Wednesday, October 31, 2018

Deuteronomy 22

The last chapter of Deuteronomy. The last chapter of Torah. These legal sections appear to me to be an awkward use of the language. I feel as if I am in a strange land. Yet there are moments of tenderness. These rules may be the underpinning for some cultures attitudes to women. How do we deal with this when there is no male and female (Galatians)?

Here we see גבר unambiguously used for designating a man in distinction from a woman. This is the first time I have seen this almost forced on me, though it might have been convenient at other times. With this stem I have always be able to qualify it with a variation on valour/valiant.  I have allowed man/men with other stems. (אישׁ and מת). Verse 5 surely puts this prohibition in the context of the time. A time of forcefulness. Not that such is foreign to us.

Verse 9, כלא doubly confined, as in Leviticus 19:19. The dominant gloss for the root is restrain, occasionally holding-pen or fold. There are idiomatic uses of some words like ברך bless and קדשׁ holy where the intent is the opposite, curse ארר or defiled טמא. I don't translate these (e.g. here and in Job 1-2). It's up to the reader to decide on what the text says to them, not the translator.

Deuteronomy 22 Fn Min Max Syll
לֹֽא־תִרְאֶה֩ אֶת־שׁ֨וֹר אָחִ֜יךָ א֤וֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ֙ נִדָּחִ֔ים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ֖ מֵהֶ֑ם
הָשֵׁ֥ב תְּשִׁיבֵ֖ם לְאָחִֽיךָ
1 You will not see the bull of your brother, or his lamb enticed away. You will not obscure yourself from them.
You will return them to your kin.
3e 4C 22
וְאִם־לֹ֨א קָר֥וֹב אָחִ֛יךָ אֵלֶ֖יךָ וְלֹ֣א יְדַעְתּ֑וֹ
וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ֙ אֶל־תּ֣וֹךְ בֵּיתֶ֔ךָ וְהָיָ֣ה עִמְּךָ֗ עַ֣ד דְּרֹ֤שׁ אָחִ֙יךָ֙ אֹת֔וֹ וַהֲשֵׁבֹת֖וֹ לֽוֹ
2 And if your brother is not near to you, or you do not know him,
then you will gather it into the centre of your house, that it may be with you until your brother searches it out. And you will return it to him.
3d 4C 16
וְכֵ֧ן תַּעֲשֶׂ֣ה לַחֲמֹר֗וֹ וְכֵ֣ן תַּעֲשֶׂה֮ לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ֒ וְכֵ֣ן תַּעֲשֶׂ֜ה לְכָל־אֲבֵדַ֥ת אָחִ֛יךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַ֥ד מִמֶּ֖נּוּ וּמְצָאתָ֑הּ
לֹ֥א תוּכַ֖ל לְהִתְעַלֵּֽם
3 And so you will do for his ass. And so you will do for his habit. And so you will do for anything lost by your brother that is lost from him, and you have found.
You can not obscure yourself.
3c 4B 41
לֹא־תִרְאֶה֩ אֶת־חֲמ֨וֹר אָחִ֜יךָ א֤וֹ שׁוֹרוֹ֙ נֹפְלִ֣ים בַּדֶּ֔רֶךְ וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ֖ מֵהֶ֑ם
הָקֵ֥ם תָּקִ֖ים עִמּֽוֹ
4 You will not see the ass of your brother, or his bull, fallen in the way, and obscure yourself from them.
You will raise them up with him.
3e 4C 24
לֹא־יִהְיֶ֤ה כְלִי־גֶ֙בֶר֙ עַל־אִשָּׁ֔ה וְלֹא־יִלְבַּ֥שׁ גֶּ֖בֶר שִׂמְלַ֣ת אִשָּׁ֑ה
כִּ֧י תוֹעֲבַ֛ת יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ כָּל־עֹ֥שֵׂה אֵֽלֶּה
5 There will not be an article of a valiant man on a woman, and a valiant man will not be clothed with the habit of a woman,
for an abomination to Yahweh your God are all doing these things.
3c 4C 19
כִּ֣י יִקָּרֵ֣א קַן־צִפּ֣וֹר ׀ לְפָנֶ֡יךָ בַּדֶּ֜רֶךְ בְּכָל־עֵ֣ץ ׀ א֣וֹ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֶפְרֹחִים֙ א֣וֹ בֵיצִ֔ים וְהָאֵ֤ם רֹבֶ֙צֶת֙ עַל־הָֽאֶפְרֹחִ֔ים א֖וֹ עַל־הַבֵּיצִ֑ים
לֹא־תִקַּ֥ח הָאֵ֖ם עַל־הַבָּנִֽים
6 B When a bird's nest is encountered before you in the way, in any tree, or over the earth, the brood or eggs, and the mother laying on the brood, or on the eggs,
you will not take the mother over the little ones.
3e 4C 44
שַׁלֵּ֤חַ תְּשַׁלַּח֙ אֶת־הָאֵ֔ם וְאֶת־הַבָּנִ֖ים תִּֽקַּֽח־לָ֑ךְ
לְמַ֙עַן֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ וְהַאֲרַכְתָּ֖ יָמִֽים
7 You will set loose the mother, and the little ones you will take for yourself,
so that it may be good for you, and you may have length of days.
3e 4C 17
כִּ֤י תִבְנֶה֙ בַּ֣יִת חָדָ֔שׁ וְעָשִׂ֥יתָ מַעֲקֶ֖ה לְגַגֶּ֑ךָ
וְלֹֽא־תָשִׂ֤ים דָּמִים֙ בְּבֵיתֶ֔ךָ כִּֽי־יִפֹּ֥ל הַנֹּפֵ֖ל מִמֶּֽנּוּ
8 C When you build a new house, then you will make a parapet for your roof,
that you will not put blood in your house, if someone should fall from it.
3e 4C 18
לֹא־תִזְרַ֥ע כַּרְמְךָ֖ כִּלְאָ֑יִם
פֶּן־תִּקְדַּ֗שׁ הַֽמְלֵאָ֤ה הַזֶּ֙רַע֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּזְרָ֔ע וּתְבוּאַ֖ת הַכָּֽרֶם
9 You will not sow your vineyard doubly confined,
lest the fullness of the seed that you sowed be holy, and the income of the vineyard.
3e 4C 9
לֹֽא־תַחֲרֹ֥שׁ בְּשׁוֹר־וּבַחֲמֹ֖ר יַחְדָּֽו 10 You will not plough with bull and ass together. 3e 3g 11
לֹ֤א תִלְבַּשׁ֙ שַֽׁעַטְנֵ֔ז צֶ֥מֶר וּפִשְׁתִּ֖ים יַחְדָּֽו 11 C You will not clothe yourself with linen and wool, wool and flax together. 3e 4C 13
גְּדִלִ֖ים תַּעֲשֶׂה־לָּ֑ךְ
עַל־אַרְבַּ֛ע כַּנְפ֥וֹת כְּסוּתְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תְּכַסֶּה־בָּֽהּ
12 Great things you will make for yourself,
on the four hems of your cover with which you cover yourself.
3d 4A 7
כִּֽי־יִקַּ֥ח אִ֖ישׁ אִשָּׁ֑ה
וּבָ֥א אֵלֶ֖יהָ וּשְׂנֵאָֽהּ
13 If a man takes a woman,
and comes in to her and hates her,
3e 4A 5
וְשָׂ֥ם לָהּ֙ עֲלִילֹ֣ת דְּבָרִ֔ים וְהוֹצִ֥יא עָלֶ֖יהָ שֵׁ֣ם רָ֑ע
וְאָמַ֗ר אֶת־הָאִשָּׁ֤ה הַזֹּאת֙ לָקַ֔חְתִּי וָאֶקְרַ֣ב אֵלֶ֔יהָ וְלֹא־מָצָ֥אתִי לָ֖הּ בְּתוּלִֽים
14 And he sets her up with wantonness of words, and he brings forth against her an evil name,
and says, I took this woman, and I came near to her, and I did not find her a virgin,
3e 4C 17
וְלָקַ֛ח אֲבִ֥י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֖ה וְאִמָּ֑הּ
וְהוֹצִ֜יאוּ אֶת־בְּתוּלֵ֧י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֛ה אֶל־זִקְנֵ֥י הָעִ֖יר הַשָּֽׁעְרָה
15 Than the father of the lass and her mother will take,
and will bring forth the proof of virginity of the lass to the elders of city toward the gate.
3c 4A 12
וְאָמַ֛ר אֲבִ֥י הַֽנַּעַרָ֖ה אֶל־הַזְּקֵנִ֑ים
אֶת־בִּתִּ֗י נָתַ֜תִּי לָאִ֥ישׁ הַזֶּ֛ה לְאִשָּׁ֖ה וַיִּשְׂנָאֶֽהָ
16 And the father of the lass will say to the elders,
My daughter I gave to this man as wife, and he hates her.
3d 4A 13
וְהִנֵּה־ה֡וּא שָׂם֩ עֲלִילֹ֨ת דְּבָרִ֜ים לֵאמֹ֗ר לֹֽא־מָצָ֤אתִי לְבִתְּךָ֙ בְּתוּלִ֔ים וְאֵ֖לֶּה בְּתוּלֵ֣י בִתִּ֑י
וּפָֽרְשׂוּ֙ הַשִּׂמְלָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י זִקְנֵ֥י הָעִֽיר
17 And behold he set a wantonness of words, saying, I have not found your daughter a virgin, but these are the proof of virginity of my daughter.
And he will spread a shawl before the elders of city.
3e 4C 30
וְלָֽקְח֛וּ זִקְנֵ֥י הָֽעִיר־הַהִ֖וא אֶת־הָאִ֑ישׁ
וְיִסְּר֖וּ אֹתֽוֹ
18 And the elders of city will take that man,
and will chasten him.
3d 4A 12
וְעָנְשׁ֨וּ אֹת֜וֹ מֵ֣אָה כֶ֗סֶף וְנָתְנוּ֙ לַאֲבִ֣י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֔ה כִּ֤י הוֹצִיא֙ שֵׁ֣ם רָ֔ע עַ֖ל בְּתוּלַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וְלֽוֹ־תִהְיֶ֣ה לְאִשָּׁ֔ה לֹא־יוּכַ֥ל לְשַּׁלְּחָ֖הּ כָּל־יָמָֽיו
19 And they will fine him a hundred of silver, that they will give to the father of the lass, for he brought out an evil name over a virgin of Israel.
And his she will be as wife. He is not able to send her away all his days.
3e 4C 31
וְאִם־אֱמֶ֣ת הָיָ֔ה הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּ֑ה
לֹא־נִמְצְא֥וּ בְתוּלִ֖ים לַֽנַּעֲרָֽה
20 But if this matter was true,
proof of virginity was not found for the lass,
3e 4B 11
וְהוֹצִ֨יאוּ אֶת־הַֽנַּעֲרָ֜ה אֶל־פֶּ֣תַח בֵּית־אָבִ֗יהָ וּסְקָלוּהָ֩ אַנְשֵׁ֨י עִירָ֤הּ בָּאֲבָנִים֙ וָמֵ֔תָה כִּֽי־עָשְׂתָ֤ה נְבָלָה֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לִזְנ֖וֹת בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֑יהָ
וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ
21 Then they will bring forth the lass to the door of the house of her father, and persons of her city will engulf her with stones, and she will die, for she has done senselessness in Israel, to play the harlot in the house of her father.
And you will shrive the evil from within you.
3e 4C 47
כִּֽי־יִמָּצֵ֨א אִ֜ישׁ שֹׁכֵ֣ב ׀ עִם־אִשָּׁ֣ה בְעֻֽלַת־בַּ֗עַל וּמֵ֙תוּ֙ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם הָאִ֛ישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵ֥ב עִם־הָאִשָּׁ֖ה וְהָאִשָּׁ֑ה
וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵֽל
22 If a person is found who lies down with a wife, married to a husband, then they will die, even the two of them, the man that lay down with the woman, and the woman.
And you will shrive the evil from Israel.
3d 4B 34
כִּ֤י יִהְיֶה֙ נַעֲרָ֣ה בְתוּלָ֔ה מְאֹרָשָׂ֖ה לְאִ֑ישׁ
וּמְצָאָ֥הּ אִ֛ישׁ בָּעִ֖יר וְשָׁכַ֥ב עִמָּֽהּ
23 C When there is a virgin lass betrothed to a man,
and a man finds her in the city and lies down with her,
3d 4C 15
וְהוֹצֵאתֶ֨ם אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶ֜ם אֶל־שַׁ֣עַר ׀ הָעִ֣יר הַהִ֗וא וּסְקַלְתֶּ֨ם אֹתָ֥ם בָּאֲבָנִים֮ וָמֵתוּ֒ אֶת־הַֽנַּעֲרָ֗ה עַל־דְּבַר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־צָעֲקָ֣ה בָעִ֔יר וְאֶ֨ת־הָאִ֔ישׁ עַל־דְּבַ֥ר אֲשֶׁר־עִנָּ֖ה אֶת־אֵ֣שֶׁת רֵעֵ֑הוּ
וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ
24 Then you will bring out the two of them to the gate of the city, and you will engulf them, even them, with stones, and they will die, the lass over the matter that she did not cry out in the city, and the man over the matter that he has afflicted the wife of his associate.
And you will shrive the evil from within you.
3e 4B 59
וְֽאִם־בַּשָּׂדֶ֞ה יִמְצָ֣א הָאִ֗ישׁ אֶת־הַֽנַּעֲרָה֙ הַמְאֹ֣רָשָׂ֔ה וְהֶחֱזִֽיק־בָּ֥הּ הָאִ֖ישׁ וְשָׁכַ֣ב עִמָּ֑הּ
וּמֵ֗ת הָאִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־שָׁכַ֥ב עִמָּ֖הּ לְבַדּֽוֹ
25 But if in the field, the man finds the betrothed lass, and the man resolutely holds her and lies down with her,
then the man alone will die who lay down with her.
3d 4B 30
וְלַֽנַּעֲרָה֙ לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂ֣ה דָבָ֔ר אֵ֥ין לַֽנַּעֲרָ֖ה חֵ֣טְא מָ֑וֶת
כִּ֡י כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ יָק֨וּם אִ֤ישׁ עַל־רֵעֵ֙הוּ֙ וּרְצָח֣וֹ נֶ֔פֶשׁ כֵּ֖ן הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה
26 But to the lass you will do nothing. There is no sin of death for the lass.
For as when anyone arises against his associate and murders integrity, so is this matter.
3e 4C 18
כִּ֥י בַשָּׂדֶ֖ה מְצָאָ֑הּ
צָעֲקָ֗ה הַֽנַּעֲרָה֙ הַמְאֹ֣רָשָׂ֔ה וְאֵ֥ין מוֹשִׁ֖יעַ לָֽהּ
27 f For in the field he found her.
The betrothed lass cried out, and there was no safety for her.
3e 4B 7
כִּֽי־יִמְצָ֣א אִ֗ישׁ נַעֲרָ֤ה בְתוּלָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־אֹרָ֔שָׂה וּתְפָשָׂ֖הּ וְשָׁכַ֣ב עִמָּ֑הּ
28 If a man finds a virgin lass who is not betrothed, and he arrests her, and lies down with her,
and they are found.
3e 4C 23
וְ֠נָתַן הָאִ֨ישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵ֥ב עִמָּ֛הּ לַאֲבִ֥י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֖ה חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים כָּ֑סֶף
וְלֽוֹ־תִהְיֶ֣ה לְאִשָּׁ֗ה תַּ֚חַת אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִנָּ֔הּ לֹא־יוּכַ֥ל שַׁלְּחָ֖ה כָּל־יָמָֽיו
29 ~ The man that lay down with her will give the father of the lass fifty of silver,
and to him she will be wife in that he has afflicted her. He is not able to send her away all his days.
3d 4C 22

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