Monday, 4 December 2017

Ezekiel 18

This text, like much of TNK, was written largely for the male. It could be seen as quite anti feminist. But perhaps this is simply because the male is largely responsible for sin in the world. He spends much of his time blaming the female, but he is lying to himself.

So why use it in this chapter? An exercise perhaps. Can one distinguish in the reading the it that is done from the it that is doing? I think so. With a little slowing down of the reading.

There is a peculiar use of אח in the middle of this perception into consequences. It is the kin of a deed not of the doer. אח is used almost metaphorically, but it doesn't work and JB considers it a mistake. The LXX also reads it differently. The child commits sins and does not do the good things of the parent. So we can't have it doing kin-like deeds.

It is tedious to keep up the it/its usage when doing this close translation. All languages I have seen appear to have this problem. My computer is even getting confused and suggesting to me that I have a parameter that says whether or not to copy this style. Perhaps I have made the point sufficiently.

This chapter is a substantial thought process on the problem of individual sin. It is highly repetitive and its question is not answered. There appears to be no adequate answer. We all like predictable rules and consequences and the idea of an accumulating store of good works. But if we can't rest on our withered laurels, how do we change our hearts? We equally agree that the parent and child axis should not be such a burden, but we easily blame ourselves for our children's problems, and I have not been above blaming my parents for mine either! Both TNK and NT offer new hearts but maybe we would like them later on. (After Augustine, Make me chaste, Lord, but not yet.)

On the other hand, perhaps I am too pessimistic, baptism does promise grafting into the resurrected body of the Anointed. Maybe we should just assume that truth and get on with it. (Love God and do what you will! Augustine again.) This still leaves us with the difficulty of dealing with the news. Like the land, all beings belong to Yahweh. That should make us hopeful.

Ezekiel 18 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר 1 And the word of Yahweh happened to me, saying, 3e 3g 10
מַה־לָּכֶ֗ם אַתֶּם֙ מֹֽשְׁלִים֙ אֶת־הַמָּשָׁ֣ל הַזֶּ֔ה עַל־אַדְמַ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר
אָבוֹת֙ יֹ֣אכְלוּ בֹ֔סֶר וְשִׁנֵּ֥י הַבָּנִ֖ים תִּקְהֶֽינָה
2 Why for yourselves do you cite this proverb on the ground of Israel, saying,
Parents eat sour grape, and the teeth of the children are dull.
3e 4B 21
חַי־אָ֕נִי נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה
אִם־יִֽהְיֶ֨ה לָכֶ֜ם ע֗וֹד מְשֹׁ֛ל הַמָּשָׁ֥ל הַזֶּ֖ה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל
3 I, Living, an oracle of my Lord Yahweh.
It will not be for you any more to cite this proverb in Israel.
3d 4B 9
הֵ֤ן כָּל־הַנְּפָשׁוֹת֙ לִ֣י הֵ֔נָּה כְּנֶ֧פֶשׁ הָאָ֛ב וּכְנֶ֥פֶשׁ הַבֵּ֖ן לִי־הֵ֑נָּה
הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַחֹטֵ֖את הִ֥יא תָמֽוּת
4 C Lo, all beings, they are mine. As the being of the parent so the being of the child. Mine they are.
The being that sins, it will die.
3c 4C 20
וְאִ֖ישׁ כִּי־יִהְיֶ֣ה צַדִּ֑יק
וְעָשָׂ֥ה מִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּצְדָקָֽה
5 And anyone that is righteous,
and does judgment and justice,
3e 4B 7
אֶל־הֶֽהָרִים֙ לֹ֣א אָכָ֔ל וְעֵינָיו֙ לֹ֣א נָשָׂ֔א אֶל־גִּלּוּלֵ֖י בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וְאֶת־אֵ֤שֶׁת רֵעֵ֙הוּ֙ לֹ֣א טִמֵּ֔א וְאֶל־אִשָּׁ֥ה נִדָּ֖ה לֹ֥א יִקְרָֽב
6 On the hills it does not eat, and its eyes it does not lift up to the figurines of the house of Israel,
and the wife of its associate it does not defiles and to a woman segregated it does not approach,
3e 4C 21
וְאִישׁ֙ לֹ֣א יוֹנֶ֔ה חֲבֹלָת֥וֹ חוֹב֙ יָשִׁ֔יב גְּזֵלָ֖ה לֹ֣א יִגְזֹ֑ל
לַחְמוֹ֙ לְרָעֵ֣ב יִתֵּ֔ן וְעֵירֹ֖ם יְכַסֶּה־בָּֽגֶד
7 And it does not suppress anyone. Its pledge it returns to the insolvent. The robber does not rob.
Its bread it gives to the hungry, and the naked it covers with a garment.
3e 4B 18
בַּנֶּ֣שֶׁךְ לֹֽא־יִתֵּ֗ן וְתַרְבִּית֙ לֹ֣א יִקָּ֔ח מֵעָ֖וֶל יָשִׁ֣יב יָד֑וֹ
מִשְׁפַּ֤ט אֱמֶת֙ יַֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה בֵּ֥ין אִ֖ישׁ לְאִֽישׁ
8 At interest it does not give, and to excess it will not take. From injustice it will turn its hand.
True judgment will be done between each for each.
3e 4C 18
בְּחֻקּוֹתַ֧י יְהַלֵּ֛ךְ וּמִשְׁפָּטַ֥י שָׁמַ֖ר לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת אֱמֶ֑ת
צַדִּ֥יק הוּא֙ חָיֹ֣ה יִֽחְיֶ֔ה נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה
9 In my statutes it walks, and my judgments it guards, to deal truthfully.
A righteous one it is, living it will live, an oracle of my Lord Yahweh.
3c 4B 18
וְהוֹלִ֥יד בֵּן־פָּרִ֖יץ שֹׁפֵ֣ךְ דָּ֑ם
וְעָ֣שָׂה אָ֔ח מֵאַחַ֖ד מֵאֵֽלֶּה
10 And it begets a child, one who breaks open, one shedding blood,
and does the kin of one of these,
3e 4B 9
וְה֕וּא אֶת־כָּל־אֵ֖לֶּה לֹ֣א עָשָׂ֑ה
כִּ֣י גַ֤ם אֶל־הֶֽהָרִים֙ אָכַ֔ל וְאֶת־אֵ֥שֶׁת רֵעֵ֖הוּ טִמֵּֽא
11 And all of these it does not do,
for even to the hills it eats, and the wife of its associate it defiles.
3e 4C 9
עָנִ֤י וְאֶבְיוֹן֙ הוֹנָ֔ה גְּזֵל֣וֹת גָּזָ֔ל חֲבֹ֖ל לֹ֣א יָשִׁ֑יב
וְאֶל־הַגִּלּוּלִים֙ נָשָׂ֣א עֵינָ֔יו תּוֹעֵבָ֖ה עָשָֽׂה
12 The poor and needy it suppresses. What was robbed, it has robbed. The pledge it does not return.
And to the figurines it lifts up its eyes. Abomination it does.
3e 4C 17
בַּנֶּ֧שֶׁךְ נָתַ֛ן וְתַרְבִּ֥ית לָקַ֖ח וָחָ֑י
לֹ֣א יִֽחְיֶ֗ה אֵ֣ת כָּל־הַתּוֹעֵב֤וֹת הָאֵ֙לֶּה֙ עָשָׂ֔ה מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֔ת דָּמָ֖יו בּ֥וֹ יִהְיֶֽה
13 At interest it gives, and to excess it takes, so to live?
It will not live. All these abominations it does. It will be put to death. Its blood on itself will be.
3c 4C 12
וְהִנֵּה֙ הוֹלִ֣יד בֵּ֔ן וַיַּ֕רְא אֶת־כָּל־חַטֹּ֥את אָבִ֖יו אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה
וַיִּרְאֶ֕ה וְלֹ֥א יַעֲשֶׂ֖ה כָּהֵֽן
14 And behold, it begets a child, and it sees all the sin of its parent that it did,
and sees, and it does not do the like.
3e 4B 18
עַל־הֶֽהָרִים֙ לֹ֣א אָכָ֔ל וְעֵינָיו֙ לֹ֣א נָשָׂ֔א אֶל־גִּלּוּלֵ֖י בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
אֶת־אֵ֥שֶׁת רֵעֵ֖הוּ לֹ֥א טִמֵּֽא
15 On the hills it does not eat, and its eyes it does not lift up to the figurines of the house of Israel.
The wife of its associate, it does not defile.
3e 4B 21
וְאִישׁ֙ לֹ֣א הוֹנָ֔ה חֲבֹל֙ לֹ֣א חָבָ֔ל וּגְזֵלָ֖ה לֹ֣א גָזָ֑ל
לַחְמוֹ֙ לְרָעֵ֣ב נָתָ֔ן וְעֵר֖וֹם כִּסָּה־בָֽגֶד
16 And it does not suppress anyone. The pledge it does not pledge. What is robbed, it has not robbed.
Its bread it gives to the hungry, and the naked it covers with a garment.
3e 4B 16
מֵעָנִ֞י הֵשִׁ֣יב יָד֗וֹ נֶ֤שֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית֙ לֹ֣א לָקָ֔ח מִשְׁפָּטַ֣י עָשָׂ֔ה בְּחֻקּוֹתַ֖י הָלָ֑ךְ
ה֗וּא לֹ֥א יָמ֛וּת בַּעֲוֺ֥ן אָבִ֖יו חָיֹ֥ה יִחְיֶֽה
17 From the poor it reversed its hand, and interest to excess it does not take. My judgments it does. In my statutes it walks.
It will not die in the iniquity of its parent. Living, it will live.
3d 4C 26
אָבִ֞יו כִּֽי־עָ֣שַׁק עֹ֗שֶׁק גָּזַל֙ גֵּ֣זֶל אָ֔ח וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־ט֛וֹב עָשָׂ֖ה בְּת֣וֹךְ עַמָּ֑יו
וְהִנֵּה־מֵ֖ת בַּעֲוֺנֽוֹ
18 Its parent? For it was oppressive. Oppressive, it robbed, robbing kin, and who did no good in the midst of its people,
and behold, it has died in its iniquity.
3d 4B 22
וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֕ם מַדֻּ֛עַ לֹא־נָשָׂ֥א הַבֵּ֖ן בַּעֲוֺ֣ן הָאָ֑ב
וְהַבֵּ֞ן מִשְׁפָּ֧ט וּצְדָקָ֣ה עָשָׂ֗ה אֵ֣ת כָּל־חֻקּוֹתַ֥י שָׁמַ֛ר וַיַּעֲשֶׂ֥ה אֹתָ֖ם חָיֹ֥ה יִחְיֶֽה
19 And you will say, Is it known that the child does not lift up the iniquity of the parent?
When the child does judgment and righteousness, all my statutes it keeps and does them. Living, it will live.
3c 4B 16
הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַחֹטֵ֖את הִ֣יא תָמ֑וּת
בֵּ֞ן לֹא־יִשָּׂ֣א ׀ בַּעֲוֺ֣ן הָאָ֗ב וְאָב֙ לֹ֤א יִשָּׂא֙ בַּעֲוֺ֣ן הַבֵּ֔ן צִדְקַ֤ת הַצַּדִּיק֙ עָלָ֣יו תִּֽהְיֶ֔ה וְרִשְׁעַ֥ת הָרָשָׁ֖ע עָלָ֥יו תִּֽהְיֶֽה
20 The being that sins, it will die.
A child will not lift up the iniquity of the parent, nor will the parent lift up the iniquity of the child. The righteousness of the righteous one will be over it, and the wickedness of the wicked one, over it will be.
3e 4C 9
וְהָרָשָׁ֗ע כִּ֤י יָשׁוּב֙ מִכָּל־חַטֹּאתָיו֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה וְשָׁמַר֙ אֶת־כָּל־חֻקּוֹתַ֔י וְעָשָׂ֥ה מִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּצְדָקָ֑ה
חָיֹ֥ה יִחְיֶ֖ה לֹ֥א יָמֽוּת
21 But the wicked, if it will turn from all its sins that it has undertaken, and will keep all my statutes, and does judgment and justice,
living, it will live. It will not die.
3e 4C 32
כָּל־פְּשָׁעָיו֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה לֹ֥א יִזָּכְר֖וּ ל֑וֹ
בְּצִדְקָת֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֖ה יִֽחְיֶֽה
22 All its transgressions that it did will not be remembered for it.
In its righteousness that it has undertaken, it will live.
3e 4B 13
הֶחָפֹ֤ץ אֶחְפֹּץ֙ מ֣וֹת רָשָׁ֔ע נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה
הֲל֛וֹא בְּשׁוּב֥וֹ מִדְּרָכָ֖יו וְחָיָֽה
23 Do I have delight for delight in the death of one who is wicked? An oracle of my Lord Yahweh.
Is it not that it should turn from its ways and live?
3d 4C 15
וּבְשׁ֨וּב צַדִּ֤יק מִצִּדְקָתוֹ֙ וְעָ֣שָׂה עָ֔וֶל כְּכֹ֨ל הַתּוֹעֵב֜וֹת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֧ה הָרָשָׁ֛ע יַעֲשֶׂ֖ה וָחָ֑י
כָּל־צִדְקֹתָ֤יו אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה֙ לֹ֣א תִזָּכַ֔רְנָה בְּמַעֲל֧וֹ אֲשֶׁר־מָעַ֛ל וּבְחַטָּאת֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָ֖א בָּ֥ם יָמֽוּת
24 And when a righteous one turns from its righteousness and does injustice, according to all the abominations that the wicked one has undertaken, it does, and will it live?
All its righteousness that it did will not be remembered in its trespass which it trespassed and in its sin that it sinned. In them it will die.
3c 4C 31
וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֕ם לֹ֥א יִתָּכֵ֖ן דֶּ֣רֶךְ אֲדֹנָ֑י
שִׁמְעוּ־נָא֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הֲדַרְכִּי֙ לֹ֣א יִתָּכֵ֔ן הֲלֹ֥א דַרְכֵיכֶ֖ם לֹ֥א יִתָּכֵֽנוּ
25 And you will say, The way of my Lord is not stable.
Hear, if you will, O house of Israel, are not my ways stable? Are not your ways unstable?
3e 4B 13
בְּשׁוּב־צַדִּ֧יק מִצִּדְקָת֛וֹ וְעָ֥שָׂה עָ֖וֶל וּמֵ֣ת עֲלֵיהֶ֑ם
בְּעַוְל֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֖ה יָמֽוּת
26 When a righteous one turns from its righteousness and does injustice, then it will die over them.
In its injustice that it has done, it will die.
3c 4B 18
וּבְשׁ֣וּב רָשָׁ֗ע מֵֽרִשְׁעָתוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה וַיַּ֥עַשׂ מִשְׁפָּ֖ט וּצְדָקָ֑ה
ה֖וּא אֶת־נַפְשׁ֥וֹ יְחַיֶּֽה
27 And when one who is wicked turns from its wickedness that it has done and it does judgment and righteousness,
it, its very self, will live.
3e 4B 20
וַיִּרְאֶ֣ה וַיָּ֔שָׁב מִכָּל־פְּשָׁעָ֖יו אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה
חָי֥וֹ יִחְיֶ֖ה לֹ֥א יָמֽוּת
28 As it sees and has turned from all its transgressions that it has done,
to live, it will live. It will not die.
3e 4B 15
וְאָֽמְרוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹ֥א יִתָּכֵ֖ן דֶּ֣רֶךְ אֲדֹנָ֑י
הַדְּרָכַ֞י לֹ֤א יִתָּֽכְנּוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הֲלֹ֥א דַרְכֵיכֶ֖ם לֹ֥א יִתָּכֵֽן
29 And the house of Israel will say, The way of my Lord is not stable.
Is not my way stable, O house of Israel? Are not your ways unstable?
3e 4C 16
לָכֵן֩ אִ֨ישׁ כִּדְרָכָ֜יו אֶשְׁפֹּ֤ט אֶתְכֶם֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה
שׁ֤וּבוּ וְהָשִׁ֙יבוּ֙ מִכָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיכֶ֔ם וְלֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֛ם לְמִכְשׁ֖וֹל עָוֺֽן
30 Therefore, each according to its ways, I will judge you, O house of Israel, an oracle of my Lord Yahweh.
Turn that you may turn from all your transgressions, and iniquity will not be a stumbling-block for you.
3d 4C 21
הַשְׁלִ֣יכוּ מֵעֲלֵיכֶ֗ם אֶת־כָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיכֶם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר פְּשַׁעְתֶּ֣ם בָּ֔ם וַעֲשׂ֥וּ לָכֶ֛ם לֵ֥ב חָדָ֖שׁ וְר֣וּחַ חֲדָשָׁ֑ה
וְלָ֥מָּה תָמֻ֖תוּ בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
31 Cast away from you all your transgressions in which you have transgressed, and make for yourselves a new heart and a new spirit.
So why will you die, O house of Israel?
3d 4B 32
כִּ֣י לֹ֤א אֶחְפֹּץ֙ בְּמ֣וֹת הַמֵּ֔ת נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה
וְהָשִׁ֖יבוּ וִֽחְיֽוּ
32 B For I do not delight in the death of one who dies, an oracle of my Lord Yahweh,
so you may turn and live.
3e 4C 15

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