Verse 11 - I note in passing that נשׁק as kissed is not used with a direct object marker (את). A curious bit of language. It frequently occurs with its object marked by ל. It can also use an enclitic pronoun as in Song 1:1 and 8:1. Curious too that it can be glossed as assault. With this gloss, there are two occurrences of the direct object marker, Genesis 19:32-33.
Three times elsewhere it is glossed as equipment / equip. Another flexible root stretched here and there by usage in the ancient days. In modern Hebrew it seems to have become weapon. Note Psalm 2, Kiss the son, נַשְּׁקוּ־בַ֡ר. is lacking the ל and any direct object marker. It could well be rendered as: equip yourselves with purity.
This section I had sketched I don't know how many years ago. I had even experimented with some colloquial usage of language. (Still do occasionally). Like Jacob put his feet to the road. (A bit too free for me in this case.) Jacob lifts up (נשא) his feet like he lifts up his voice (verses 1 and 11). Someone may write me an Ode to wooden translations! The repetition is not a significant pattern. Prose has many patterns just from the volume of words.
Jacob is Rachel's first cousin. Verse 17 is over the top praise for her beauty. But the music is a simple recitative on the rest note. The composer knows when to lay off the ornamentation and make effective use of the subdominant. The human spirit rests in beauty.
|וַיִּשָּׂ֥א יַעֲקֹ֖ב רַגְלָ֑יו |
וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ אַ֥רְצָה בְנֵי־קֶֽדֶם
|1||And Jacob lifted up his feet, |
and came to the land of the children of the east.
|וַיַּ֞רְא וְהִנֵּ֧ה בְאֵ֣ר בַּשָּׂדֶ֗ה וְהִנֵּה־שָׁ֞ם שְׁלֹשָׁ֤ה עֶדְרֵי־צֹאן֙ רֹבְצִ֣ים עָלֶ֔יהָ כִּ֚י מִן־הַבְּאֵ֣ר הַהִ֔וא יַשְׁק֖וּ הָעֲדָרִ֑ים |
וְהָאֶ֥בֶן גְּדֹלָ֖ה עַל־פִּ֥י הַבְּאֵֽר
|2||And he stared and behold, a well in the field, and behold there, three troops of sheep reclining by it, for from that well they give drink to the troops. |
And a great stone was over the mouth of the well.
|וְנֶאֶסְפוּ־שָׁ֣מָּה כָל־הָעֲדָרִ֗ים וְגָלֲל֤וּ אֶת־הָאֶ֙בֶן֙ מֵעַל֙ פִּ֣י הַבְּאֵ֔ר וְהִשְׁק֖וּ אֶת־הַצֹּ֑אן |
וְהֵשִׁ֧יבוּ אֶת־הָאֶ֛בֶן עַל־פִּ֥י הַבְּאֵ֖ר לִמְקֹמָֽהּ
|3||When all the troops were gathered there, they would roll the stone from over the mouth of the well, and give drink to the flock, |
and then return the stone over the mouth of the well in its place.
|וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָהֶם֙ יַעֲקֹ֔ב אַחַ֖י מֵאַ֣יִן אַתֶּ֑ם |
וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ מֵחָרָ֖ן אֲנָֽחְנוּ
|4||And Jacob said to them, My kin, where are you from? |
And they said, We are from Haran.
|וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָהֶ֔ם הַיְדַעְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־לָבָ֣ן בֶּן־נָח֑וֹר |
|5||And he said to them, Do you know Laban, child of Nahor? |
And they said, We know him.
|וַיֹּ֥אמֶר לָהֶ֖ם הֲשָׁל֣וֹם ל֑וֹ |
וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ שָׁל֔וֹם וְהִנֵּה֙ רָחֵ֣ל בִּתּ֔וֹ בָּאָ֖ה עִם־הַצֹּֽאן
|6||And he said to them, Is he well? |
And they said, He is well, and behold Rachel, his daughter, comes with the flock.
|וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הֵ֥ן עוֹד֙ הַיּ֣וֹם גָּד֔וֹל לֹא־עֵ֖ת הֵאָסֵ֣ף הַמִּקְנֶ֑ה |
הַשְׁק֥וּ הַצֹּ֖אן וּלְכ֥וּ רְעֽוּ
|7||And he said, Lo, yet the day has grown. It is not time for the gathering of the livestock. |
Give drink to the flock, and go, let them graze.
|וַיֹּאמְרוּ֮ לֹ֣א נוּכַל֒ עַ֣ד אֲשֶׁ֤ר יֵאָֽסְפוּ֙ כָּל־הָ֣עֲדָרִ֔ים וְגָֽלֲלוּ֙ אֶת־הָאֶ֔בֶן מֵעַ֖ל פִּ֣י הַבְּאֵ֑ר |
|8||And they said, We are not able to until all the troops are gathered and they roll the stone from over the mouth of the well. |
Then will will give drink to the flock.
|עוֹדֶ֖נּוּ מְדַבֵּ֣ר עִמָּ֑ם |
וְרָחֵ֣ל ׀ בָּ֗אָה עִם־הַצֹּאן֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לְאָבִ֔יהָ כִּ֥י רֹעָ֖ה הִֽוא
|9||And while he was speaking with them, |
Rachel came with the flock that was her father's, for she tended it.
|וַיְהִ֡י כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ רָאָ֨ה יַעֲקֹ֜ב אֶת־רָחֵ֗ל בַּת־לָבָן֙ אֲחִ֣י אִמּ֔וֹ וְאֶת־צֹ֥אן לָבָ֖ן אֲחִ֣י אִמּ֑וֹ |
וַיִּגַּ֣שׁ יַעֲקֹ֗ב וַיָּ֤גֶל אֶת־הָאֶ֙בֶן֙ מֵעַל֙ פִּ֣י הַבְּאֵ֔ר וַיַּ֕שְׁקְ אֶת־צֹ֥אן לָבָ֖ן אֲחִ֥י אִמּֽוֹ
|10||And it happened that as Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban, the brother of his mother, and the sheep of Laban, the brother of his mother, |
that Jacob came close, and he rolled the stone from over the mouth of the well, and gave drink to the sheep of Laban, the brother of his mother.
|וַיִּשַּׁ֥ק יַעֲקֹ֖ב לְרָחֵ֑ל |
וַיִּשָּׂ֥א אֶת־קֹל֖וֹ וַיֵּֽבְךְּ
|11||And Jacob kissed Rachel, |
and lifted up his voice and wept.
|וַיַּגֵּ֨ד יַעֲקֹ֜ב לְרָחֵ֗ל כִּ֣י אֲחִ֤י אָבִ֙יהָ֙ ה֔וּא וְכִ֥י בֶן־רִבְקָ֖ה ה֑וּא |
וַתָּ֖רָץ וַתַּגֵּ֥ד לְאָבִֽיהָ
|12||And Jacob told Rachel that he was kin to her father, and that he was the son of Rebekah, |
and she raced and told her father.
|וַיְהִי֩ כִשְׁמֹ֨עַ לָבָ֜ן אֶת־שֵׁ֣מַע ׀ יַעֲקֹ֣ב בֶּן־אֲחֹת֗וֹ וַיָּ֤רָץ לִקְרָאתוֹ֙ וַיְחַבֶּק־לוֹ֙ וַיְנַשֶּׁק־ל֔וֹ וַיְבִיאֵ֖הוּ אֶל־בֵּית֑וֹ |
וַיְסַפֵּ֣ר לְלָבָ֔ן אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה
|13||And it happened when Laban heard the report of Jacob, the son of his sister, that he raced to encounter him, and clasped him and kissed him, and brought him to his house. |
And he recounted to Laban all these things.
|וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ לָבָ֔ן אַ֛ךְ עַצְמִ֥י וּבְשָׂרִ֖י אָ֑תָּה |
וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב עִמּ֖וֹ חֹ֥דֶשׁ יָמִֽים
|14||And Laban said to him, Surely my bone and my flesh you are. |
And he settled with him a month of days.
|וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לָבָן֙ לְיַעֲקֹ֔ב הֲכִי־אָחִ֣י אַ֔תָּה וַעֲבַדְתַּ֖נִי חִנָּ֑ם |
הַגִּ֥ידָה לִּ֖י מַה־מַּשְׂכֻּרְתֶּֽךָ
|15||And Laban said to Jacob, Is it so that my kin you are? and will you serve me for nothing? |
Make it clear to me. What are your wages?
|וּלְלָבָ֖ן שְׁתֵּ֣י בָנ֑וֹת |
שֵׁ֤ם הַגְּדֹלָה֙ לֵאָ֔ה וְשֵׁ֥ם הַקְּטַנָּ֖ה רָחֵֽל
|16||And Laban had two daughters, |
the name of the elder, Leah, and the name of the younger, Rachel.
|וְעֵינֵ֥י לֵאָ֖ה רַכּ֑וֹת |
וְרָחֵל֙ הָֽיְתָ֔ה יְפַת־תֹּ֖אַר וִיפַ֥ת מַרְאֶֽה
|17||And the eyes of Leah were tender, |
but Rachel was beautiful, handsome, and a miracle of appearance.
|וַיֶּאֱהַ֥ב יַעֲקֹ֖ב אֶת־רָחֵ֑ל |
וַיֹּ֗אמֶר אֶֽעֱבָדְךָ֙ שֶׁ֣בַע שָׁנִ֔ים בְּרָחֵ֥ל בִּתְּךָ֖ הַקְּטַנָּֽה
|18||And Jacob loved Rachel, |
and said, I will serve seven years for Rachel your younger daughter.
|וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָבָ֗ן ט֚וֹב תִּתִּ֣י אֹתָ֣הּ לָ֔ךְ מִתִּתִּ֥י אֹתָ֖הּ לְאִ֣ישׁ אַחֵ֑ר |
|19||And Laban said, It is better I should give her to you than that I should give her to another man. |
Settle with me.
|וַיַּעֲבֹ֧ד יַעֲקֹ֛ב בְּרָחֵ֖ל שֶׁ֣בַע שָׁנִ֑ים |
וַיִּהְי֤וּ בְעֵינָיו֙ כְּיָמִ֣ים אֲחָדִ֔ים בְּאַהֲבָת֖וֹ אֹתָֽהּ
|20||And served Jacob for Rachel seven years. |
And they were in his eyes as several days in his love of her.
|וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יַעֲקֹ֤ב אֶל־לָבָן֙ הָבָ֣ה אֶת־אִשְׁתִּ֔י כִּ֥י מָלְא֖וּ יָמָ֑י |
|21||And Jacob said to Laban, Provide me my wife, for my days are fulfilled, |
and I will go to her.
|וַיֶּאֱסֹ֥ף לָבָ֛ן אֶת־כָּל־אַנְשֵׁ֥י הַמָּק֖וֹם וַיַּ֥עַשׂ מִשְׁתֶּֽה||22||And Laban gathered every person in the place, and he made a party.||3d||3g||18|
|וַיְהִ֣י בָעֶ֔רֶב וַיִּקַּח֙ אֶת־לֵאָ֣ה בִתּ֔וֹ וַיָּבֵ֥א אֹתָ֖הּ אֵלָ֑יו |
|23||And it happened in the evening that he took Leah his daughter and brought her to him, |
and he came to her.
|וַיִּתֵּ֤ן לָבָן֙ לָ֔הּ אֶת־זִלְפָּ֖ה שִׁפְחָת֑וֹ |
לְלֵאָ֥ה בִתּ֖וֹ שִׁפְחָֽה
|24||And Laban gave to her Zilpah, his handmaid, |
to Leah, his daughter, a handmaid.
|וַיְהִ֣י בַבֹּ֔קֶר וְהִנֵּה־הִ֖וא לֵאָ֑ה |
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶל־לָבָ֗ן מַה־זֹּאת֙ עָשִׂ֣יתָ לִּ֔י הֲלֹ֤א בְרָחֵל֙ עָבַ֣דְתִּי עִמָּ֔ךְ וְלָ֖מָּה רִמִּיתָֽנִי
|25||And it happened in the morning, and behold, it was Leah. |
And he said to Laban, What is this that you have done to me? In Rachel, did I not serve with you?
So why have you deceived me?
|וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָבָ֔ן לֹא־יֵעָשֶׂ֥ה כֵ֖ן בִּמְקוֹמֵ֑נוּ |
לָתֵ֥ת הַצְּעִירָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י הַבְּכִירָֽה
|26||And Laban said, Such will not do, in our place, |
to give the one of little account before the firstborn.
|מַלֵּ֖א שְׁבֻ֣עַ זֹ֑את |
וְנִתְּנָ֨ה לְךָ֜ גַּם־אֶת־זֹ֗את בַּעֲבֹדָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תַּעֲבֹ֣ד עִמָּדִ֔י ע֖וֹד שֶֽׁבַע־שָׁנִ֥ים אֲחֵרֽוֹת
|27||Fulfill this week, |
and we will give you also this, in the service that you will serve with me yet another seven years.
|וַיַּ֤עַשׂ יַעֲקֹב֙ כֵּ֔ן וַיְמַלֵּ֖א שְׁבֻ֣עַ זֹ֑את |
וַיִּתֶּן־ל֛וֹ אֶת־רָחֵ֥ל בִּתּ֖וֹ ל֥וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה
|28||And Jacob did so and he fulfilled this week, |
and he gave him Rachel his daughter for his wife.
|וַיִּתֵּ֤ן לָבָן֙ לְרָחֵ֣ל בִּתּ֔וֹ אֶת־בִּלְהָ֖ה שִׁפְחָת֑וֹ |
|29||And Laban gave Rachel his daughter, Bilhah, his handmaid, |
to her for a handmaid.
|וַיָּבֹא֙ גַּ֣ם אֶל־רָחֵ֔ל וַיֶּאֱהַ֥ב גַּֽם־אֶת־רָחֵ֖ל מִלֵּאָ֑ה |
וַיַּעֲבֹ֣ד עִמּ֔וֹ ע֖וֹד שֶֽׁבַע־שָׁנִ֥ים אֲחֵרֽוֹת
|30||And he entered also to Rachel, and moreover loved Rachel more than Leah, |
and served with him yet another seven years.
|וַיַּ֤רְא יְהוָה֙ כִּֽי־שְׂנוּאָ֣ה לֵאָ֔ה וַיִּפְתַּ֖ח אֶת־רַחְמָ֑הּ |
|31||But Yahweh saw that Leah was hated, and opened her womb, |
but Rachel was barren.
|וַתַּ֤הַר לֵאָה֙ וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֔ן וַתִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ רְאוּבֵ֑ן |
כִּ֣י אָֽמְרָ֗ה כִּֽי־רָאָ֤ה יְהוָה֙ בְּעָנְיִ֔י כִּ֥י עַתָּ֖ה יֶאֱהָבַ֥נִי אִישִֽׁי
|32||And Leah became pregnant, and she gave birth to a son and she called his name Reuben, |
for she said, For Yahweh has seen into my poverty, for now my man will love me.
|וַתַּ֣הַר עוֹד֮ וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּן֒ וַתֹּ֗אמֶר כִּֽי־שָׁמַ֤ע יְהוָה֙ כִּֽי־שְׂנוּאָ֣ה אָנֹ֔כִי וַיִּתֶּן־לִ֖י גַּם־אֶת־זֶ֑ה |
וַתִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ שִׁמְעֽוֹן
|33||And she became pregnant yet again, and she gave birth to a son and she said, For Yahweh has heard that I was hated that he gave me even this. |
And she called his name, Simeon.
|וַתַּ֣הַר עוֹד֮ וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּן֒ וַתֹּ֗אמֶר עַתָּ֤ה הַפַּ֙עַם֙ יִלָּוֶ֤ה אִישִׁי֙ אֵלַ֔י כִּֽי־יָלַ֥דְתִּי ל֖וֹ שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה בָנִ֑ים |
עַל־כֵּ֥ן קָרָֽא־שְׁמ֖וֹ לֵוִֽי
|34||And she became pregnant yet again, and she gave birth to a son, and she said, Now this time my man will be allied to me, for I have begotten for him three sons. |
Therefore his name was called Levi.
|וַתַּ֨הַר ע֜וֹד וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֗ן וַתֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הַפַּ֙עַם֙ אוֹדֶ֣ה אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה עַל־כֵּ֛ן קָרְאָ֥ה שְׁמ֖וֹ יְהוּדָ֑ה |
|35||And she became pregnant yet again, and she gave birth to a son and said, This time I will give thanks to Yahweh. Therefore she called his name Judah. |
And she stood back from giving birth.
Some times when I use race for לוץ I wish I could use run (ברח). But there are two distinct stems, both frequently used, so I keep to my decision at the moment.
There are words where I have not kept this decision of concordance. Words of movement, come, go, walk, bring, cannot be mapped to a single stem. First of course there are two languages, Hebrew and Aramaic and they both have multiple stems in the area of movement of goods or people. Also there are a few places where I have used an exception for an acrostic. And there are places where I have mapped a stem to a common movement + a specific preposition, up down, off, etc.
Below is a subset of the glosses for these stems that contain the word go, come, or bring. For the most part my compromises are limited and clear. This is the most complex set of stems to distinguish to 'see the Hebrew' through the English reading. You can see the distinguishing clue in bold, if it exists.
- the idea of come בוא bring (163) brought (153) came (414) come (627) go (54) go down (1) goes (2) goes/going down (12) down applies to the sun! income (23) therefore come (1) well come (1) - Acrostic went (26)
- גלל go (1) - Acrostic
- דרך go (1) - Acrostic
- the idea of go הלך came (5) come (41) go (295) go back (1) goes (15) gone (8) went (202) went rush (1) (also frequently walk)
- the idea of out or forth יצא and went out (1) anyone going out (1) both came forth (2) bring forth (40) bring out (24) bringing forth (2) bringing out (4) brings forth (5) brings out (3) brought forth (40) brought out (85) came forth (42) came out (55) come forth (33) come out (23) comes forth (10) comes out (2) go forth (69) go out (33) goes forth (5) goes out (14) going duty (2) going forth (11) going out (35) goings forth (2) goings out (2) gone forth (4) gone out (7) out came (2) outgoing (1) went forth (40) went out (45)
- the idea of down ירד bring down (8) bringing down (1) brings down (2) brought down (12) came down (20) come down (21) go down (6) goes down (1) going down (9) gone down (4) went down (11) (also frequently descend)
- סור gone off (1)
- the idea of beyond עבר bring across (2) go beyond / by (9) goes beyond(1) went through (2) (also many others, pass through, traverse, ...)
- the idea of up עלה bring up (32) bringing up (2) brings up (8) brought up (72) came up (55) come up (38) comes up (5) go up (78) goes up (2) going up (9) gone up (4) got up (1) went up (64) (also frequently ascend)
- the idea of before קדם came before (2) come before (4) go before (3) (also many others, e.g. east, old, antiquity, precedent, confront)
- the idea of letting go רפה let go (8) (also slacken, timid)
- אזל go (1) gone way (1) went (3)
- אתה bring (2) brought (6) come back (3) come here (1)
- הוך came (1) - Aramaic
- נפק came out (1) come out (1)
- סלק came (2) came up (1)
- עלל bring (2) brought (3) came (3) went (1)