Sunday, 10 December 2017

2 Samuel 24

You can look these places in the journey up (sort of) on a map. They start by travelling towards modern day Jordan through some places that are not identifiable, into the land of Dan north of Kinnereth, then further north to Sidon where they turn south to Tyre then way south to Beer-sheva, 100 or so km south of Jerusalem. I tried mapping it on Google maps - without much success.

A difficult journey today, and probably difficult in David's time as well.

Verse 1 - what was David doing? In the parallel 1 Chronicles 21, it is an accuser (Hebrew, Satan) who incites David. Could David  just want to 'number' (ספר) Israel. The verb here is מנה, portion, apportion, and in a few places (like Qohelet 1:15) I have used fathom. This seems to me to be a credible sin. Otherwise what's the problem with a census (ראשׁ a head count)?

In response to the request to fathom Joab visits and conscripts (פקד, also commonly visit). I have used this verb also in Numbers where tradition has number. As you can see, counting is represented by 4 different stems in the Hebrew. Hence my predicament when dealing with these, whatever they are, shades of 'meaning'.

It is not possible, by the way, to get answers to these kinds of puzzling questions from a 'study Bible'. Most of these simply assume the traditional glosses and fail even to point out the guesswork behind the scenes of the translations. They are about as good for what we need to know from the Bible as a Google map for an ancient journey.

2 Samuel 24 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיֹּ֙סֶף֙ אַף־יְהוָ֔ה לַחֲר֖וֹת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיָּ֨סֶת אֶת־דָּוִ֤ד בָּהֶם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לֵ֛ךְ מְנֵ֥ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְאֶת־יְהוּדָֽה
1 And again the anger of Yahweh burned in Israel,
and he incited David against them, saying, Go, fathom Israel and Judah.
3d 4C 13
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶל־יוֹאָ֣ב ׀ שַׂר־הַחַ֣יִל אֲשֶׁר־אִתּ֗וֹ שֽׁוּט־נָ֞א בְּכָל־שִׁבְטֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִדָּן֙ וְעַד־בְּאֵ֣ר שֶׁ֔בַע וּפִקְד֖וּ אֶת־הָעָ֑ם
וְיָ֣דַעְתִּ֔י אֵ֖ת מִסְפַּ֥ר הָעָֽם
2 And the king said to Joab, chief of the force that was with him, Rove please among all the sceptres of Israel from Dan and to Beer-Sheva, and conscript the people,
so I may know the count of the people.
3e 4C 40
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יוֹאָ֜ב אֶל־הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וְיוֹסֵ֣ף יְהוָה֩ אֱלֹהֶ֨יךָ אֶל־הָעָ֜ם כָּהֵ֤ם ׀ וְכָהֵם֙ מֵאָ֣ה פְעָמִ֔ים וְעֵינֵ֥י אֲדֹנִֽי־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ רֹא֑וֹת
וַאדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לָ֥מָּה חָפֵ֖ץ בַּדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה
3 And Joab said to the king, May Yahweh your God add to the people as they are, and a hundred times as they are and let the eyes of my lord the king see,
but why does my lord the king delight in this matter?
3e 4C 41
וַיֶּחֱזַ֤ק דְּבַר־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־יוֹאָ֔ב וְעַ֖ל שָׂרֵ֣י הֶחָ֑יִל
וַיֵּצֵ֨א יוֹאָ֜ב וְשָׂרֵ֤י הַחַ֙יִל֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לִפְקֹ֥ד אֶת־הָעָ֖ם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
4 But the word of the king was resolute to Joab and against the chiefs of the force,
and Joab and the chiefs of the force went out, in the presence of the king, to conscript the people, Israel.
3e 4C 19
וַיַּעַבְר֖וּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן
וַיַּחֲנ֣וּ בַעֲרוֹעֵ֗ר יְמִ֥ין הָעִ֛יר אֲשֶׁ֛ר בְּתוֹךְ־הַנַּ֥חַל הַגָּ֖ד וְאֶל־יַעְזֵֽר
5 And they crossed over at the Jordan,
and encamped at Aroer on the right hand of the city that is in the midst of the wadi of Gad, and toward Yazer.
3d 4B 8
וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ הַגִּלְעָ֔דָה וְאֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ תַּחְתִּ֖ים חָדְשִׁ֑י
וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ דָּ֣נָה יַּ֔עַן וְסָבִ֖יב אֶל־צִידֽוֹן
6 And they came toward the Gilead and to the land of lowest new moon [Txtymhodshy],
and they came towards Dan-because [Dan-Yaan] and round about to Sidon.
3e 4B 15
וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ מִבְצַר־צֹ֔ר וְכָל־עָרֵ֥י הַחִוִּ֖י וְהַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֑י
וַיֵּֽצְא֛וּ אֶל־נֶ֥גֶב יְהוּדָ֖ה בְּאֵ֥ר שָֽׁבַע
7 And they came the enclosure of Tyre, and all the cities of the Hivite and the Canaanite,
and they went forth to the south of Judah, Beer-Sheva.
3d 4A 18
וַיָּשֻׁ֖טוּ בְּכָל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וַיָּבֹ֜אוּ מִקְצֵ֨ה תִשְׁעָ֧ה חֳדָשִׁ֛ים וְעֶשְׂרִ֥ים י֖וֹם יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם
8 And they held out in all the land,
and came at the culmination of nine months and twenty days to Jerusalem.
3c 4A 9
וַיִּתֵּ֥ן יוֹאָ֛ב אֶת־מִסְפַּ֥ר מִפְקַד־הָעָ֖ם אֶל־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
וַתְּהִ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֡ל שְׁמֹנֶה֩ מֵא֨וֹת אֶ֤לֶף אִֽישׁ־חַ֙יִל֙ שֹׁ֣לֵֽף חֶ֔רֶב וְאִ֣ישׁ יְהוּדָ֔ה חֲמֵשׁ־מֵא֥וֹת אֶ֖לֶף אִֽישׁ
9 And Joab gave the count of the conscription of the people to the king.
And there were in Israel eight hundred thousand men of ability that drew a sword, and those of Judah, five hundred thousand men.
3d 4C 16
וַיַּ֤ךְ לֵב־דָּוִד֙ אֹת֔וֹ אַחֲרֵי־כֵ֖ן סָפַ֣ר אֶת־הָעָ֑ם
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶל־יְהוָ֗ה חָטָ֤אתִי מְאֹד֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֔יתִי וְעַתָּ֣ה יְהוָ֔ה הַֽעֲבֶר־נָא֙ אֶת־עֲוֺ֣ן עַבְדְּךָ֔ כִּ֥י נִסְכַּ֖לְתִּי מְאֹֽד
10 And the heart of David struck him after so counting the people,
and David said to Yahweh, I have sinned excessively in what I have done, and now Yahweh, let please the iniquity of your servant pass by, for I have been excessively silly.
3e 4C 16
וַיָּ֥קָם דָּוִ֖ד בַּבֹּ֑קֶר
וּדְבַר־יְהוָ֗ה הָיָה֙ אֶל־גָּ֣ד הַנָּבִ֔יא חֹזֵ֥ה דָוִ֖ד לֵאמֹֽר
11 And David arose in the morning,
and the word of Yahweh happened to Gad the prophet, the visionary for David, saying,
3e 4B 8
הָל֞וֹךְ וְדִבַּרְתָּ֣ אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה שָׁלֹ֕שׁ אָנֹכִ֖י נוֹטֵ֣ל עָלֶ֑יךָ
בְּחַר־לְךָ֥ אַֽחַת־מֵהֶ֖ם וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לָּֽךְ
12 Go and speak to David, Thus says Yahweh, Three I will tolerate over you.
Chose one of them for you, that I will undertake for you.
3e 4C 24
וַיָּבֹא־גָ֥ד אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד וַיַּגֶּד־ל֑וֹ
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֡וֹ הֲתָב֣וֹא לְךָ֣ שֶֽׁבַע שָׁנִ֣ים ׀ רָעָ֣ב ׀ בְּאַרְצֶ֡ךָ אִם־שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה חֳ֠דָשִׁים נֻסְךָ֨ לִפְנֵֽי־צָרֶ֜יךָ וְה֣וּא רֹדְפֶ֗ךָ וְאִם־הֱ֠יוֹת שְׁלֹ֨שֶׁת יָמִ֥ים דֶּ֙בֶר֙ בְּאַרְצֶ֔ךָ עַתָּה֙ דַּ֣ע וּרְאֵ֔ה מָה־אָשִׁ֥יב שֹׁלְחִ֖י דָּבָֽר
13 So Gad came to David and made it clear to him,
and said to him, Will seven years of famine come to you in your land, or three months you withdraw before your foes while he pursues you, or will there be three days pestilence in your land? Now acknowledge and see. What word will I return to him who sent me?
3e 4B 11
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר דָּוִ֛ד אֶל־גָּ֖ד צַר־לִ֣י מְאֹ֑ד
נִפְּלָה־נָּ֤א בְיַד־יְהוָה֙ כִּֽי־רַבִּ֣ים רַֽחֲמָ֔יו וּבְיַד־אָדָ֖ם אַל־אֶפֹּֽלָה
14 And David said to Gad, My troubles are excessive.
Let us fall, please, into the hand of Yahweh, for many are his compassions, and into the hand of humanity let me not fall.
3c 4C 11
וַיִּתֵּ֨ן יְהוָ֥ה דֶּ֙בֶר֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מֵהַבֹּ֖קֶר וְעַד־עֵ֣ת מוֹעֵ֑ד
וַיָּ֣מָת מִן־הָעָ֗ם מִדָּן֙ וְעַד־בְּאֵ֣ר שֶׁ֔בַע שִׁבְעִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף אִֽישׁ
15 And Yahweh gave a pestilence on Israel, from the morning and to an appointed time,
and there died from the people, from Dan and to Beer-Sheva, seventy thousand men.
3e 4B 20
וַיִּשְׁלַח֩ יָד֨וֹ הַמַּלְאָ֥ךְ ׀ יְרֽוּשָׁלִַם֮ לְשַׁחֲתָהּ֒ וַיִּנָּ֤חֶם יְהוָה֙ אֶל־הָ֣רָעָ֔ה וַ֠יֹּאמֶר לַמַּלְאָ֞ךְ הַמַּשְׁחִ֤ית בָּעָם֙ רַ֔ב עַתָּ֖ה הֶ֣רֶף יָדֶ֑ךָ
וּמַלְאַ֤ךְ יְהוָה֙ הָיָ֔ה עִם־גֹּ֖רֶן הָאֲרַ֥וְנָה הַיְבֻסִֽי
16 And the angel extended his hand to Jerusalem to destroy, and Yahweh sighed at the evil, and said to the angel, the destroyer among the people, Too much now. Let your hand desist.
And the angel of Yahweh was beside the threshing-floor of Aravnah the Jebusite.
3e 4C 45
וַיֹּאמֶר֩ דָּוִ֨ד אֶל־יְהוָ֜ה בִּרְאֹת֣וֹ ׀ אֶֽת־הַמַּלְאָ֣ךְ ׀ הַמַּכֶּ֣ה בָעָ֗ם וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הִנֵּ֨ה אָנֹכִ֤י חָטָ֙אתִי֙ וְאָנֹכִ֣י הֶעֱוֵ֔יתִי וְאֵ֥לֶּה הַצֹּ֖אן מֶ֣ה עָשׂ֑וּ
תְּהִ֨י נָ֥א יָדְךָ֛ בִּ֖י וּבְבֵ֥ית אָבִֽי
17 And David said to Yahweh when he saw the angel of striking among the people, and he said, Behold I, I have sinned, and I myself have been perverse, but these, the flock, what have they done?
Let be, if you will, your hand against me, and against the house of my father.
3d 4C 47
וַיָּבֹא־גָ֥ד אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ עֲלֵה֙ הָקֵ֤ם לַֽיהוָה֙ מִזְבֵּ֔חַ בְּגֹ֖רֶן אֲרַ֥וְנָה הַיְבֻסִֽי
18 So Gad came to David in that day,
and said to him. Go up. Raise up for Yahweh an altar on the threshing-floor of Aravnah the Jebusite.
3e 4C 11
וַיַּ֤עַל דָּוִד֙ כִּדְבַר־גָּ֔ד כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָֽה 19 And David went up according to the word of Gad as Yahweh commanded. 3e 4C 15
וַיַּשְׁקֵ֣ף אֲרַ֗וְנָה וַיַּ֤רְא אֶת־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וְאֶת־עֲבָדָ֔יו עֹבְרִ֖ים עָלָ֑יו
וַיֵּצֵ֣א אֲרַ֔וְנָה וַיִּשְׁתַּ֧חוּ לַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אַפָּ֖יו אָֽרְצָה
20 And Aravnah leaned over to look and he saw the king and his servants crossing to him,
and Aravnah went out and he prostrated himself to the king, his nose earthward.
3c 4C 21
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲרַ֔וְנָה מַדּ֛וּעַ בָּ֥א אֲדֹנִֽי־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶל־עַבְדּ֑וֹ
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד לִקְנ֧וֹת מֵעִמְּךָ֣ אֶת־הַגֹּ֗רֶן לִבְנ֤וֹת מִזְבֵּ֙חַ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה וְתֵעָצַ֥ר הַמַּגֵּפָ֖ה מֵעַ֥ל הָעָֽם
21 And Aravnah said, Why has my lord the king come to his servant?
And David said, To buy from you the threshing-floor to build an altar to Yahweh, that the plague may be contained from over the people.
3c 4C 18
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲרַ֙וְנָה֙ אֶל־דָּוִ֔ד יִקַּ֥ח וְיַ֛עַל אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ הַטּ֣וֹב בְּעֵינָ֑יו
רְאֵה֙ הַבָּקָ֣ר לָעֹלָ֔ה וְהַמֹּרִגִּ֛ים וּכְלֵ֥י הַבָּקָ֖ר לָעֵצִֽים
22 And Aravnah said to David, Let my lord the king take and offer up what is good in his eyes.
See the oxen for the burnt offering, and threshing instruments and vessels of the oxen, for wood.
3d 4C 25
הַכֹּ֗ל נָתַ֛ן אֲרַ֥וְנָה הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲרַ֙וְנָה֙ אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ יִרְצֶֽךָ
23 The whole Aravnah gave to the king for the king.
And Aravnah said to the king, Yahweh your God accept you.
3d 4C 13
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶל־אֲרַ֗וְנָה לֹ֚א כִּֽי־קָנ֨וֹ אֶקְנֶ֤ה מֵאֽוֹתְךָ֙ בִּמְחִ֔יר וְלֹ֧א אַעֲלֶ֛ה לַיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהַ֖י עֹל֣וֹת חִנָּ֑ם
וַיִּ֨קֶן דָּוִ֤ד אֶת־הַגֹּ֙רֶן֙ וְאֶת־הַבָּקָ֔ר בְּכֶ֖סֶף שְׁקָלִ֥ים חֲמִשִּֽׁים
24 And the king said to Aravnah, No, for buying, I will buy from you at a price, for I should not offer up to Yahweh my God burnt offerings for nothing.
And David bought the threshing-floor and the oxen with fifty shekels of silver.
3c 4C 34
וַיִּבֶן֩ שָׁ֨ם דָּוִ֤ד מִזְבֵּ֙חַ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה וַיַּ֥עַל עֹל֖וֹת וּשְׁלָמִ֑ים
וַיֵּעָתֵ֤ר יְהוָה֙ לָאָ֔רֶץ וַתֵּעָצַ֥ר הַמַּגֵּפָ֖ה מֵעַ֥ל יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
25 And David built there an altar to Yahweh, and he offered up burnt offerings and peace offerings,
and Yahweh was petitioned for the land and the plague was contained from over Israel.
3e 4C 19

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