Friday, October 19, 2018

2 Samuel 18

The word אתה (you) sounds pretty much like עתה (now). Do you suppose that in verse 3 these are twice confused? Everyone seems to translate it that way. JB has no note. NIV has a note about manuscript variations. KJV italicizes the you (signifying they have added a word) but then they add worth without italics and it is not in the text either. There is no implied comparison that I can see in the text.

So far, and we have come quite far, I have used plague for נגף out of 82 occurrences, 76 times. Why would I invent yet another gloss for this word. Yes it was a plague of slaughter probably. But the word הרג to slay is not used. This too is a common stem occurring 177 times.

Smashed over the face of all the land, is an odd phrasing, but I want to know that this is the same stem that frames the Psalter in Psalms 2 and 137.  Also used extensively in Jeremiah 51. And If I rendered it with some other word, I would not think about the usage of that word.

Verse 14, sceptres? שׁבט I don't know why this stem is here. Sceptre is a symbol of rule. One would not have three of them at once, so these probably are some sort of weapon. Perhaps Joab has gathered the sceptres of the three bands that David just set up.

Verse 19 repeated verbatim in verse 31 seems oddly phrased also. But the word is judged (שׁפת) not avenged (נקם) or delivered (NIV). I could use vindicated (JB).Vindication can be seen as a consequence of judgment. But here I think it is judgment against David. And he accepts it with great grief, a grief that has given rise to some of the most beautiful music of the 17th century. (19.1 in the Hebrew numbering.) The underlay here from accents of the Hebrew text itself is quite suitable.
Verse 29 stumbles. The youngster has a hard time expressing himself. It is not smooth.

2 Samuel 18 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיִּפְקֹ֣ד דָּוִ֔ד אֶת־הָעָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֑וֹ
וַיָּ֣שֶׂם עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם שָׂרֵ֥י אֲלָפִ֖ים וְשָׂרֵ֥י מֵאֽוֹת
1 And David took a census of the people that were with him.
And he set up over them chiefs of thousands and chiefs of hundreds.
3e 4B 12
וַיְשַׁלַּ֨ח דָּוִ֜ד אֶת־הָעָ֗ם הַשְּׁלִשִׁ֤ית בְּיַד־יוֹאָב֙ וְ֠הַשְּׁלִשִׁית בְּיַ֨ד אֲבִישַׁ֤י בֶּן־צְרוּיָה֙ אֲחִ֣י יוֹאָ֔ב וְהַ֨שְּׁלִשִׁ֔ת בְּיַ֖ד אִתַּ֣י הַגִּתִּ֑י
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־הָעָ֔ם יָצֹ֥א אֵצֵ֛א גַּם־אֲנִ֖י עִמָּכֶֽם
2 And David sent the people. One third was in the hand of Joab, and one third was in the hand of Abishai, child of Tseruyah, brother of Joab, and one third was in the hand of Ittai the Gittite.
And the king said to the people, I will go out, even I, with you.
3d 4C 43
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הָעָ֜ם לֹ֣א תֵצֵ֗א כִּי֩ אִם־נֹ֨ס נָנ֜וּס לֹא־יָשִׂ֧ימוּ אֵלֵ֣ינוּ לֵ֗ב וְאִם־יָמֻ֤תוּ חֶצְיֵ֙נוּ֙ לֹֽא־יָשִׂ֤ימוּ אֵלֵ֙ינוּ֙ לֵ֔ב כִּֽי־עַתָּ֥ה כָמֹ֖נוּ עֲשָׂרָ֣ה אֲלָפִ֑ים
וְעַתָּ֣ה ט֔וֹב כִּי־תִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֥נוּ מֵעִ֖יר לַעְזֽוֹר
3 And the people said, You will not go out, for if we withdraw, their heart will not be put out over us, or if half of us die, their heart will not be put out over us. But now it is like we are ten thousands.
And now it is good, for you will be help for us from the city.
3c 4C 46
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם֙ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־יִיטַ֥ב בְּעֵינֵיכֶ֖ם אֶעֱשֶׂ֑ה
וַיַּעֲמֹ֤ד הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־יַ֣ד הַשַּׁ֔עַר וְכָל־הָעָם֙ יָֽצְא֔וּ לְמֵא֖וֹת וְלַאֲלָפִֽים
4 And to them the king said, What is good in your eyes I will do.
And the king stood adjacent to the gate, and all the people went out in hundreds and in thousands.
3e 4C 20
וַיְצַ֣ו הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ אֶת־י֠וֹאָב וְאֶת־אֲבִישַׁ֤י וְאֶת־אִתַּי֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לְאַט־לִ֖י לַנַּ֣עַר לְאַבְשָׁל֑וֹם
וְכָל־הָעָ֣ם שָׁמְע֗וּ בְּצַוֺּ֥ת הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶת־כָּל־הַשָּׂרִ֖ים עַל־דְּבַ֥ר אַבְשָׁלֽוֹם
5 And the king commanded Joab and Abishai and Ittai, saying, Be even tempered for me to the lad, to Absalom.
And all the people heard when the king commanded all the chiefs over the matter of Absalom.
3d 4C 29
וַיֵּצֵ֥א הָעָ֛ם הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לִקְרַ֣את יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַתְּהִ֥י הַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה בְּיַ֥עַר אֶפְרָֽיִם
6 And the people came out into the field, to encounter Israel.
And the battle was in the forest of Ephraim.
3d 4B 13
וַיִּנָּ֤גְפוּ שָׁם֙ עַ֣ם יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לִפְנֵ֖י עַבְדֵ֣י דָוִ֑ד
וַתְּהִי־שָׁ֞ם הַמַּגֵּפָ֧ה גְדוֹלָ֛ה בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא עֶשְׂרִ֥ים אָֽלֶף
7 And the people of Israel were plagued there in the face of the servants of David.
And there was there the great plague in that day, twenty thousand.
3c 4C 15
וַתְּהִי־שָׁ֧ם הַמִּלְחָמָ֛ה נָפֹ֖צֶת עַל־פְּנֵ֣י כָל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וַיֶּ֤רֶב הַיַּ֙עַר֙ לֶאֱכֹ֣ל בָּעָ֔ם מֵאֲשֶׁ֥ר אָכְלָ֛ה הַחֶ֖רֶב בַּיּ֥וֹם הַהֽוּא
8 And there the battle was smashed on the face of whole the land.
It was more the forest that devoured the people, than that the sword devoured in that day.
3c 4C 17
וַיִּקָּרֵא֙ אַבְשָׁל֔וֹם לִפְנֵ֖י עַבְדֵ֣י דָוִ֑ד
וְאַבְשָׁל֞וֹם רֹכֵ֣ב עַל־הַפֶּ֗רֶד וַיָּבֹ֣א הַפֶּ֡רֶד תַּ֣חַת שׂוֹבֶךְ֩ הָאֵלָ֨ה הַגְּדוֹלָ֜ה וַיֶּחֱזַ֧ק רֹאשׁ֣וֹ בָאֵלָ֗ה וַיֻּתַּן֙ בֵּ֤ין הַשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ וּבֵ֣ין הָאָ֔רֶץ וְהַפֶּ֥רֶד אֲשֶׁר־תַּחְתָּ֖יו עָבָֽר
9 And Absalom encountered the face of the servants of David.
And Absalom rode upon a mule and the mule came under the fretwork of the great elm, so his head was resolutely held in the elm, and he was positioned between the heavens and the earth. And the mule that was under him passed through.
3c 4C 13
וַיַּרְא֙ אִ֣ישׁ אֶחָ֔ד וַיַּגֵּ֖ד לְיוֹאָ֑ב
וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הִנֵּה֙ רָאִ֣יתִי אֶת־אַבְשָׁלֹ֔ם תָּל֖וּי בָּאֵלָֽה
10 And one man saw, and it was told to Joab.
And he said, Behold, I have seen Absalom hanging in the elm.
3e 4B 11
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יוֹאָ֗ב לָאִישׁ֙ הַמַּגִּ֣יד ל֔וֹ וְהִנֵּ֣ה רָאִ֔יתָ וּמַדּ֛וּעַ לֹֽא־הִכִּית֥וֹ שָׁ֖ם אָ֑רְצָה
וְעָלַ֗י לָ֤תֶת לְךָ֙ עֲשָׂ֣רָה כֶ֔סֶף וַחֲגֹרָ֖ה אֶחָֽת
11 And Joab said to the man that told him, And behold, you have seen. Why then did you not strike him there earthward?
And to me it would be to give to you, ten pieces of silver and one sash.
3d 4C 27
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הָאִישׁ֙ אֶל־יוֹאָ֔ב וְל֨וּא אָנֹכִ֜י שֹׁקֵ֤ל עַל־כַּפַּי֙ אֶ֣לֶף כֶּ֔סֶף לֹֽא־אֶשְׁלַ֥ח יָדִ֖י אֶל־בֶּן־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
כִּ֣י בְאָזְנֵ֜ינוּ צִוָּ֣ה הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ אֹ֠תְךָ וְאֶת־אֲבִישַׁ֤י וְאֶת־אִתַּי֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר שִׁמְרוּ־מִ֕י בַּנַּ֖עַר בְּאַבְשָׁלֽוֹם
12 And the man said to Joab, Supposing I had the weight on my palms of a thousand pieces of silver, I would not extend my hand against the child of the king.
For within our earshot the king commanded you and Abishai and Ittai, saying, Guard for me the lad Absalom.
3e 4C 32
אֽוֹ־עָשִׂ֤יתִי בְנַפְשִׁי֙ שֶׁ֔קֶר וְכָל־דָּבָ֖ר לֹא־יִכָּחֵ֣ד מִן־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
וְאַתָּ֖ה תִּתְיַצֵּ֥ב מִנֶּֽגֶד
13 Otherwise I would have done falsehood against my integrity, for no matter is concealed from the king.
And you would have presented yourself clearly.
3e 4C 19
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יוֹאָ֔ב לֹא־כֵ֖ן אֹחִ֣ילָה לְפָנֶ֑יךָ
וַיִּקַּח֩ שְׁלֹשָׁ֨ה שְׁבָטִ֜ים בְּכַפּ֗וֹ וַיִּתְקָעֵם֙ בְּלֵ֣ב אַבְשָׁל֔וֹם עוֹדֶ֥נּוּ חַ֖י בְּלֵ֥ב הָאֵלָֽה
14 And Joab said, Not thus I will wait in hope before you.
And he took three sceptres in his palm, and stuck them into the heart of Absalom, while he was yet living in the heart of the elm.
3e 4B 14
וַיָּסֹ֙בּוּ֙ עֲשָׂרָ֣ה נְעָרִ֔ים נֹשְׂאֵ֖י כְּלֵ֣י יוֹאָ֑ב
וַיַּכּ֥וּ אֶת־אַבְשָׁל֖וֹם וַיְמִיתֻֽהוּ
15 And they brought round ten youngsters who bore cargo for Joab.
And they struck Absalom and rendered him lifeless.
3e 4B 16
וַיִּתְקַ֤ע יוֹאָב֙ בַּשֹּׁפָ֔ר וַיָּ֣שָׁב הָעָ֔ם מִרְדֹ֖ף אַחֲרֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
כִּֽי־חָשַׂ֥ךְ יוֹאָ֖ב אֶת־הָעָֽם
16 And Joab sounded on the shophar and the people returned from pursuing after Israel,
for Joab kept back the people.
3e 4C 21
וַיִּקְח֣וּ אֶת־אַבְשָׁל֗וֹם וַיַּשְׁלִ֨יכוּ אֹת֤וֹ בַיַּ֙עַר֙ אֶל־הַפַּ֣חַת הַגָּד֔וֹל וַיַּצִּ֧בוּ עָלָ֛יו גַּל־אֲבָנִ֖ים גָּד֣וֹל מְאֹ֑ד
וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל נָ֖סוּ אִ֥ישׁ לְאֹהָלָֽיו
17 And they took Absalom, and they cast him in the forest into the great crater, and they stationed over him a rubble of very great stones.
And all Israel withdrew, each to his tent.
3c 4C 37
וְאַבְשָׁלֹ֣ם לָקַ֗ח וַיַּצֶּב־ל֤וֹ בְחַיָּיו֙ אֶת־מַצֶּ֙בֶת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּעֵֽמֶק־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ כִּ֤י אָמַר֙ אֵֽין־לִ֣י בֵ֔ן בַּעֲב֖וּר הַזְכִּ֣יר שְׁמִ֑י
וַיִּקְרָ֤א לַמַּצֶּ֙בֶת֙ עַל־שְׁמ֔וֹ וַיִּקָּ֤רֵא לָהּ֙ יַ֣ד אַבְשָׁלֹ֔ם עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה
18 And Absalom had taken, and had fixed for himself in his life, a monument that is in the valley of the king. For he said, There is no child for me that will remember my name.
And he called the monument after his name. And it is called the hand of Absalom to this day.
3e 4C 38
וַאֲחִימַ֤עַץ בֶּן־צָדוֹק֙ אָמַ֔ר אָר֣וּצָה נָּ֔א וַאֲבַשְּׂרָ֖ה אֶת־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
כִּי־שְׁפָט֥וֹ יְהוָ֖ה מִיַּ֥ד אֹיְבָֽיו
19 And Aximats, child of Zadok, said, Let me race, if you will, and bring good news to the king.
For Yahweh has judged him, from the hand of his enemies.
3e 4C 22
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר ל֣וֹ יוֹאָ֗ב לֹא֩ אִ֨ישׁ בְּשֹׂרָ֤ה אַתָּה֙ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה וּבִשַּׂרְתָּ֖ בְּי֣וֹם אַחֵ֑ר
וְהַיּ֤וֹם הַזֶּה֙ לֹ֣א תְבַשֵּׂ֔ר כִּֽי־עַל־כֵּ֥ן בֶּן־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ מֵֽת
20 And Joab said to him, Not a man to bring good news are you this day, but you will bring good news on another day.
But this day, you will not bring good news, for so the child of the king has died.
3c 4C 25
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יוֹאָב֙ לַכּוּשִׁ֔י לֵ֛ךְ הַגֵּ֥ד לַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֣ר רָאִ֑יתָה
וַיִּשְׁתַּ֧חוּ כוּשִׁ֛י לְיוֹאָ֖ב וַיָּרֹֽץ
21 And Joab said to the Cushite, Go tell the king what you have seen.
And the Cushite prostrated himself to Joab, and raced.
3c 4C 19
וַיֹּ֨סֶף ע֜וֹד אֲחִימַ֤עַץ בֶּן־צָדוֹק֙ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶל־יוֹאָ֔ב וִ֣יהִי מָ֔ה אָרֻֽצָה־נָּ֥א גַם־אָ֖נִי אַחֲרֵ֣י הַכּוּשִׁ֑י
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יוֹאָ֗ב לָֽמָּה־זֶּ֞ה אַתָּ֥ה רָץ֙ בְּנִ֔י וּלְכָ֖ה אֵין־בְּשׂוֹרָ֥ה מֹצֵֽאת
22 And again further, Aximats child of Zadok, and he said to Joab, And whatever happens, let me race, if you will, even me, after the Cushite.
And Joab said, Why is it you are to race, my son? And come now, there is no good news to be found.
3e 4C 33
וִיהִי־מָ֣ה אָר֔וּץ וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ל֖וֹ ר֑וּץ
וַיָּ֤רָץ אֲחִימַ֙עַץ֙ דֶּ֣רֶךְ הַכִּכָּ֔ר וַֽיַּעֲבֹ֖ר אֶת־הַכּוּשִֽׁי
23 And whatever happens, let me race. And he said to him, Race.
And Aximats raced the way of the basin, and he passed the Cushite.
3e 4C 10
וְדָוִ֥ד יוֹשֵׁ֖ב בֵּין־שְׁנֵ֣י הַשְּׁעָרִ֑ים
וַיֵּ֨לֶךְ הַצֹּפֶ֜ה אֶל־גַּ֤ג הַשַּׁ֙עַר֙ אֶל־הַ֣חוֹמָ֔ה וַיִּשָּׂ֤א אֶת־עֵינָיו֙ וַיַּ֔רְא וְהִנֵּה־אִ֖ישׁ רָ֥ץ לְבַדּֽוֹ
24 And David sat between the two gates.
And the lookout went to the roof of the gate, to the wall, and he lifted up his eyes, and he saw, and behold, a man racing on his own.
3e 4C 11
וַיִּקְרָ֤א הַצֹּפֶה֙ וַיַּגֵּ֣ד לַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אִם־לְבַדּ֖וֹ בְּשׂוֹרָ֣ה בְּפִ֑יו
וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ הָל֖וֹךְ וְקָרֵֽב
25 And the lookout called and he told the king. And the king said, If on his own, there is news by his mouth.
And he came walking, and approached.
3e 4C 27
וַיַּ֣רְא הַצֹּפֶה֮ אִישׁ־אַחֵ֣ר רָץ֒ וַיִּקְרָ֤א הַצֹּפֶה֙ אֶל־הַשֹּׁעֵ֔ר וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הִנֵּה־אִ֖ישׁ רָ֣ץ לְבַדּ֑וֹ
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ גַּם־זֶ֥ה מְבַשֵּֽׂר
26 And the lookout saw another person racing, and the lookout called to the gate and he said, Behold a man racing on his own.
And the king said, Also this will be news.
3e 4C 29
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הַצֹּפֶ֔ה אֲנִ֤י רֹאֶה֙ אֶת־מְרוּצַ֣ת הָרִאשׁ֔וֹן כִּמְרֻצַ֖ת אֲחִימַ֣עַץ בֶּן־צָד֑וֹק
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אִֽישׁ־ט֣וֹב זֶ֔ה וְאֶל־בְּשׂוֹרָ֥ה טוֹבָ֖ה יָבֽוֹא
27 And the lookout said, I see the racing of the foremost is like the racing of Aximats, child of Zadok.
And the king said, A good man this is, and to good news he comes.
3e 4C 27
וַיִּקְרָ֣א אֲחִימַ֗עַץ וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֶל־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ שָׁל֔וֹם וַיִּשְׁתַּ֧חוּ לַמֶּ֛לֶךְ לְאַפָּ֖יו אָ֑רְצָה
וַיֹּ֗אמֶר בָּרוּךְ֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֤ר סִגַּר֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֲנָשִׁ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־נָשְׂא֥וּ אֶת־יָדָ֖ם בַּֽאדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
28 And Aximats called, and he said to the king, Peace. And he prostrated himself to the king, his nose earthward.
And he said, Blessed is Yahweh your God who imprisoned everyone who lifted up their hands against my lord the king.
3c 4C 28
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ שָׁל֥וֹם לַנַּ֖עַר לְאַבְשָׁל֑וֹם
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲחִימַ֡עַץ רָאִיתִי֩ הֶהָמ֨וֹן הַגָּד֜וֹל לִ֠שְׁלֹחַ אֶת־עֶ֨בֶד הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ יוֹאָב֙ וְאֶת־עַבְדֶּ֔ךָ וְלֹ֥א יָדַ֖עְתִּי מָֽה
29 And the king said, Peace to the lad, to Absalom?
And Aximats said, I have seen great tumult when the servant of the king, Joab, sent, but your servant, I did not know what it was.
3e 4C 15
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ סֹ֖ב הִתְיַצֵּ֣ב כֹּ֑ה
וַיִּסֹּ֖ב וַֽיַּעֲמֹֽד
30 And the king said, Circle around. Station yourself thus.
And he circled around and stood.
3e 4B 11
וְהִנֵּ֥ה הַכּוּשִׁ֖י בָּ֑א
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַכּוּשִׁ֗י יִתְבַּשֵּׂר֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ כִּֽי־שְׁפָטְךָ֤ יְהוָה֙ הַיּ֔וֹם מִיַּ֖ד כָּל־הַקָּמִ֥ים עָלֶֽיךָ
31 And behold, the Cushite came.
And the Cushite said, News, my lord, the king, for Yahweh has judged today the hand of all arising against you.
3e 4C 7
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ אֶל־הַכּוּשִׁ֔י הֲשָׁל֥וֹם לַנַּ֖עַר לְאַבְשָׁל֑וֹם
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַכּוּשִׁ֗י יִהְי֤וּ כַנַּ֙עַר֙ אֹֽיְבֵי֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־קָ֥מוּ עָלֶ֖יךָ לְרָעָֽה
32 And the king said to the Cushite, Is it well to the lad, to Absalom?
And the Cushite said, Let be, as that lad, the enemies of my lord the king, and all that have arisen against you for hurt.
3d 4C 20

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