|הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָיָ֣ה אֶֽל־יִרְמְיָ֔הוּ מֵאֵ֥ת יְהוָ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר||1||The word that happened to Jeremiah from Yahweh, saying,||3e||4B||18|
|כֹּֽה־אָמַ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר |
כְּתָב־לְךָ֗ אֵ֧ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּ֥רְתִּי אֵלֶ֖יךָ אֶל־סֵֽפֶר
|2||Thus says Yahweh the God of Israel, saying, |
Write for yourself all the things that I have spoken to you into a book.
|כִּ֠י הִנֵּ֨ה יָמִ֤ים בָּאִים֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה וְ֠שַׁבְתִּי אֶת־שְׁב֨וּת עַמִּ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל וִֽיהוּדָ֖ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה |
וַהֲשִׁבֹתִ֗ים אֶל־הָאָ֛רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥תִּי לַאֲבוֹתָ֖ם וִֽירֵשֽׁוּהָ
|3||~||For behold, days are coming, an oracle of Yahweh, and I will turn the captivity of my people Israel and Judah, says Yahweh, |
and I will have them return to the land that I have given to their ancestors, and they will possess it.
|וְאֵ֣לֶּה הַדְּבָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְאֶל־יְהוּדָֽה||4||And these are the things that Yahweh had spoken to Israel and to Judah.||3c||4B||21|
|כִּי־כֹה֙ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה ק֥וֹל חֲרָדָ֖ה שָׁמָ֑עְנוּ |
פַּ֖חַד וְאֵ֥ין שָׁלֽוֹם
|5||Because thus says Yahweh, An apprehensive voice we have heard, |
dread and there is no peace.
|שַׁאֲלוּ־נָ֣א וּרְא֔וּ אִם־יֹלֵ֖ד זָכָ֑ר |
מַדּוּעַ֩ רָאִ֨יתִי כָל־גֶּ֜בֶר יָדָ֤יו עַל־חֲלָצָיו֙ כַּיּ֣וֹלֵדָ֔ה וְנֶהֶפְכ֥וּ כָל־פָּנִ֖ים לְיֵרָקֽוֹן
|6||Ask please and see if a male has given birth. |
Why do I see every valiant one, his hands over his reins as if giving birth, and all faces are changed to yellow-green.
|ה֗וֹי כִּ֥י גָד֛וֹל הַיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא מֵאַ֣יִן כָּמֹ֑הוּ |
וְעֵֽת־צָרָ֥ה הִיא֙ לְיַֽעֲקֹ֔ב וּמִמֶּ֖נָּה יִוָּשֵֽׁעַ
|7||~||Alas for that great day. None is like it. |
And a time of trouble this is for Jacob, but from it he will be saved.
|וְהָיָה֩ בַיּ֨וֹם הַה֜וּא נְאֻ֣ם ׀ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֗וֹת אֶשְׁבֹּ֤ר עֻלּוֹ֙ מֵעַ֣ל צַוָּארֶ֔ךָ וּמוֹסְרוֹתֶ֖יךָ אֲנַתֵּ֑ק |
וְלֹא־יַעַבְדוּ־ב֥וֹ ע֖וֹד זָרִֽים
|8||And it will happen in that day, an oracle of Yahweh of hosts, I will break his shackle from your neck, and your bonds I will snap, |
and strangers will not make him serve any more.
|וְעָ֣בְד֔וּ אֵ֖ת יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֑ם |
וְאֵת֙ דָּוִ֣ד מַלְכָּ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָקִ֖ים לָהֶֽם
|9||But they will serve Yahweh their God, |
and David their king whom I will raise up for them.
|וְאַתָּ֡ה אַל־תִּירָא֩ עַבְדִּ֨י יַעֲקֹ֤ב נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה֙ וְאַל־תֵּחַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כִּ֠י הִנְנִ֤י מוֹשִֽׁיעֲךָ֙ מֵֽרָח֔וֹק וְאֶֽת־זַרְעֲךָ֖ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ שִׁבְיָ֑ם |
וְשָׁ֧ב יַעֲקֹ֛ב וְשָׁקַ֥ט וְשַׁאֲנַ֖ן וְאֵ֥ין מַחֲרִֽיד
|10||But you, do not fear, my servant Jacob, an oracle of Yahweh, and do not be in disarray, Israel, for note me well, I will save you from afar, and your seed from the land of their captivity, |
so Jacob will return, and be quiet, and be without a care, and none will be apprehensive.
|כִּֽי־אִתְּךָ֥ אֲנִ֛י נְאֻם־יְהוָ֖ה לְהֽוֹשִׁיעֶ֑ךָ |
כִּי֩ אֶעֱשֶׂ֨ה כָלָ֜ה בְּכָֽל־הַגּוֹיִ֣ם ׀ אֲשֶׁ֧ר הֲפִצוֹתִ֣יךָ שָּׁ֗ם אַ֤ךְ אֹֽתְךָ֙ לֹֽא־אֶעֱשֶׂ֣ה כָלָ֔ה וְיִסַּרְתִּ֙יךָ֙ לַמִּשְׁפָּ֔ט וְנַקֵּ֖ה לֹ֥א אֲנַקֶּֽךָּ
|11||For I am with you, an oracle of Yahweh, to save you. |
For I will make a consuming end among all the nations where I have dispersed you. Surely I will not make a consuming end of you, but I will tutor you for judgment, and will not hold you innocent.
|כִּ֣י כֹ֥ה אָמַ֛ר יְהוָ֖ה אָנ֣וּשׁ לְשִׁבְרֵ֑ךְ |
|12||B||Because thus says Yahweh, Incurable, your brokenness, |
aghast, your defeat.
|אֵֽין־דָּ֥ן דִּינֵ֖ךְ לְמָז֑וֹר |
רְפֻא֥וֹת תְּעָלָ֖ה אֵ֥ין לָֽךְ
|13||There is none to advocate your case for your estrangement. |
To bring up healing, there is nothing for you.
|כָּל־מְאַהֲבַ֣יִךְ שְׁכֵח֔וּךְ אוֹתָ֖ךְ לֹ֣א יִדְרֹ֑שׁוּ |
כִּי֩ מַכַּ֨ת אוֹיֵ֤ב הִכִּיתִיךְ֙ מוּסַ֣ר אַכְזָרִ֔י עַ֚ל רֹ֣ב עֲוֺנֵ֔ךְ עָצְמ֖וּ חַטֹּאתָֽיִךְ
|14||All your lovers have forgotten you. You they do not search out, |
for with the strike of an enemy I struck you with vicious chastening over the abundance of your iniquity. Numerous are your sins.
|מַה־תִּזְעַק֙ עַל־שִׁבְרֵ֔ךְ אָנ֖וּשׁ מַכְאֹבֵ֑ךְ |
עַ֣ל ׀ רֹ֣ב עֲוֺנֵ֗ךְ עָֽצְמוּ֙ חַטֹּאתַ֔יִךְ עָשִׂ֥יתִי אֵ֖לֶּה לָֽךְ
|15||Why do you appeal over your brokenness? Incurable is your sorrow, |
over the abundance of your iniquity. Numerous are your sins. I did these to you.
|לָכֵ֞ן כָּל־אֹכְלַ֙יִךְ֙ יֵאָכֵ֔לוּ וְכָל־צָרַ֥יִךְ כֻּלָּ֖ם בַּשְּׁבִ֣י יֵלֵ֑כוּ |
וְהָי֤וּ שֹׁאסַ֙יִךְ֙ לִמְשִׁסָּ֔ה וְכָל־בֹּזְזַ֖יִךְ אֶתֵּ֥ן לָבַֽז
|16||Therefore all who devour you will be devoured, and all your foes, all of them into captivity will go, |
and who plunders you will be plundered, and all who looted you I will give as loot.
|כִּי֩ אַעֲלֶ֨ה אֲרֻכָ֥ה לָ֛ךְ וּמִמַּכּוֹתַ֥יִךְ אֶרְפָּאֵ֖ךְ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה |
כִּ֤י נִדָּחָה֙ קָ֣רְאוּ לָ֔ךְ צִיּ֣וֹן הִ֔יא דֹּרֵ֖שׁ אֵ֥ין לָֽהּ
|17||For I will bring up patience for you, and from your defeats I will heal you, an oracle of Yahweh, |
for banished, they called you. This is Zion. There is none searching her out.
|כֹּ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה הִנְנִי־שָׁב֙ שְׁבוּת֙ אָהֳלֵ֣י יַֽעֲק֔וֹב וּמִשְׁכְּנֹתָ֖יו אֲרַחֵ֑ם |
וְנִבְנְתָ֥ה עִיר֙ עַל־תִּלָּ֔הּ וְאַרְמ֖וֹן עַל־מִשְׁפָּט֥וֹ יֵשֵֽׁב
|18||B||Thus says Yahweh, Note me well turning the captivity of the tents of Jacob, and on his dwelling-places I will have compassion, |
and a city will be built over its mound, and a citadel over its framework will sit.
|וְיָצָ֥א מֵהֶ֛ם תּוֹדָ֖ה וְק֣וֹל מְשַׂחֲקִ֑ים |
וְהִרְבִּתִים֙ וְלֹ֣א יִמְעָ֔טוּ וְהִכְבַּדְתִּ֖ים וְלֹ֥א יִצְעָֽרוּ
|19||And thanksgiving will come forth out of them, and the voice of laughter. |
And I will increase them, and they will not be insignificant, and I will glorify them, and they will not be of little account.
|וְהָי֤וּ בָנָיו֙ כְּקֶ֔דֶם וַעֲדָת֖וֹ לְפָנַ֣י תִּכּ֑וֹן |
וּפָ֣קַדְתִּ֔י עַ֖ל כָּל־לֹחֲצָֽיו
|20||And his children will be as of old, and his assembly in my presence will be established, |
and I will visit all who restrict him.
|וְהָיָ֨ה אַדִּיר֜וֹ מִמֶּ֗נּוּ וּמֹֽשְׁלוֹ֙ מִקִּרְבּ֣וֹ יֵצֵ֔א וְהִקְרַבְתִּ֖יו וְנִגַּ֣שׁ אֵלָ֑י |
כִּי֩ מִ֨י הוּא־זֶ֜ה עָרַ֧ב אֶת־לִבּ֛וֹ לָגֶ֥שֶׁת אֵלַ֖י נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה
|21||And his majesty will be from him, and his governance from within him will emerge, and I will bring him near and he will come close to me. |
But who is this he who ensures his heart to come close to me? An oracle of Yahweh.
|וִהְיִ֥יתֶם לִ֖י לְעָ֑ם |
וְאָ֣נֹכִ֔י אֶהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם לֵאלֹהִֽים
|22||And you will become my people, |
and I, I will be your God.
|הִנֵּ֣ה ׀ סַעֲרַ֣ת יְהוָ֗ה חֵמָה֙ יָֽצְאָ֔ה סַ֖עַר מִתְגּוֹרֵ֑ר |
עַ֛ל רֹ֥אשׁ רְשָׁעִ֖ים יָחֽוּל
|23||Behold a heated tempest of Yahweh has emerged, a ruminating tempest. |
On the head of the wicked, it will be brought to birth.
|לֹ֣א יָשׁ֗וּב חֲרוֹן֙ אַף־יְהוָ֔ה עַד־עֲשֹׂת֥וֹ וְעַד־הֲקִימ֖וֹ מְזִמּ֣וֹת לִבּ֑וֹ |
בְּאַחֲרִ֥ית הַיָּמִ֖ים תִּתְבּ֥וֹנְנוּ בָֽהּ
|24||B||The fierce anger of Yahweh will not turn until he has done and until he has placed the intention of his heart. |
In the aftermath of the days you will discern in it.
Giving birth? Or other turmoil - these choices probably reveal some of my bias in gloss selection. Both words are used in this chapter. See if they are distinguishable.
חול birth (11) birth between (1) brings birth (1) brought birth (5) dance (12) endure birth (2) endured birth (3) enduring birth (1) sand (14) turmoil (6) twist (3) writhe (18) writhed birth (1)
ילד beget (15) begot (3) begotten (4) birth (1) born (88) boy (12) boys (2) chick (1) childhood (3) confirmed succession (1) female juvenile (1) fertile (1) gave birth (105) girl (1) give birth (20) given birth (11) gives birth (5) giving birth (16) juvenile (18) kindred (5) male children (2) male juvenile (1) male peer (6) midwife (9) nativity (7) newborn (12) ready give birth (1) succession (37) successor (4) toddler (2).
Languages are full of exceptions. Every time I run the above query I find a few exceptions I missed in prior passes. So I have an exception for toddler in the 'er' list but I don't really need it as long as I have the exception for dl that in that case it must have a silent e.
I would love to summarize the rules but they are about 80 lines long and has a dozen sub-functions. Like all programs, they grow. It's job is to discover the English stem for a phrase. It has to strip prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns, helping verbs, interjections and other particles, and then to decompose and recompose the English stem by removing suffixes in what is left. If there is nothing left, then it recomposes from what it stripped.
I don't bother with removing prefixes. They are only a few in English. But there are lots of suffixes, ly (with several sub-rules for ily, lly, ingly, ably, ly), ment, plurals, (with several sub-rules for ies, sses, shes, ches, ives, ss, s), ed, er, est, ing, and at every stage a bunch of exceptions, including removing or not doubled letters at the end of words.
What is curious is that we don't learn language this way but somehow we establish a certain conformity of speech and spelling.
Here's a puzzle, I have a rule that if the last three letters of a decomposed word each are in the consonants bcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxz, then the last letter must be removed, unless the last three letters are the string 'tch'. Can you find a word for which this rule is not true?
Why this analysis of my English? To stop me from inadvertently breaking my 1:n rule for Hebrew to English glosses. I allow glosses based on multiple stems in English for a single Hebrew stem, but I want to have a specific exception coded every time I am forced to use the same English gloss for 2 separate Hebrew stems.
Eventually this will result in a minimum length list of discrete Hebrew stems in the canonical corpus. What I have noted in the glossaries I have used is an increasing complexity from e.g. BDB (Brown Driver Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon) to HALOT (Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, William Holladay, Editor) to DCH (The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew, David Clines, Editor). And of course the Latin Hebrew concordance gives a mid-level view of early translations. The introduction to volume 2 of DCH illustrates the problem. The very common word דבר (dbr), to speak, is given one gloss in BDB, three in HALOT, speak plus two homonyms, and five additional homonyms in DCH.