Wednesday, November 4, 2015

Malachi 3

I was surprised to see the word חרם as the last token of the Old Testament. It is not, of course, the last token of the Tanach since several books follow the 12 minor prophets. But it is the last word of the Old Testament, a testament that begins with a mid-sentence בראשׁת in the beginning of, and ends with a ban, a word denoting absolute destructive violence towards others. So here it is - some famous passages set in Handel's Messiah and some looking forward. Even as the end of a major book of Tanach it doesn't exactly provide closure.

I suspect one should read a certain amount of irony into this passage. A frequent repetition is the interrogative מח - what even maybe, huh! when did we do x? It occurs 10 times in the three chapters. It shows that the people addressed weren't really paying much attention - or perhaps the right sort of attention. We find this 'when did we do x' in the great judgment of the nations at the end of Matthew (both good and bad - but full redemption seems in order here). I wonder if Jesus understood the ambivalence of Malachi and of Yahweh in teaching the unrighteous to be other than unrighteous.

At this stage in my learning I found some grammatical constructions odd, like בינ (between) paired with the preposition ל (to, of, for). Normally between is paired with itself, a repetition that is odd in English but common in Hebrew. I do not see this construction as implying as comparison, rather as explanation of one class to another class, and not implying that the e.g. right class is excluded from the wrong class (verse 18).

The compass of the music is wide from low C to a high F - I have not seen this note elsewhere yet. A look aside at the pattern: A talsha preceded by a mahpach shows 17 occurrences in 23,145 verses. There are another 14 verses with a qarne on the reciting note C that would produce an F in the music. (Of course the ornaments inferred by Suzanne Haïk-Vantoura are in the weaker part of her theory).

The Hebrew chapter 3 is chapters 3 and 4 of the English versions.

Malachi 3 Fn Min Max Syll
הִנְנִ֤י שֹׁלֵחַ֙ מַלְאָכִ֔י וּפִנָּה־דֶ֖רֶךְ לְפָנָ֑י
וּפִתְאֹם֩ יָב֨וֹא אֶל־הֵיכָל֜וֹ הָאָד֣וֹן ׀ אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּ֣ם מְבַקְשִׁ֗ים וּמַלְאַ֨ךְ הַבְּרִ֜ית אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּ֤ם חֲפֵצִים֙ הִנֵּה־בָ֔א אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת
1 Behold me, I will send my messenger, and he will face a journey before me.
And suddenly he will come to his temple, the Lord whom you are seeking, and the messenger of the covenant whom you delight in. Behold he comes, says Yahweh of hosts.
3e 4C 16
וּמִ֤י מְכַלְכֵּל֙ אֶת־י֣וֹם בּוֹא֔וֹ וּמִ֥י הָעֹמֵ֖ד בְּהֵרָֽאוֹת֑וֹ
כִּֽי־הוּא֙ כְּאֵ֣שׁ מְצָרֵ֔ף וּכְבֹרִ֖ית מְכַבְּסִֽים
2 C And who will abide the day of of his coming? and who will stand at his appearing?
for he is as a refining fire, and as a scouring purifier.
3e 4C 19
וְיָשַׁ֨ב מְצָרֵ֤ף וּמְטַהֵר֙ כֶּ֔סֶף וְטִהַ֤ר אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־לֵוִי֙ וְזִקַּ֣ק אֹתָ֔ם כַּזָּהָ֖ב וְכַכָּ֑סֶף
וְהָיוּ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה מַגִּישֵׁ֥י מִנְחָ֖ה בִּצְדָקָֽה
3 And he will sit as refiner and cleaner of silver. And he will clean the children of Levi, and purge them as gold and as silver,
that they might become for Yahweh those who come close with a gift in righteousness.
3e 4C 30
וְעָֽרְבָה֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה מִנְחַ֥ת יְהוּדָ֖ה וִירֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
כִּימֵ֣י עוֹלָ֔ם וּכְשָׁנִ֖ים קַדְמֹנִיּֽוֹת
4 Then sweet for Yahweh will be the gifts of Judah and Jerusalem,
as in the days from eras past, and as in years of old.
3e 4B 14
וְקָרַבְתִּ֣י אֲלֵיכֶם֮ לַמִּשְׁפָּט֒ וְהָיִ֣יתִי ׀ עֵ֣ד מְמַהֵ֗ר בַּֽמְכַשְּׁפִים֙ וּבַמְנָ֣אֲפִ֔ים וּבַנִּשְׁבָּעִ֖ים לַשָּׁ֑קֶר
וּבְעֹשְׁקֵ֣י שְׂכַר־שָׂ֠כִיר אַלְמָנָ֨ה וְיָת֤וֹם וּמַטֵּי־גֵר֙ וְלֹ֣א יְרֵא֔וּנִי אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת
5 And I will come near to you to judgment, and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers and the adulterers and those who swear falsely,
and those who oppress the wage of the wage-earner, widow and orphan, and push away a guest and do not fear me, says Yahweh of hosts.
3e 4C 34
כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה לֹ֣א שָׁנִ֑יתִי
וְאַתֶּ֥ם בְּנֵֽי־יַעֲקֹ֖ב לֹ֥א כְלִיתֶֽם
6 d For I am Yahweh. I do not repeat a second time,
but you, children of Jacob, you are not finished.
3d 4B 9
לְמִימֵ֨י אֲבֹתֵיכֶ֜ם סַרְתֶּ֤ם מֵֽחֻקַּי֙ וְלֹ֣א שְׁמַרְתֶּ֔ם שׁ֤וּבוּ אֵלַי֙ וְאָשׁ֣וּבָה אֲלֵיכֶ֔ם אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת
וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֖ם בַּמֶּ֥ה נָשֽׁוּב
7 From the days of your ancestors you have departed from my statutes and you have not kept them. Return to me and I will return to you, says Yahweh of hosts.
And you say, In what way will we return?
3e 4C 35
הֲיִקְבַּ֨ע אָדָ֜ם אֱלֹהִ֗ים כִּ֤י אַתֶּם֙ קֹבְעִ֣ים אֹתִ֔י וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֖ם בַּמֶּ֣ה קְבַעֲנ֑וּךָ
הַֽמַּעֲשֵׂ֖ר וְהַתְּרוּמָֽה
8 Will humanity defraud God? For you defrauded me. And you say, In what way have we defrauded you?
In tithes and contributions.
3e 4C 26
בַּמְּאֵרָה֙ אַתֶּ֣ם נֵֽאָרִ֔ים וְאֹתִ֖י אַתֶּ֣ם קֹבְעִ֑ים
הַגּ֖וֹי כֻּלּֽוֹ
9 With a curse you are cursed and me you have defrauded,
the nation as a whole.
3e 4B 15
הָבִ֨יאוּ אֶת־כָּל־הַֽמַּעֲשֵׂ֜ר אֶל־בֵּ֣ית הָאוֹצָ֗ר וִיהִ֥י טֶ֙רֶף֙ בְּבֵיתִ֔י וּבְחָנ֤וּנִי נָא֙ בָּזֹ֔את אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת
אִם־לֹ֧א אֶפְתַּ֣ח לָכֶ֗ם אֵ֚ת אֲרֻבּ֣וֹת הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וַהֲרִיקֹתִ֥י לָכֶ֛ם בְּרָכָ֖ה עַד־בְּלִי־דָֽי
10 Bring all the tithes to the house of the treasury so it will be prey in my house, and test me please in this, says Yahweh of hosts,
if I will not open to you what is lying in wait in the heavens, and empty for you a blessing, till the idea of simply having enough fades away.
3c 4C 35
וְגָעַרְתִּ֤י לָכֶם֙ בָּֽאֹכֵ֔ל וְלֹֽא־יַשְׁחִ֥ת לָכֶ֖ם אֶת־פְּרִ֣י הָאֲדָמָ֑ה
וְלֹא־תְשַׁכֵּ֨ל לָכֶ֤ם הַגֶּ֙פֶן֙ בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת
11 And I will rebuke for you in the one who eats, and he will not destroy for you the fruit of the ground,
and he will not bereave for you the vine in the field, says Yahweh of hosts.
3e 4C 22
וְאִשְּׁר֥וּ אֶתְכֶ֖ם כָּל־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם
כִּֽי־תִהְי֤וּ אַתֶּם֙ אֶ֣רֶץ חֵ֔פֶץ אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת ס
12 And all the nations will consider you happy,
for you will become a land of delight, says Yahweh of hosts.
3e 4C 9
חָזְק֥וּ עָלַ֛י דִּבְרֵיכֶ֖ם אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה
וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֕ם מַה־נִּדְבַּ֖רְנוּ עָלֶֽיךָ
13 Courageous about me are your words, says Yahweh,
and you say, What have we spoken about you?
3d 4B 11
אֲמַרְתֶּ֕ם שָׁ֖וְא עֲבֹ֣ד אֱלֹהִ֑ים
וּמַה־בֶּ֗צַע כִּ֤י שָׁמַ֙רְנוּ֙ מִשְׁמַרְתּ֔וֹ וְכִ֤י הָלַ֙כְנוּ֙ קְדֹ֣רַנִּ֔ית מִפְּנֵ֖י יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת
14 You have said, Vain it is to serve God,
and what gain is it that we have kept his watch, and that we have walked mourning before Yahweh of hosts?
3e 4C 9
וְעַתָּ֕ה אֲנַ֖חְנוּ מְאַשְּׁרִ֣ים זֵדִ֑ים
גַּם־נִבְנוּ֙ עֹשֵׂ֣י רִשְׁעָ֔ה גַּ֧ם בָּחֲנ֛וּ אֱלֹהִ֖ים וַיִּמָּלֵֽטוּ
15 So now we consider happy the presumptuous.
Even built up are those doing wickedness, even those who test God, and they escape.
3c 4B 11
אָ֧ז נִדְבְּר֛וּ יִרְאֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֑הוּ
וַיַּקְשֵׁ֤ב יְהוָה֙ וַיִּשְׁמָ֔ע וַ֠יִּכָּתֵב סֵ֣פֶר זִכָּר֤וֹן לְפָנָיו֙ לְיִרְאֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וּלְחֹשְׁבֵ֖י שְׁמֽוֹ
16 c Then spoke those who fear Yahweh, each with his friend,
and Yahweh attended and he heard, and a record of remembrance was inscribed in his presence for those that fear Yahweh and considered his name.
3c 4C 13
וְהָ֣יוּ לִ֗י אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת לַיּ֕וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנִ֖י עֹשֶׂ֣ה סְגֻלָּ֑ה
וְחָמַלְתִּ֣י עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֙ יַחְמֹ֣ל אִ֔ישׁ עַל־בְּנ֖וֹ הָעֹבֵ֥ד אֹתֽוֹ
17 And they will be mine, says Yahweh of hosts, in the day that I make a treasure trove,
and I will have pity on them as anyone has pity on his child serving him.
3e 4B 22
וְשַׁבְתֶּם֙ וּרְאִיתֶ֔ם בֵּ֥ין צַדִּ֖יק לְרָשָׁ֑ע
בֵּ֚ין עֹבֵ֣ד אֱלֹהִ֔ים לַאֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֥א עֲבָדֽוֹ ס
18 And you will turn and you will see, to discern a righteous one for a wicked one,
to discern a servant of God for one who does not serve him.
3e 4C 12
כִּֽי־הִנֵּ֤ה הַיּוֹם֙ בָּ֔א בֹּעֵ֖ר כַּתַּנּ֑וּר
וְהָי֨וּ כָל־זֵדִ֜ים וְכָל־עֹשֵׂ֤ה רִשְׁעָה֙ קַ֔שׁ וְלִהַ֨ט אֹתָ֜ם הַיּ֣וֹם הַבָּ֗א אָמַר֙ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־יַעֲזֹ֥ב לָהֶ֖ם שֹׁ֥רֶשׁ וְעָנָֽף
19 For behold the coming day kindles as an oven,
and all the presumptuous and all doing wickedness will be stubble. The coming day will blaze on them, says Yahweh of hosts, who will not defer to them, root-stock or bough.
3d 4C 10
וְזָרְחָ֨ה לָכֶ֜ם יִרְאֵ֤י שְׁמִי֙ שֶׁ֣מֶשׁ צְדָקָ֔ה וּמַרְפֵּ֖א בִּכְנָפֶ֑יהָ
וִֽיצָאתֶ֥ם וּפִשְׁתֶּ֖ם כְּעֶגְלֵ֥י מַרְבֵּֽק
20 But the sun of righteousness will rise for you who fear my name and with healing in her wings,
and you will come forth and frisk about like calves from a stall.
3e 4C 21
וְעַסּוֹתֶ֣ם רְשָׁעִ֔ים כִּֽי־יִהְי֣וּ אֵ֔פֶר תַּ֖חַת כַּפּ֣וֹת רַגְלֵיכֶ֑ם
בַּיּוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֲנִ֣י עֹשֶׂ֔ה אָמַ֖ר יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת פ
21 And you will squeeze the wicked, for they will be ashes under the soles of your feet,
in the day that I am constructing, says Yahweh of hosts. P
3e 4B 19
זִכְר֕וּ תּוֹרַ֖ת מֹשֶׁ֣ה עַבְדִּ֑י
אֲשֶׁר֩ צִוִּ֨יתִי אוֹת֤וֹ בְחֹרֵב֙ עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל חֻקִּ֖ים וּמִשְׁפָּטִֽים
22 Remember the instruction of Moses my servant,
which I commanded him in Horeb on all Israel, the statutes and judgments.
3e 4C 8
הִנֵּ֤ה אָֽנֹכִי֙ שֹׁלֵ֣חַ לָכֶ֔ם אֵ֖ת אֵלִיָּ֣ה הַנָּבִ֑יא
לִפְנֵ֗י בּ֚וֹא י֣וֹם יְהוָ֔ה הַגָּד֖וֹל וְהַנּוֹרָֽא
23 Behold I myself will send to you Elijah the prophet,
before the coming of the great and fearful day of Yahweh.
3e 4C 17
וְהֵשִׁ֤יב לֵב־אָבוֹת֙ עַל־בָּנִ֔ים וְלֵ֥ב בָּנִ֖ים עַל־אֲבוֹתָ֑ם
פֶּן־אָב֕וֹא וְהִכֵּיתִ֥י אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ חֵֽרֶם
24 And he will turn the heart of parents to the children, and the heart of children to their parents,
lest I come and strike the earth with a ban.
3e 4C 17