Tuesday, May 1, 2018

Judges 13

So since I do not know much about angels, how will I know whether to render מלאך as angel or messenger? It will probably end up being somewhat random.

There is a bit of who knew what when in this story. The מלאך appears first to the wife, and then when the man asks, he returns again to the wife and speaks to the man. I wonder what to make of the questions and the subtext.

The prohibition of wine or strong drink during pregnancy appears to reveal an awareness of the disastrous results of fetal alcohol syndrome.

Verse 25, a curious verb, פעם.

Note x in a name is simply a hard h, ח.

Judges 13 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיֹּסִ֙פוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת הָרַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
וַיִּתְּנֵ֧ם יְהוָ֛ה בְּיַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים אַרְבָּעִ֥ים שָׁנָֽה
1 And again the children of Israel did evil in the eyes of Yahweh,
and Yahweh gave them into the hand of the Philistines a forty year span.
3c 4B 19
15
וַיְהִי֩ אִ֨ישׁ אֶחָ֧ד מִצָּרְעָ֛ה מִמִּשְׁפַּ֥חַת הַדָּנִ֖י וּשְׁמ֣וֹ מָנ֑וֹחַ
וְאִשְׁתּ֥וֹ עֲקָרָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א יָלָֽדָה
2 And there was one man of Tsarah from the family of Dan and his name was Manoax,
and his wife was barren and had not given birth.
3c 4B 20
11
וַיֵּרָ֥א מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־הָאִשָּׁ֑ה
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלֶ֗יהָ הִנֵּה־נָ֤א אַתְּ־עֲקָרָה֙ וְלֹ֣א יָלַ֔דְתְּ וְהָרִ֖ית וְיָלַ֥דְתְּ בֵּֽן
3 And the messenger of Yahweh appeared to the woman,
and he said to her, Behold, if you will, barren one, you that have not given birth, but you will become pregnant and will give birth to a son.
3e 4C 11
26
וְעַתָּה֙ הִשָּׁ֣מְרִי נָ֔א וְאַל־תִּשְׁתִּ֖י יַ֣יִן וְשֵׁכָ֑ר
וְאַל־תֹּאכְלִ֖י כָּל־טָמֵֽא
4 So now keep watch, if you will, and do not imbibe wine or strong drink,
and do not eat anything defiled.
3e 4B 15
7
כִּי֩ הִנָּ֨ךְ הָרָ֜ה וְיֹלַ֣דְתְּ בֵּ֗ן וּמוֹרָה֙ לֹא־יַעֲלֶ֣ה עַל־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ כִּֽי־נְזִ֧יר אֱלֹהִ֛ים יִהְיֶ֥ה הַנַּ֖עַר מִן־הַבָּ֑טֶן
וְה֗וּא יָחֵ֛ל לְהוֹשִׁ֥יעַ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִיַּ֥ד פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים
5 For behold you are pregnant and will give birth to a son. Alteration will not come up on his head, for a Nazirite of God the lad will be from the belly,
and he will start to save Israel from the hand of the Philistines.
3c 4B 34
17
וַתָּבֹ֣א הָאִשָּׁ֗ה וַתֹּ֣אמֶר לְאִישָׁהּ֮ לֵאמֹר֒ אִ֤ישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים֙ בָּ֣א אֵלַ֔י וּמַרְאֵ֕הוּ כְּמַרְאֵ֛ה מַלְאַ֥ךְ הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים נוֹרָ֣א מְאֹ֑ד
וְלֹ֤א שְׁאִלְתִּ֙יהוּ֙ אֵֽי־מִזֶּ֣ה ה֔וּא וְאֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ לֹֽא־הִגִּ֥יד לִֽי
6 And the woman came and she said to her man, saying, A man of God came to me, and his appearance was as the appearance of a messenger of God, to be much feared,
but I did not ask him where he was from and his name he did not tell me.
3d 4C 39
16
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לִ֔י הִנָּ֥ךְ הָרָ֖ה וְיֹלַ֣דְתְּ בֵּ֑ן
וְעַתָּ֞ה אַל־תִּשְׁתִּ֣י ׀ יַ֣יִן וְשֵׁכָ֗ר וְאַל־תֹּֽאכְלִי֙ כָּל־טֻמְאָ֔ה כִּֽי־נְזִ֤יר אֱלֹהִים֙ יִהְיֶ֣ה הַנַּ֔עַר מִן־הַבֶּ֖טֶן עַד־י֥וֹם מוֹתֽוֹ
7 And he said to me, Behold, you are pregnant, and will give birth to a son.
So now do not imbibe wine or strong drink, and do not eat anything unclean, for a Nazirite of God the lad will be from the belly, until the day of his death.
3e 4C 13
36
וַיֶּעְתַּ֥ר מָנ֛וֹחַ אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה וַיֹּאמַ֑ר
בִּ֣י אֲדוֹנָ֔י אִ֣ישׁ הָאֱלֹהִ֞ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׁלַ֗חְתָּ יָבוֹא־נָ֥א עוֹד֙ אֵלֵ֔ינוּ וְיוֹרֵ֕נוּ מַֽה־נַּעֲשֶׂ֖ה לַנַּ֥עַר הַיּוּלָּֽד
8 And Manoax petitioned Yahweh, and he said, O my Lord, let the man of God that you sent come, if you will, yet again to us,
that he may instruct us what we should do for the lad to be born.
3d 4B 12
35
וַיִּשְׁמַ֥ע הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּק֣וֹל מָנ֑וֹחַ
וַיָּבֹ֣א מַלְאַךְ֩ הָאֱלֹהִ֨ים ע֜וֹד אֶל־הָאִשָּׁ֗ה וְהִיא֙ יוֹשֶׁ֣בֶת בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה וּמָנ֥וֹחַ אִישָׁ֖הּ אֵ֥ין עִמָּֽהּ
9 And God heard with the voice of Manoax, and the messenger of God came yet again to the woman, and she was sitting in the field,
and Manoax her man was not with her.
3e 4B 12
31
וַתְּמַהֵר֙ הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה וַתָּ֖רָץ וַתַּגֵּ֣ד לְאִישָׁ֑הּ
וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֔יו הִנֵּ֨ה נִרְאָ֤ה אֵלַי֙ הָאִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥א בַיּ֖וֹם אֵלָֽי
10 And the woman was swift and she raced and told her man,
and she said to him, Behold the man appeared to me, that came the other day to me.
3e 4C 15
20
וַיָּ֛קָם וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ מָנ֖וֹחַ אַחֲרֵ֣י אִשְׁתּ֑וֹ
וַיָּבֹא֙ אֶל־הָאִ֔ישׁ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ הַאַתָּ֥ה הָאִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּ֥רְתָּ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁ֖ה וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אָֽנִי
11 And Manoax arose and went after his wife,
and he came to the man, saying to him, Are you the person that spoke to the woman. And he said, I am.
3d 4B 14
29
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר מָנ֔וֹחַ עַתָּ֖ה יָבֹ֣א דְבָרֶ֑יךָ
מַה־יִּֽהְיֶ֥ה מִשְׁפַּט־הַנַּ֖עַר וּמַעֲשֵֽׂהוּ
12 And Manoax said, Now let your words enter.
What will be the framework for the lad that we will make for him?
3e 4B 14
13
וַיֹּ֛אמֶר מַלְאַ֥ךְ יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מָנ֑וֹחַ
מִכֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־אָמַ֥רְתִּי אֶל־הָאִשָּׁ֖ה תִּשָּׁמֵֽר
13 And the messenger of Yahweh said to Manoax,
From all that I said to the woman, she will keep watch.
3d 4A 11
14
מִכֹּ֣ל אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵא֩ מִגֶּ֨פֶן הַיַּ֜יִן לֹ֣א תֹאכַ֗ל וְיַ֤יִן וְשֵׁכָר֙ אַל־תֵּ֔שְׁתְּ וְכָל־טֻמְאָ֖ה אַל־תֹּאכַ֑ל
כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־צִוִּיתִ֖יהָ תִּשְׁמֹֽר
14 From all that emerges from the vine of wine, she will not eat, and wine and strong drink she will not imbibe, and anything unclean she will not eat.
All that I commanded her, she will keep watch.
3e 4C 29
9
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר מָנ֖וֹחַ אֶל־מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהוָ֑ה
נַעְצְרָה־נָּ֣א אוֹתָ֔ךְ וְנַעֲשֶׂ֥ה לְפָנֶ֖יךָ גְּדִ֥י עִזִּֽים
15 And Manoax said to the messenger of Yahweh,
Let us detain you please, and let us make before you a male kid of the she-goats.
3e 4B 11
18
וַיֹּאמֶר֩ מַלְאַ֨ךְ יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־מָנ֗וֹחַ אִם־תַּעְצְרֵ֙נִי֙ לֹא־אֹכַ֣ל בְּלַחְמֶ֔ךָ וְאִם־תַּעֲשֶׂ֣ה עֹלָ֔ה לַיהוָ֖ה תַּעֲלֶ֑נָּה
כִּ֚י לֹא־יָדַ֣ע מָנ֔וֹחַ כִּֽי־מַלְאַ֥ךְ יְהוָ֖ה הֽוּא
16 And the messenger of Yahweh said to Manoax, Though you detain me, I will not eat of your bread, and if you will do a burnt offering, to Yahweh you will offer it up.
For Manoax did not know that he was the messenger of Yahweh.
3e 4C 35
12
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר מָנ֛וֹחַ אֶל־מַלְאַ֥ךְ יְהוָ֖ה מִ֣י שְׁמֶ֑ךָ
כִּֽי־יָבֹ֥א דְבָרְךָ֖ וְכִבַּדְנֽוּךָ
17 And Manoax said to the messenger of Yahweh, What is your name?
When your word comes, then we will glorify you.
3c 4B 15
10
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לּוֹ֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהוָ֔ה לָ֥מָּה זֶּ֖ה תִּשְׁאַ֣ל לִשְׁמִ֑י
וְהוּא־פֶ֛לִאי
18 And the messenger of Yahweh said to him, Why is it that you ask for my name?
For it is wonderful.
3d 4C 15
5
וַיִּקַּ֨ח מָנ֜וֹחַ אֶת־גְּדִ֤י הָעִזִּים֙ וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָ֔ה וַיַּ֥עַל עַל־הַצּ֖וּר לַֽיהוָ֑ה
וּמַפְלִ֣א לַעֲשׂ֔וֹת וּמָנ֥וֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּ֖וֹ רֹאִֽים
19 And Manoax took a male kid of the she-goats and the gift, and offered them up on the rock to Yahweh.
And it was a wonder to do it, and Manoax and his wife saw.
3e 4C 25
14
וַיְהִי֩ בַעֲל֨וֹת הַלַּ֜הַב מֵעַ֤ל הַמִּזְבֵּ֙חַ֙ הַשָּׁמַ֔יְמָה וַיַּ֥עַל מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָ֖ה בְּלַ֣הַב הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ
וּמָנ֤וֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ֙ רֹאִ֔ים וַיִּפְּל֥וּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶ֖ם אָֽרְצָה
20 And it happened as the flame came up from the altar towards the heavens, the messenger of Yahweh went up in the flame of the altar,
and Manoax and his wife saw, and they fell onto their faces earthward.
3e 4C 32
17
וְלֹא־יָ֤סַף עוֹד֙ מַלְאַ֣ךְ יְהוָ֔ה לְהֵרָאֹ֖ה אֶל־מָנ֣וֹחַ וְאֶל־אִשְׁתּ֑וֹ
אָ֚ז יָדַ֣ע מָנ֔וֹחַ כִּֽי־מַלְאַ֥ךְ יְהוָ֖ה הֽוּא
21 But the messenger of Yahweh did not again further appear to Manoax and his wife.
Then Manoax knew that he was the messenger of Yahweh.
3e 4C 20
12
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר מָנ֛וֹחַ אֶל־אִשְׁתּ֖וֹ מ֣וֹת נָמ֑וּת
כִּ֥י אֱלֹהִ֖ים רָאִֽינוּ
22 And Manoax said to his wife, to die we will die,
for God, we have seen.
3c 4B 12
7
וַתֹּ֧אמֶר ל֣וֹ אִשְׁתּ֗וֹ לוּ֩ חָפֵ֨ץ יְהוָ֤ה לַהֲמִיתֵ֙נוּ֙ לֹֽא־לָקַ֤ח מִיָּדֵ֙נוּ֙ עֹלָ֣ה וּמִנְחָ֔ה וְלֹ֥א הֶרְאָ֖נוּ אֶת־כָּל־אֵ֑לֶּה
וְכָעֵ֕ת לֹ֥א הִשְׁמִיעָ֖נוּ כָּזֹֽאת
23 Then his wife said to him, If Yahweh delighted to have us die, he would not take from our hands a burnt offering and a gift, and would not show us all these,
nor at this time make us hear such as this.
3c 4C 36
10
וַתֵּ֤לֶד הָֽאִשָּׁה֙ בֵּ֔ן וַתִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ שִׁמְשׁ֑וֹן
וַיִּגְדַּ֣ל הַנַּ֔עַר וַֽיְבָרְכֵ֖הוּ יְהוָֽה
24 And the woman gave birth to a son, and she called his name Sampson,
and the lad grew and Yahweh blessed him.
3e 4C 15
12
וַתָּ֙חֶל֙ ר֣וּחַ יְהוָ֔ה לְפַעֲמ֖וֹ בְּמַחֲנֵה־דָ֑ן
בֵּ֥ין צָרְעָ֖ה וּבֵ֥ין אֶשְׁתָּאֹֽל
25 And the spirit of Yahweh started to pulse him at times in the camp of Dan,
between Tsarah and Eshtaol.
3e 4B 16
8

A note about the italics in the KJV. In spite of my literal and rigid and concordant approach to reading, I do not note when a word in English is 'added' to the text. The decision is not about adding to the text, it is about interpreting the phrase that is each Hebrew 'word'. Take ביום in verse 10. If this were a grammar lesson, we could render it literally as 3 words: in the day. But translation and reading are not grammar lessons. In this context it is likely equivalent to the English phrase the other day. One is not 'adding' words. Remember how we have 'discovered' that prepositions, conjunctions, and other connectors that are the structural elements in a language (like ב in  ביום), may have a dominant gloss, such as in, but their sense comes from the sentence they are in, not from the dominant gloss. And they are much more variable than expected from examples in a grammar book. Such reasoning also undermines my desire for concordance. I have been forced to allow myself much more flexibility than I expected when I was first working with the text several years ago.

Another example is in verse 7 and its repeat: do not eat any unclean thing. Thing is added by KJV to allow unclean to modify something. But equally the connector כל often requires the sense of anything, besides its dominant glosses of all or every. These are a current selection (avoiding the oddball glosses I used when כל is used as part of an acrostic.) all (4,114), all sort (1), anyone (35), anything (25), anywhere (2), every (344), every type (1), everyone (26), everything (72), everywhere (5), lot (5), none (2), out all (3), through all (5), throughout (1), throughout all (2), total (9), untranslated (36), whole (51).

Another very common source of italics in KJV is the verb to be. This verb, contrary to some opinions, certainly exists in Hebrew. Its stem is היה. But frequently, is does not occur in Hebrew where we would expect it in English because it is implied by adjacency. The question seems to be, how do two words (that are not part of the structure of the language) relate to one another? Are they in a construct relation? (Somewhat like possessive, e.g. the very common בני ישרזל, children of Israel) Are they in apposition? Or is there an implied verb? [Perhaps KJV should have italicized all uses of of in the construct. It would be overkill, of course.]

A perhaps more informative use of italics might be to tell the reader that the text is reconstructed from other sources or otherwise altered. JB has such notes, but they are not informative. They don't say what correction was made, just that a correction was made. There are so many corrections. Are they material? No. So it is probably not important to attribute quite as much as we might be tempted to do over what text we do have access to. As they say, please don't eat the menu.