Friday, March 11, 2016

1 Chronicles 16

This chapter has considerable interest from a musical point of view. Much of this chapter is duplicated in the Psalms.

[excerpted from a draft of a chapter in my new book, publication date scheduled Nov 2016].
Three psalms are sung. This makes it possible to compare the psalms as they are in the Psalter with three examples pointed with the prose accents. As in 2 Samuel 22 (||Psalm 18), the words and the versification may be different as well as the music. Before the psalms are sung, the generosity of the king is noted as well as his beginning the praises with the choir and its head that he appointed from the Levites.

The parallel of Psalm 105 in 1 Chronicles illustrates the use of prose accents in imitation of the poetic and in this case with a stronger alignment to the sentence structure. 1 Chronicles 16.8 is clearly a tri-colon, but the equivalent Psalm verse is phrased as a bi-colon. The power of the ornaments to divide the line is also illustrated. The atnah seldom occurs in this chapter. In the poetry from verse 7 to 33, it occurs only in verses 29 and 33. This is in contrast to its use in the Psalter in these same poems.

A rendition of 1 Chronicles 16.8-36 from the Letteris edition shows a number of additional meteg accents (=silluq) which are varied from both the Aleppo and the Leningrad codices. Levin (1994: 129) notes a tendency that earlier manuscripts have fewer metegs but here both Aleppo and Leningrad are also different. While the differences are not critical to transparency, they do make me wonder what the rationale was in the scribe’s mind for the additional accents. Were they accents only? I suspect so. But if followed they frequently bring the music down from a C recitation to a low e recitation. As a result, verses that would have had a similar shape in the song now differ.

Some changes are also evident between later editions of Psalm 96. Letteris has added a meteg and again, likely inadvertently, changed the music. Letteris 1946 was not aware of Haïk-Vantoura’s work. The meteg may have been deemed necessary for stress but is not needed for the music, and this particular one is not in the Aleppo or the Leningrad codex. 

But it sounds very rhythmic and suitable in the context. That demonstrates that the text as we have received it may have copying problems that impair or enhance, even if by accident, the effectiveness of the music derived according to Haïk-Vantoura’s key.

1 Chronicles 16
וַיָּבִ֙יאוּ֙ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים וַיַּצִּ֣יגוּ אֹת֔וֹ בְּת֣וֹךְ הָאֹ֔הֶל אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָֽטָה־ל֖וֹ דָּוִ֑יד
וַיַּקְרִ֛יבוּ עֹל֥וֹת וּשְׁלָמִ֖ים לִפְנֵ֥י הָאֱלֹהִֽים
1 And they brought the ark of God and exhibited it in the midst of the tent that David had erected for it.
And they came near with burnt offerings and peace offerings in the presence of God.
29
15
וַיְכַ֣ל דָּוִ֔יד מֵהַעֲל֥וֹת הָעֹלָ֖ה וְהַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים
וַיְבָ֥רֶךְ אֶת־הָעָ֖ם בְּשֵׁ֥ם יְהוָֽה
2 And David finished offering up the burnt offerings and the peace offerings,
and he blessed the people in the name of Yahweh.
15
10
וַיְחַלֵּק֙ לְכָל־אִ֣ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מֵאִ֖ישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁ֑ה
לְאִישׁ֙ כִּכַּר־לֶ֔חֶם וְאֶשְׁפָּ֖ר וַאֲשִׁישָֽׁה
3 And he divided for every person in Israel from each man and to each woman,
to each a talent of bread and a select portion and a raisin cake.
15
13
וַיִּתֵּ֞ן לִפְנֵ֨י אֲר֧וֹן יְהוָ֛ה מִן־הַלְוִיִּ֖ם מְשָׁרְתִ֑ים
וּלְהַזְכִּיר֙ וּלְהוֹד֣וֹת וּלְהַלֵּ֔ל לַיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
4 And he assigned before the ark of Yahweh from the Levites ministers
that they would remember and with splendour to render praise to Yahweh the God of Israel.
16
17
אָסָ֥ף הָרֹ֖אשׁ וּמִשְׁנֵ֣הוּ זְכַרְיָ֑ה
יְעִיאֵ֡ל וּשְׁמִֽירָמ֡וֹת וִֽיחִיאֵ֡ל וּמַתִּתְיָ֡ה וֶאֱלִיאָ֡ב וּבְנָיָהוּ֩ וְעֹבֵ֨ד אֱדֹ֜ם וִֽיעִיאֵ֗ל בִּכְלֵ֤י נְבָלִים֙ וּבְכִנֹּר֔וֹת וְאָסָ֖ף בַּֽמְצִלְתַּ֥יִם מַשְׁמִֽיעַ
5 Asaph the head and second to him Zekariah,
Jeiel, and Shemiramoth, and Jechiel and Mattithiah and Eliab and Benaiah and Obed Edom and Jeiel with instruments, lutes and harps, and Asaph with cymbals, broadcast.
11
48
וּבְנָיָ֥הוּ וְיַחֲזִיאֵ֖ל הַכֹּהֲנִ֑ים
בַּחֲצֹצְר֣וֹת תָּמִ֔יד לִפְנֵ֖י אֲר֥וֹן בְּרִית־הָאֱלֹהִֽים
6 And Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests,
with the trumpets continually before the ark of the covenant of the God.
13
16
בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא אָ֣ז נָתַ֤ן דָּוִיד֙ בָּרֹ֔אשׁ לְהֹד֖וֹת לַיהוָ֑ה
בְּיַד־אָסָ֖ף וְאֶחָֽיו
7 On that day then, David chanted as the beginning of thanksgiving to Yahweh,
by the hand of Asaph and his kin.
16
7
הוֹד֤וּ לַֽיהוָה֙ קִרְא֣וּ בִשְׁמ֔וֹ הוֹדִ֥יעוּ בָעַמִּ֖ים עֲלִילֹתָֽיו 8 Give thanks to Yahweh. Call in his name. Make known among the peoples his prodigality. 18
שִׁ֤ירוּ לוֹ֙ זַמְּרוּ־ל֔וֹ שִׂ֖יחוּ בְּכָל־נִפְלְאֹתָֽיו 9 Sing to him. Sing a psalm to him. Ponder on all his wonders. 13
הִֽתְהַֽלְלוּ֙ בְּשֵׁ֣ם קָדְשׁ֔וֹ יִשְׂמַ֕ח לֵ֖ב מְבַקְשֵׁ֥י יְהוָֽה 10 Praise in the name of his holiness. The heart of those who seek Yahweh will be glad. 15
דִּרְשׁ֤וּ יְהוָה֙ וְעֻזּ֔וֹ בַּקְּשׁ֥וּ פָנָ֖יו תָּמִֽיד 11 Enquire of Yahweh and his strength. Seek his face continually. 13
זִכְר֗וּ נִפְלְאֹתָיו֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה מֹפְתָ֖יו וּמִשְׁפְּטֵי־פִֽיהוּ 12 Remember his wonders that he did, his portents and the judgments of his mouth. 17
זֶ֚רַע יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל עַבְדּ֔וֹ בְּנֵ֥י יַעֲקֹ֖ב בְּחִירָֽיו 13 O seed of Israel his servant, children of Jacob his chosen. 15
ה֚וּא יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ בְּכָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ מִשְׁפָּטָֽיו 14 He is Yahweh our God. In all the earth are his judgments. 15
זִכְר֤וּ לְעוֹלָם֙ בְּרִית֔וֹ דָּבָ֥ר צִוָּ֖ה לְאֶ֥לֶף דּֽוֹר 15 Remember forever his covenant, the word he commanded to a thousand generations, 16
אֲשֶׁ֤ר כָּרַת֙ אֶת־אַבְרָהָ֔ם וּשְׁבוּעָת֖וֹ לְיִצְחָֽק 16 which he cut with Abraham, and his oath to Isaac. 15
וַיַּעֲמִידֶ֤הָ לְיַעֲקֹב֙ לְחֹ֔ק לְיִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּרִ֥ית עוֹלָֽם 17 And stood by it to Jacob as a statute, for Israel a covenant ever. 20
לֵאמֹ֗ר לְךָ֙ אֶתֵּ֣ן אֶֽרֶץ־כְּנָ֔עַן חֶ֖בֶל נַחֲלַתְכֶֽם 18 Saying, To you I will give the land of Canaan, the pledge of your inheritance. 17
בִּֽהְיֽוֹתְכֶם֙ מְתֵ֣י מִסְפָּ֔ר כִּמְעַ֖ט וְגָרִ֥ים בָּֽהּ 19 When they were men counted as few, and guests in it. 13
וַיִּֽתְהַלְּכוּ֙ מִגּ֣וֹי אֶל־גּ֔וֹי וּמִמַּמְלָכָ֖ה אֶל־עַ֥ם אַחֵֽר 20 And they were meandering from nation to nation, from a kingdom to another people. 19
לֹא־הִנִּ֤יחַ לְאִישׁ֙ לְעָשְׁקָ֔ם וַיּ֥וֹכַח עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם מְלָכִֽים 21 He did not allow anyone to oppress them and he reproved kings over them. 17
אַֽל־תִּגְּעוּ֙ בִּמְשִׁיחָ֔י וּבִנְבִיאַ֖י אַל־תָּרֵֽעוּ 22 Do not touch my anointed and to my prophets do no evil. 14
שִׁ֤ירוּ לַֽיהוָה֙ כָּל־הָאָ֔רֶץ בַּשְּׂר֥וּ מִיּֽוֹם־אֶל־י֖וֹם יְשׁוּעָתֽוֹ 23 Sing to Yahweh all the earth. Publish from day to day his salvation. 18
סַפְּר֤וּ בַגּוֹיִם֙ אֶת־כְּבוֹד֔וֹ בְּכָל־הָעַמִּ֖ים נִפְלְאֹתָֽיו 24 Recount in the nations his glory, to all the peoples his wonders. 18
כִּי֩ גָד֨וֹל יְהוָ֤ה וּמְהֻלָּל֙ מְאֹ֔ד וְנוֹרָ֥א ה֖וּא עַל־כָּל־אֱלֹהִֽים 25 For great is Yahweh and much to be praised. He is to be feared above all gods. 19
כִּ֠י כָּל־אֱלֹהֵ֤י הָעַמִּים֙ אֱלִילִ֔ים וַיהוָ֖ה שָׁמַ֥יִם עָשָֽׂה 26 For all the gods of the peoples are good for nothing, but Yahweh made the heavens. 17
ה֤וֹד וְהָדָר֙ לְפָנָ֔יו עֹ֥ז וְחֶדְוָ֖ה בִּמְקֹמֽוֹ 27 Splendour and honour are in his presence. Strength and cheer are in his place. 14
הָב֤וּ לַֽיהוָה֙ מִשְׁפְּח֣וֹת עַמִּ֔ים הָב֥וּ לַיהוָ֖ה כָּב֥וֹד וָעֹֽז 28 Ascribe to Yahweh families of the peoples, ascribe to Yahweh glory and strength. 17
הָב֥וּ לַיהוָ֖ה כְּב֣וֹד שְׁמ֑וֹ
שְׂא֤וּ מִנְחָה֙ וּבֹ֣אוּ לְפָנָ֔יו הִשְׁתַּחֲו֥וּ לַיהוָ֖ה בְּהַדְרַת־קֹֽדֶשׁ
29 Ascribe to Yahweh the glory of his name. Bear a gift and come into his presence. Worship Yahweh in the honour of holiness. 8
20
חִ֤ילוּ מִלְּפָנָיו֙ כָּל־הָאָ֔רֶץ אַף־תִּכּ֥וֹן תֵּבֵ֖ל בַּל־תִּמּֽוֹט 30 Let all the earth be brought to birth from his presence. Indeed the world is established so it will not move. 17
יִשְׂמְח֤וּ הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ וְתָגֵ֣ל הָאָ֔רֶץ וְיֹאמְר֥וּ בַגּוֹיִ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה מָלָֽךְ 31 Let the heavens be glad and let the earth rejoice, and let them say in the nations, Yahweh reigns. 22
יִרְעַ֤ם הַיָּם֙ וּמְלוֹא֔וֹ יַעֲלֹ֥ץ הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־בּֽוֹ 32 Let the sea thunder and its fullness. let the field be elated and all that are in it. 18
אָ֥ז יְרַנְּנ֖וּ עֲצֵ֣י הַיָּ֑עַר
מִלִּפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה כִּי־בָ֖א לִשְׁפּ֥וֹט אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ
33 Then the trees of the wood will shout for joy
from the presence of Yahweh, for he comes to judge the earth.
9
12
הוֹד֤וּ לַיהוָה֙ כִּ֣י ט֔וֹב כִּ֥י לְעוֹלָ֖ם חַסְדּֽוֹ 34 Give thanks to Yahweh for it is good for
his loving-kindness is forever.
12
וְאִמְר֕וּ הוֹשִׁיעֵ֙נוּ֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׁעֵ֔נוּ וְקַבְּצֵ֥נוּ וְהַצִּילֵ֖נוּ מִן־הַגּוֹיִ֑ם
לְהֹדוֹת֙ לְשֵׁ֣ם קָדְשֶׁ֔ךָ לְהִשְׁתַּבֵּ֖חַ בִּתְהִלָּתֶֽךָ
35 And say, Save us, O God of our salvation, and collect us and deliver us from the nations,
to give thanks to your holy name, to commend your praises.
26
18
בָּר֤וּךְ יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מִן־הָעוֹלָ֖ם וְעַ֣ד הָעֹלָ֑ם
וַיֹּאמְר֤וּ כָל־הָעָם֙ אָמֵ֔ן וְהַלֵּ֖ל לַֽיהוָֽה
36 Bless Yahweh the God of Israel from the everlasting and unto the everlasting,
and let all the people say amen and praise Yahweh.
19
13
וַיַּֽעֲזָב־שָׁ֗ם לִפְנֵי֙ אֲר֣וֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָ֔ה לְאָסָ֖ף וּלְאֶחָ֑יו
לְשָׁרֵ֞ת לִפְנֵ֧י הָאָר֛וֹן תָּמִ֖יד לִדְבַר־י֥וֹם בְּיוֹמֽוֹ
37 So he deferred there before the ark of the covenant of Yahweh to Asaph and his kin,
to minister before the ark continually for the word day by day.
19
16
וְעֹבֵ֥ד אֱדֹ֛ם וַאֲחֵיהֶ֖ם שִׁשִּׁ֣ים וּשְׁמוֹנָ֑ה
וְעֹבֵ֨ד אֱדֹ֧ם בֶּן־יְדִית֛וּן וְחֹסָ֖ה לְשֹׁעֲרִֽים
38 And Obed Edom and their kin sixty eight,
and Obed Edom, child of Jeduthun, and Hosah as gatekeepers.
14
16
וְאֵ֣ת ׀ צָד֣וֹק הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְאֶחָיו֙ הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים לִפְנֵ֖י מִשְׁכַּ֣ן יְהוָ֑ה
בַּבָּמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּגִבְעֽוֹן
39 And Zadok the priest and his kin the priests before the dwelling of Yahweh,
in the high place that was Gibeon,
20
8
לְֽהַעֲלוֹת֩ עֹל֨וֹת לַיהוָ֜ה עַל־מִזְבַּ֧ח הָעֹלָ֛ה תָּמִ֖יד לַבֹּ֣קֶר וְלָעָ֑רֶב
וּלְכָל־הַכָּתוּב֙ בְּתוֹרַ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֖ה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
40 to offer up burnt offerings to Yahweh upon the altar of the burnt offering continually in the morning and in the evening,
and for all that is written in the instruction of Yahweh which he commanded concerning Israel.
23
18
וְעִמָּהֶם֙ הֵימָ֣ן וִֽידוּת֔וּן וּשְׁאָר֙ הַבְּרוּרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִקְּב֖וּ בְּשֵׁמ֑וֹת
לְהֹדוֹת֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה כִּ֥י לְעוֹלָ֖ם חַסְדּֽוֹ
41 And with them Heman and Jeduthun and the purified extras that were drilled by name,
to give thanks to Yahweh for is forever his loving-kindness.
21
11
וְעִמָּהֶם֩ הֵימָ֨ן וִֽידוּת֜וּן חֲצֹצְר֤וֹת וּמְצִלְתַּ֙יִם֙ לְמַשְׁמִיעִ֔ים וּכְלֵ֖י שִׁ֣יר הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים
וּבְנֵ֥י יְדוּת֖וּן לַשָּֽׁעַר
42 And with them Heman and Jeduthun with trumpets and cymbals and those who make music and instruments of the song of God.
And the children of Jeduthun were gatekeepers.
26
8
וַיֵּלְכ֥וּ כָל־הָעָ֖ם אִ֣ישׁ לְבֵית֑וֹ
וַיִּסֹּ֥ב דָּוִ֖יד לְבָרֵ֥ךְ אֶת־בֵּיתֽוֹ
43 And went all the people each to his own house.
And David circled around to bless his house.
10
11
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