Tuesday, 8 August 2017

Deuteronomy 19

Three chapters from the same book in a row! And not so easy either. I have been reduced to a sort of dynamic equivalence in one or two verses since the phrase from yesterday three [days], a somewhat common idiom (7 occurrences in Torah and Joshua) which seems to mean previously, even exceeds my tolerance for strange constructions in English (which is after all my native tongue). The one other occurrence may well be literal in 1 Samuel 21. Here in Deuteronomy, and in Joshua, it must be idiomatic. Plenty of people can keep a feud over a three day period. It is a curious phrase using the numeral three in the form שׁלשׁם or שׁלשׁום. This is one of those places where sound and language structure will disappear in translation.

The damage this exercise does to my sense of absoluteness of prepositions is interminable. Just look at the prefixed ב in the last famous verse. And you might have been taught that ב means in.

Here are the glosses I have used for the two most common prefixed prepositions.

ב  about(8), against(122), among(278), as(11), at(135), because(1), by(292), for(43), from(23), her(14), him(8), his(16), in(3692), into(215), its(7), my(3), of(24), on(277), over(8), their(5), through(19), to(49), under(3), when(134), with(509), your(5)
ל about(7), against(35), among(6), as(84), at(34), by(12), for(1704), from(32), her(19), hers(2), him(65), his(40), if(2), in(153), into(21), its(23), mine(19), my(61), of(546), on(31), our(9), ours(2), over(7), their(43), to(2599), under(1), when(1), with(25), your(59), yours(17)

The preposition ל frequently disappears. Mostly it 'means' for or to in the attributive sense. Hence the frequency of the possessive pronouns. But you can see at a glance that there are several cross-mapped English prepositions. This is because verbs often imply or invite a particular preposition in English.

This list is incomplete and only includes about the 60% of words that have been done or guessed. It does not include complex prefixes simply because I haven't coded them into the query. But it includes enough to give me plenty of questions about how to validate my work.

I can run queries like this and investigate the ones that appear odd. If I only used a gloss once I can see if it should have been used more often or not at all. I continuously test for cross-linked glosses of nouns and verbs and I have a table of exceptions I have allowed so far. Some of these too will be reexamined. Endless. But prepositions require book length treatment and I am not at all sure I will write it.

Deuteronomy 19 Fn Min Max Syll
כִּֽי־יַכְרִ֞ית יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֶת־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ אֶת־אַרְצָ֑ם
וִֽירִשְׁתָּ֕ם וְיָשַׁבְתָּ֥ בְעָרֵיהֶ֖ם וּבְבָתֵּיהֶֽם
1 When Yahweh your God has cut off the nations whose land Yahweh your God is giving to you,
and you dispossess them, and you have settled in their cities and in their houses,
3e 4C 28
שָׁל֥וֹשׁ עָרִ֖ים תַּבְדִּ֣יל לָ֑ךְ
בְּת֣וֹךְ אַרְצְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ
2 Three cities you will differentiate for yourself,
in the midst of your land that Yahweh your God is giving to you to possess.
3e 4B 7
תָּכִ֣ין לְךָ֮ הַדֶּרֶךְ֒ וְשִׁלַּשְׁתָּ֙ אֶת־גְּב֣וּל אַרְצְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַנְחִֽילְךָ֖ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ
וְהָיָ֕ה לָנ֥וּס שָׁ֖מָּה כָּל־רֹצֵֽחַ
3 You will establish for yourselves the way, and you will trisect the border of your land that Yahweh your God has made you inherit,
that anyone who has murdered may withdraw there.
3e 4B 28
וְזֶה֙ דְּבַ֣ר הָרֹצֵ֔חַ אֲשֶׁר־יָנ֥וּס שָׁ֖מָּה וָחָ֑י
אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַכֶּ֤ה אֶת־רֵעֵ֙הוּ֙ בִּבְלִי־דַ֔עַת וְה֛וּא לֹא־שֹׂנֵ֥א ל֖וֹ מִתְּמֹ֥ל שִׁלְשֹֽׁם
4 And this is the matter of the murderer who will withdraw there that he might live,
who strikes his associate without knowledge, and he had not hated him previously.
3d 4C 16
וַאֲשֶׁר֩ יָבֹ֨א אֶת־רֵעֵ֥הוּ בַיַּעַר֮ לַחְטֹ֣ב עֵצִים֒ וְנִדְּחָ֨ה יָד֤וֹ בַגַּרְזֶן֙ לִכְרֹ֣ת הָעֵ֔ץ וְנָשַׁ֤ל הַבַּרְזֶל֙ מִן־הָעֵ֔ץ וּמָצָ֥א אֶת־רֵעֵ֖הוּ וָמֵ֑ת
ה֗וּא יָנ֛וּס אֶל־אַחַ֥ת הֶעָרִים־הָאֵ֖לֶּה וָחָֽי
5 (That someone enters with an associate into the forest to dress the trees, and his hand is impelled with the adze to cut the tree, and the iron bounces from the tree and finds the associate, who then dies.
He will withdraw to one of these cities and will live.)
3d 4C 46
פֶּן־יִרְדֹּף֩ גֹּאֵ֨ל הַדָּ֜ם אַחֲרֵ֣י הָרֹצֵ֗חַ כִּי־יֵחַם֮ לְבָבוֹ֒ וְהִשִּׂיג֛וֹ כִּֽי־יִרְבֶּ֥ה הַדֶּ֖רֶךְ וְהִכָּ֣הוּ נָ֑פֶשׁ
וְלוֹ֙ אֵ֣ין מִשְׁפַּט־מָ֔וֶת כִּ֠י לֹ֣א שֹׂנֵ֥א ה֛וּא ל֖וֹ מִתְּמ֥וֹל שִׁלְשֽׁוֹם
6 Lest the one redeeming the blood pursues after the murderer, for his heart is heated, and overtakes him, because of the extent of the way, and he strikes him,
but for him there was no judgment of death, for he had not hated him previously.
3d 4B 35
עַל־כֵּ֛ן אָנֹכִ֥י מְצַוְּךָ֖ לֵאמֹ֑ר
שָׁלֹ֥שׁ עָרִ֖ים תַּבְדִּ֥יל לָֽךְ
7 Therefore I am commanding you, saying,
Three cities you will differentiate for yourself.
3d 4A 10
וְאִם־יַרְחִ֞יב יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֶת־גְּבֻ֣לְךָ֔ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֖ע לַאֲבֹתֶ֑יךָ
וְנָ֤תַן לְךָ֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֶּ֖ר לָתֵ֥ת לַאֲבֹתֶֽיךָ
8 And if Yahweh your God will enlarge your borders, as he has sworn to your ancestors,
and give to you all the land that is the word given to your ancestors,
3e 4C 24
כִּֽי־תִשְׁמֹר֩ אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָ֨ה הַזֹּ֜את לַעֲשֹׂתָ֗הּ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָנֹכִ֣י מְצַוְּךָ֮ הַיּוֹם֒ לְאַהֲבָ֞ה אֶת־יְהוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ וְלָלֶ֥כֶת בִּדְרָכָ֖יו כָּל־הַיָּמִ֑ים
וְיָסַפְתָּ֨ לְךָ֥ עוֹד֙ שָׁלֹ֣שׁ עָרִ֔ים עַ֖ל הַשָּׁלֹ֥שׁ הָאֵֽלֶּה
9 (For you will keep all this commandment to do it which I am commanding you today: to love Yahweh your God and to walk in his ways every day,
and you will add for yourselves three more cities beside these three),
3c 4B 46
וְלֹ֤א יִשָּׁפֵךְ֙ דָּ֣ם נָקִ֔י בְּקֶ֣רֶב אַרְצְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַחֲלָ֑ה
וְהָיָ֥ה עָלֶ֖יךָ דָּמִֽים
10 Then innocent blood will not be poured out within your land that Yahweh your God is giving to you as inheritance,
and there be against you, blood.
3e 4C 29
וְכִֽי־יִהְיֶ֥ה אִישׁ֙ שֹׂנֵ֣א לְרֵעֵ֔הוּ וְאָ֤רַב לוֹ֙ וְקָ֣ם עָלָ֔יו וְהִכָּ֥הוּ נֶ֖פֶשׁ וָמֵ֑ת
וְנָ֕ס אֶל־אַחַ֖ת הֶעָרִ֥ים הָאֵֽל
11 But when there is a person hating his associate, and lying in wait for him, and he arises against him, and he strikes him, and he dies,
and he withdraws to one of those cities,
3e 4C 27
וְשָֽׁלְחוּ֙ זִקְנֵ֣י עִיר֔וֹ וְלָקְח֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ מִשָּׁ֑ם
וְנָתְנ֣וּ אֹת֗וֹ בְּיַ֛ד גֹּאֵ֥ל הַדָּ֖ם וָמֵֽת
12 Then the elders of his city will send, and they will take him from there,
and they will give him into the hand of the one redeeming the blood, and he will die.
3d 4B 14
לֹא־תָח֥וֹס עֵֽינְךָ֖ עָלָ֑יו
וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֧ דַֽם־הַנָּקִ֛י מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְט֥וֹב לָֽךְ
13 Your eye will not spare him,
and you will shrive the blood of the innocent from Israel, and good for you.
3c 4A 6
לֹ֤א תַסִּיג֙ גְּב֣וּל רֵֽעֲךָ֔ אֲשֶׁ֥ר גָּבְל֖וּ רִאשֹׁנִ֑ים
בְּנַחֲלָֽתְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּנְחַ֔ל בָּאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ
14 C You will not relocate the border of your associate that they of former times set as border,
in your inheritance that you will inherit in the land that Yahweh your God is giving to you to possess.
3e 4C 15
לֹֽא־יָקוּם֩ עֵ֨ד אֶחָ֜ד בְּאִ֗ישׁ לְכָל־עָוֺן֙ וּלְכָל־חַטָּ֔את בְּכָל־חֵ֖טְא אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֶֽחֱטָ֑א
עַל־פִּ֣י ׀ שְׁנֵ֣י עֵדִ֗ים א֛וֹ עַל־פִּ֥י שְׁלֹשָֽׁה־עֵדִ֖ים יָק֥וּם דָּבָֽר
15 One witness will not arise against a person for any iniquity, or for any sin in any sin that he sins.
At the mouth of two witnesses or at the mouth of three witnesses, a word will be placed.
3d 4B 23
כִּֽי־יָק֥וּם עֵד־חָמָ֖ס בְּאִ֑ישׁ
לַעֲנ֥וֹת בּ֖וֹ סָרָֽה
16 When a violent witness arises against a person,
to answer against him with revolt.
3e 4A 7
וְעָמְד֧וּ שְׁנֵֽי־הָאֲנָשִׁ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־לָהֶ֥ם הָרִ֖יב לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
לִפְנֵ֤י הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ וְהַשֹּׁ֣פְטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִהְי֖וּ בַּיָּמִ֥ים הָהֵֽם
17 Then both the persons whose strife it is, will stand in the presence of Yahweh,
in the presence of the priests and the judges which there will be in those days.
3c 4C 18
וְדָרְשׁ֥וּ הַשֹּׁפְטִ֖ים הֵיטֵ֑ב
וְהִנֵּ֤ה עֵֽד־שֶׁ֙קֶר֙ הָעֵ֔ד שֶׁ֖קֶר עָנָ֥ה בְאָחִֽיו
18 And the judges will search out well,
and behold, a false witness. If the witness has answered what is false against his kin,
3e 4C 8
וַעֲשִׂ֣יתֶם ל֔וֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר זָמַ֖ם לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת לְאָחִ֑יו
וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ
19 Then you will do to him as he intended to do to his kin,
and you will shrive the evil from within you.
3e 4B 16
וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֖ים יִשְׁמְע֣וּ וְיִרָ֑אוּ
וְלֹֽא־יֹסִ֨פוּ לַעֲשׂ֜וֹת ע֗וֹד כַּדָּבָ֥ר הָרָ֛ע הַזֶּ֖ה בְּקִרְבֶּֽךָ
20 And the residue will hear and see,
and not again do any more as evil a thing as this among you.
3d 4B 12
וְלֹ֥א תָח֖וֹס עֵינֶ֑ךָ
נֶ֣פֶשׁ בְּנֶ֗פֶשׁ עַ֤יִן בְּעַ֙יִן֙ שֵׁ֣ן בְּשֵׁ֔ן יָ֥ד בְּיָ֖ד רֶ֥גֶל בְּרָֽגֶל
21 Your eye will not spare,
throat by throat, eye by eye, tooth by tooth, hand by hand, foot by foot.
3e 4C 7

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