥י שׁוּלַ֖יִךְ עַל פָּנָ֑יִךְ
וְהַרְאֵיתִ֤י גוֹיִם֙ מַעְרֵ֔ךְ וּמַמְלָכ֖וֹת קְלוֹנֵֽךְ
5 Behold me against you. An oracle of Yahweh of hosts. And I will lay bare your skirts over your face.
I will make your genitals appear to nations and to kingdoms your trifles.
וְהִשְׁלַכְתִּ֥י עָלַ֛יִךְ שִׁקֻּצִ֖ים וְנִבַּלְתִּ֑יךְ
וְשַׂמְתִּ֖יךְ כְּרֹֽאִי
6 And I will cast on you detestable things and make you senseless.
I will set you in place as one to stare at.
וְהָיָ֤ה כָל רֹאַ֙יִךְ֙ יִדּ֣וֹד מִמֵּ֔ךְ וְאָמַר֙ שָׁדְּדָ֣ה נִֽינְוֵ֔ה מִ֖י יָנ֣וּד לָ֑הּ
מֵאַ֛יִן אֲבַקֵּ֥שׁ מְנַחֲמִ֖ים לָֽךְ
7 And it will happen that anyone seeing you will flee from you and say Nineveh is devastated. Who will condole her?
From where will I seek comforters for you?
הֲתֵֽיטְבִי֙ מִנֹּ֣א אָמ֔וֹן הַיֹּֽשְׁבָה֙ בַּיְאֹרִ֔ים מַ֖יִם סָבִ֣יב לָ֑הּ
אֲשֶׁר חֵ֣יל יָ֔ם מִיָּ֖ם חוֹמָתָֽהּ
8 Are you better than populous No that was situated among the canals, water surrounding her,
that is reinforced by sea, from sea her rampart?
כּ֥וּשׁ עָצְמָ֛ה וּמִצְרַ֖יִם וְאֵ֣ין קֵ֑צֶה
פּ֣וּט וְלוּבִ֔ים הָי֖וּ בְּעֶזְרָתֵֽךְ
9 Ethiopia her bones, and Egypt, and it was without limit.
Put and Lubim, they are among your helpers.
גַּם הִ֗יא לַגֹּלָה֙ הָלְכָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔בִי גַּ֧ם עֹלָלֶ֛יהָ יְרֻטְּשׁ֖וּ בְּרֹ֣אשׁ כָּל חוּצ֑וֹת
וְעַל נִכְבַּדֶּ֙יהָ֙ יַדּ֣וּ גוֹרָ֔ל וְכָל גְּדוֹלֶ֖יהָ רֻתְּק֥וּ בַזִּקִּֽים
10 Yet even she was laid bare. She went into captivity. Even infants were dashed to pieces at the head of all the streets.
And over her glorious ones they tossed the dice, and all her great ones are manacled in chains.
גַּם אַ֣תְּ תִּשְׁכְּרִ֔י תְּהִ֖י נַֽעֲלָמָ֑ה
גַּם אַ֛תְּ תְּבַקְשִׁ֥י מָע֖וֹז מֵאוֹיֵֽב
11 Likewise, drunken you will be, obscured.
Likewise, you will seek strength from an enemy.
כָּ֨ל מִבְצָרַ֔יִךְ תְּאֵנִ֖ים עִם בִּכּוּרִ֑ים
אִם יִנּ֕וֹעוּ וְנָפְל֖וּ עַל פִּ֥י אוֹכֵֽל
12 All your enclosures are fig trees with first ripe figs.
If juddered, then they fall into the mouth of the eater.
הִנֵּ֨ה עַמֵּ֤ךְ נָשִׁים֙ בְּקִרְבֵּ֔ךְ לְאֹ֣יְבַ֔יִךְ פָּת֥וֹחַ נִפְתְּח֖וּ שַׁעֲרֵ֣י אַרְצֵ֑ךְ
אָכְלָ֥ה אֵ֖שׁ בְּרִיחָֽיִך
13 Behold your people, women among you, to your enemies, the gates of your land are set wide open.
Fire devours your bars.
מֵ֤י מָצוֹר֙ שַֽׁאֲבִי לָ֔ךְ חַזְּקִ֖י מִבְצָרָ֑יִךְ
בֹּ֧אִי בַטִּ֛יט וְרִמְסִ֥י בַחֹ֖מֶר הַחֲזִ֥יקִי מַלְבֵּֽן
14 Waters for siege, draw for yourself. Make resolute your enclosures.
Go into mire and trample in red mud. Make resolute the brick.
שָׁ֚ם תֹּאכְלֵ֣ךְ אֵ֔שׁ תַּכְרִיתֵ֣ךְ חֶ֔רֶב תֹּאכְלֵ֖ךְ כַּיָּ֑לֶק
הִתְכַּבֵּ֣ד כַּיֶּ֔לֶק הִֽתְכַּבְּדִ֖י כָּאַרְבֶּֽה
15 There fire will devour you. A sword will cut you off. Cankerworm will devour you.
Make yourself heavy as the cankerworm. Make yourself heavy as the locust.
הִרְבֵּית֙ רֹֽכְלַ֔יִךְ מִכּוֹכְבֵ֖י הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם
יֶ֥לֶק פָּשַׁ֖ט וַיָּעֹֽף
16 You have increased your merchants more than the stars of the heavens.
Cankerworm pillages and flies away.
מִנְּזָרַ֙יִךְ֙ כָּֽאַרְבֶּ֔ה וְטַפְסְרַ֖יִךְ כְּג֣וֹב גֹּבָ֑י
הַֽחוֹנִ֤ים בַּגְּדֵרוֹת֙ בְּי֣וֹם קָרָ֔ה שֶׁ֤מֶשׁ זָֽרְחָה֙ וְנוֹדַ֔ד וְלֹֽא נוֹדַ֥ע מְקוֹמ֖וֹ אַיָּֽם
17 Your consecrated ones are as locusts. Your marshals are as a great grub,
camping by the fences on a cold day. The sun rises. It flees and their place where they are is not known.
נָמ֤וּ רֹעֶ֙יךָ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֔וּר יִשְׁכְּנ֖וּ אַדִּירֶ֑יךָ
נָפֹ֧שׁוּ עַמְּךָ֛ עַל הֶהָרִ֖ים וְאֵ֥ין מְקַבֵּֽץ
18 Your shepherds have slumbered, O king of Ashur. your majestic ones will dwell,
will find themselves, your people, on the hills and there is no collecting them.
אֵין כֵּהָ֣ה לְשִׁבְרֶ֔ךָ נַחְלָ֖ה מַכָּתֶ֑ךָ
כֹּ֣ל שֹׁמְעֵ֣י שִׁמְעֲךָ֗ תָּ֤קְעוּ כַף֙ עָלֶ֔יךָ כִּ֗י עַל מִ֛י לֹֽא עָבְרָ֥ה רָעָתְךָ֖ תָּמִֽיד
19 There is no lessening of your brokenness. Aghast is your defeat.
All hearing your fame sound the slap of a palm over you, for over whom has your evil not passed continually?
Between chapters 2 and 3 there is a possibility that there is some structurally deliberate repetition of words, see Christensen, Nahum, A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (2009:43) citing Spronk (1997). Here are the patterns to consider.
הנה behold
2:1הנה
ההרים the hills
2:1הר
משׁמיע broadcasting
2:1שׁמע
חזק make resolute
2:2חזק
יהוה Yahweh
2:3יהוה
שׁערי the gates of
2:7שׁער
מים water
2:9מים
שׁם there
2:12שׁם
הנני behold me
2:14הנה
אליך against you
2:14אל
נאם an oracle of
2:14נאם
יהוה Yahweh
2:14יהוה
צבאות of hosts
2:14צבא
ישׁמע will be heard
2:14שׁמע
הנני behold me
3:5הנה
אליך against you
3:5אל
נאם an oracle of
3:5נאם
יהוה Yahweh
3:5יהוה
צבאות of hosts
3:5צבא
מים water
3:8מים
הנה behold
3:13הנה
שׁערי the gates of
3:13שׁער
מי waters
3:14מים
חזקי make resolute
3:14חזק
החזיקי make resolute
3:14חזק
שׁם there
3:15שׁם
ההרים the hills
3:18הר
שׁמעי hearing
3:19שׁמע
שׁמעך your fame
3:19שׁמע


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