Friday, July 13, 2018

Ezekiel 32

Verse 3, net is repeated in KJV and JB and NIV. The stem is entirely different. One is רשׁת net, the other is חרם. I have used fishing net for this stem in other places. But I wonder if it is sarcasm. חרם is of course the word for the ban, for utter destruction, or mutilation, or for devotion, in the sense that it belongs to the divine. Ezekiel has this usage in 4 verses. Only chapter 47 absolutely demands the fishing net gloss.

Now which would we chose here? Egypt, the world, is also God's world. The ambivalence of the word in Hebrew cannot be perfect in English, but devotion works quite well. Who would not want to be subject to the devotion of G-d? Such a net is more than a net. You perhaps can see why I am not thrilled with existing translations. But they all spent a great deal more time than I have and fishing net would do, I suppose. Remember this next time you are reading about fish.

The world is a big metaphor for Egypt. It's fine to localize it historically as well and the visitation of God's devotion may not be entirely pleasant, but the outcome seems to be good for the fowl and all the living things of the earth. The world is loved. The surrounding nations may benefit from Egypt's chastening. The visitation of the fishing net may not be pleasant either. Is this ambivalence appealed to in the kingdom parables of the net?

Verses 2, 13, דלח roil occurs 3 times. It is used only in this chapter and appears nowhere else in the Bible. Imagine the metaphor. Work out a word not yet used anywhere else for this unique usage - stirring water with the foot. Who are the beasts?

Verse 20. There is some difficulty deciding to what or to whom the pronouns refer. NIV assumes it is Egypt and her tumult. Sword is also feminine, so the feminine pronouns can refer to it.
20בתוך among חללי the profaned of חרב sword יפלו they will fall חרב sword נתנה is given to משׁכו those who draw אותה it וכל and all המוניה its tumult
Verse 21. JB says the Hebrew is unintelligible. Part of the problem in these verses is figuring out what the various pronouns, singular and plural, masculine and feminine, refer to.
21ידברו will speak לו to him  אלי the gods of גבורים the valiant מתוך from the midst of שׁאול Sheol את with עזריו his helpers ירדו let them descend שׁכבו they lie down with הערלים the fore-skinned חללי profaned by חרב sword
This is not the only verse in the Bible that has unintelligible attached to it by the professional readers. One of Robert Alter's favorite footnotes is 'the Hebrew is crabbed here'. Rosenberg and Zlotowitz would say to this effect 'No one knows what this means, and if anyone says he does, he is lying'. Not every impossible verse is footnoted with notes like this. One would think this is discouraging, but no, it is encouraging for a new reader, because one's certainty is undermined. And even a little bit of undermining of certainty is quite healthy.

One of my teachers who knows I have run before I could walk, said to me, But it must make sense. And he may well have been right about that particular verse. But about some verses, no. There may not be a sense that is intelligible to us. It is good to keep the questions open. Certainty leads to division, war and profanity. These 5 words occur 14 or more times in the dirge. ארץ, כל, נתן ,חרב ,חלל. You will find other repetitive phrases, though they are not exact repetitions.

Ezekiel 32 Fn Min Max Syll
וַֽיְהִי֙ בִּשְׁתֵּ֣י עֶשְׂרֵ֣ה שָׁנָ֔ה בִּשְׁנֵי־עָשָׂ֥ר חֹ֖דֶשׁ בְּאֶחָ֣ד לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ
הָיָ֥ה דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר
1 And it was in the twelfth year, in the second month, on the first of the month.
It happened that Yahweh spoke to me, saying,
3e 4B 19
10
בֶּן־אָדָ֗ם שָׂ֤א קִינָה֙ עַל־פַּרְעֹ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַ֔יִם וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֔יו כְּפִ֥יר גּוֹיִ֖ם נִדְמֵ֑יתָ
וְאַתָּה֙ כַּתַּנִּ֣ים בַּיַּמִּ֔ים וַתָּ֣גַח בְּנַהֲרוֹתֶ֗יךָ וַתִּדְלַח־מַ֙יִם֙ בְּרַגְלֶ֔יךָ וַתִּרְפֹּ֖ס נַהֲרוֹתָֽם
2 Child of humanity, lift up a dirge over Pharaoh the king of Egypt, and say to him, Young lion of nations, you are undone.
And you were like the dragons in the seas, and you burst out with your rivers. You roiled the waters under your feet, and you made their rivers turbid.
3e 4C 26
33
כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה וּפָרַשְׂתִּ֤י עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ אֶת־רִשְׁתִּ֔י בִּקְהַ֖ל עַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֑ים
וְהֶעֱל֖וּךָ בְּחֶרְמִֽי
3 C Thus says my Lord Yahweh, And I will spread over you my net in the congregation of many peoples,
and they will bring you up in my fishing net.
3e 4C 24
8
וּנְטַשְׁתִּ֣יךָ בָאָ֔רֶץ עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה אֲטִילֶ֑ךָ
וְהִשְׁכַּנְתִּ֤י עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ כָּל־ע֣וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְהִשְׂבַּעְתִּ֥י מִמְּךָ֖ חַיַּ֥ת כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ
4 And I will abandon you in the land. On the surface of the field I will hurl you down.
And I will make all the fowl of the heavens to dwell over you, and I will satisfy from you the living things of all the earth.
3e 4C 17
24
וְנָתַתִּ֥י אֶת־בְּשָׂרְךָ֖ עַל־הֶֽהָרִ֑ים
וּמִלֵּאתִ֥י הַגֵּאָי֖וֹת רָמוּתֶֽךָ
5 And I will give your flesh over the hills,
and I will fill the gorges with your exaltation.
3e 4A 12
12
וְהִשְׁקֵיתִ֨י אֶ֧רֶץ צָפָתְךָ֛ מִדָּמְךָ֖ אֶל־הֶֽהָרִ֑ים
וַאֲפִקִ֖ים יִמָּלְא֥וּן מִמֶּֽךָּ
6 And I will irrigate the land of your cascade with your blood to the hills.
And river channels will be filled from you.
3c 4A 16
10
וְכִסֵּיתִ֤י בְכַבּֽוֹתְךָ֙ שָׁמַ֔יִם וְהִקְדַּרְתִּ֖י אֶת־כֹּֽכְבֵיהֶ֑ם
שֶׁ֚מֶשׁ בֶּעָנָ֣ן אֲכַסֶּ֔נּוּ וְיָרֵ֖חַ לֹא־יָאִ֥יר אוֹרֽוֹ
7 And I will cover, when I quench you, the heavens, and make their stars mourn.
The sun in the cloud I will cover, and the moon will not reveal its light.
3e 4C 18
17
כָּל־מְא֤וֹרֵי אוֹר֙ בַּשָּׁמַ֔יִם אַקְדִּירֵ֖ם עָלֶ֑יךָ
וְנָתַ֤תִּי חֹ֙שֶׁךְ֙ עַֽל־אַרְצְךָ֔ נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה
8 All the revealing light in the heavens I will make blackness over you,
and I will give darkness over your land. An oracle of my Lord Yahweh.
3e 4C 14
17
וְהִ֨כְעַסְתִּ֔י לֵ֖ב עַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֑ים
בַּהֲבִיאִ֤י שִׁבְרְךָ֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם עַל־אֲרָצ֖וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יְדַעְתָּֽם
9 And I will grieve the heart of many peoples,
when I bring your brokenness into the nations over lands that you do not know.
3e 4C 9
20
וַהֲשִׁמּוֹתִ֨י עָלֶ֜יךָ עַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֗ים וּמַלְכֵיהֶם֙ יִשְׂעֲר֤וּ עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ שַׂ֔עַר בְּעוֹפְפִ֥י חַרְבִּ֖י עַל־פְּנֵיהֶ֑ם
וְחָרְד֤וּ לִרְגָעִים֙ אִ֣ישׁ לְנַפְשׁ֔וֹ בְּי֖וֹם מַפַּלְתֶּֽךָ
10 I will make many peoples appalled over you, and their sovereigns will be swept aside over you, swept aside when I fly my sword over their presence,
and they will be apprehensive at every moment, each for its own integrity in the day of your fall.
3e 4C 33
16
כִּ֛י כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה
חֶ֥רֶב מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֖ל תְּבוֹאֶֽךָ
11 d For thus says my Lord Yahweh,
The sword of the king of Babel will come to you.
3d 4B 9
10
בְּחַרְב֤וֹת גִּבּוֹרִים֙ אַפִּ֣יל הֲמוֹנֶ֔ךָ עָרִיצֵ֥י גוֹיִ֖ם כֻּלָּ֑ם
וְשָֽׁדְדוּ֙ אֶת־גְּא֣וֹן מִצְרַ֔יִם וְנִשְׁמַ֖ד כָּל־הֲמוֹנָֽהּ
12 By the swords of the valiant, I will make your tumult fall, the ruthless of nations, all of them.
And they will devastate the pride of Egypt. All her tumult will be exterminated.
3e 4C 19
15
וְהַֽאֲבַדְתִּי֙ אֶת־כָּל־בְּהֶמְתָּ֔הּ מֵעַ֖ל מַ֣יִם רַבִּ֑ים
וְלֹ֨א תִדְלָחֵ֤ם רֶֽגֶל־אָדָם֙ ע֔וֹד וּפַרְס֥וֹת בְּהֵמָ֖ה לֹ֥א תִדְלָחֵֽם
13 I will eliminate all its beasts from many waters,
and human foot will not roil them any more, and the hoofs of a beast will not roil them.
3e 4C 15
20
אָ֚ז אַשְׁקִ֣יעַ מֵֽימֵיהֶ֔ם וְנַהֲרוֹתָ֖ם כַּשֶּׁ֣מֶן אוֹלִ֑יךְ
נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה
14 C Then I will abate their waters and their rivers like oil will meander.
An oracle of my Lord Yahweh.
3e 4C 17
7
בְּתִתִּי֩ אֶת־אֶ֨רֶץ מִצְרַ֜יִם שְׁמָמָ֣ה וּנְשַׁמָּ֗ה אֶ֚רֶץ מִמְּלֹאָ֔הּ בְּהַכּוֹתִ֖י אֶת־כָּל־י֣וֹשְׁבֵי בָ֑הּ
וְיָדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
15 When I give the land of Egypt to desolation, and desolate the land of its fullness, when I strike all her inhabitants,
then they will know that I am Yahweh.
3e 4C 28
7
קִינָ֥ה הִיא֙ וְק֣וֹנְנ֔וּהָ בְּנ֥וֹת הַגּוֹיִ֖ם תְּקוֹנֵ֣נָּה אוֹתָ֑הּ
עַל־מִצְרַ֤יִם וְעַל־כָּל־הֲמוֹנָהּ֙ תְּקוֹנֵ֣נָּה אוֹתָ֔הּ נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה
16 A dirge this is. And the daughters of the nations will sing her dirge. They will sing her dirge.
Over Egypt and over all her tumult they will sing her dirge. An oracle of my Lord Yahweh.
3e 4C 18
22
וַֽיְהִי֙ בִּשְׁתֵּ֣י עֶשְׂרֵ֣ה שָׁנָ֔ה בַּחֲמִשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר לַחֹ֑דֶשׁ
הָיָ֥ה דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר
17 And it was in the twelfth year on the fifth of the month,
it happened that Yahweh spoke to me, saying,
3e 4B 17
10
בֶּן־אָדָ֕ם נְהֵ֛ה עַל־הֲמ֥וֹן מִצְרַ֖יִם וְהוֹרִדֵ֑הוּ
א֠וֹתָהּ וּבְנ֨וֹת גּוֹיִ֧ם אַדִּרִ֛ם אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ תַּחְתִּיּ֖וֹת אֶת־י֥וֹרְדֵי בֽוֹר
18 Child of humanity, moan over the tumult of Egypt. Have it come down,
her and the daughters of the majestic nations, to earth, the lowest parts, with those going down into a pit.
3c 4A 15
19
מִמִּ֖י נָעָ֑מְתָּ
רְדָ֥ה וְהָשְׁכְּבָ֖ה אֶת־עֲרֵלִֽים
19 You are more pleasant than who?
Descend, and lie down with the fore-skinned.
3e 4A 5
10
בְּת֥וֹךְ חַלְלֵי־חֶ֖רֶב יִפֹּ֑לוּ
חֶ֣רֶב נִתָּ֔נָה מָשְׁכ֥וּ אוֹתָ֖הּ וְכָל־הֲמוֹנֶֽיהָ
20 Among the profaned by sword they will fall.
Sword is given to those who draw it and all its tumult.
3e 4B 8
15
יְדַבְּרוּ־ל֞וֹ אֵלֵ֧י גִבּוֹרִ֛ים מִתּ֥וֹךְ שְׁא֖וֹל אֶת־עֹֽזְרָ֑יו
יָֽרְד֛וּ שָׁכְב֥וּ הָעֲרֵלִ֖ים חַלְלֵי־חָֽרֶב
21 The gods of the valiant will speak to him, from the midst of Sheol with his helpers.
Let them descend. They lie down with the fore-skinned, profaned by sword.
3c 4A 15
11
שָׁ֤ם אַשּׁוּר֙ וְכָל־קְהָלָ֔הּ סְבִֽיבוֹתָ֖יו קִבְרֹתָ֑יו
כֻּלָּ֣ם חֲלָלִ֔ים הַנֹּפְלִ֖ים בֶּחָֽרֶב
22 C There is Ashur and all her congregation. Round about him are his tombs.
All of them, the fallen, are profaned by the sword.
3e 4C 15
11
אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִתְּנ֤וּ קִבְרֹתֶ֙יהָ֙ בְּיַרְכְּתֵי־ב֔וֹר וַיְהִ֣י קְהָלָ֔הּ סְבִיב֖וֹת קְבֻרָתָ֑הּ
כֻּלָּ֤ם חֲלָלִים֙ נֹפְלִ֣ים בַּחֶ֔רֶב אֲשֶׁר־נָתְנ֥וּ חִתִּ֖ית בְּאֶ֥רֶץ חַיִּֽים
23 Whose tombs are positioned by the flanks of a pit, and her congregation is round about her tomb,
all of them profaned, fallen by the sword that gave dismay in the land of the living.
3e 4C 25
21
שָׁ֤ם עֵילָם֙ וְכָל־הֲמוֹנָ֔הּ סְבִיב֖וֹת קְבֻרָתָ֑הּ
כֻּלָּ֣ם חֲלָלִים֩ הַנֹּפְלִ֨ים בַּחֶ֜רֶב אֲ‍ֽשֶׁר־יָרְד֥וּ עֲרֵלִ֣ים ׀ אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ תַּחְתִּיּ֗וֹת אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתְנ֤וּ חִתִּיתָם֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ חַיִּ֔ים וַיִּשְׂא֥וּ כְלִמָּתָ֖ם אֶת־י֥וֹרְדֵי בֽוֹר
24 C There is Eilam, and all her tumult surrounding her tomb.
All of them, the fallen, are profaned by the sword, who descend fore-skinned to earth, the lowest parts that gave their dismay in the land of the living, and they have borne their humiliation with those going down into a pit.
3e 4C 15
47
בְּת֣וֹךְ חֲ֠לָלִים נָתְנ֨וּ מִשְׁכָּ֥ב לָהּ֙ בְּכָל־הֲמוֹנָ֔הּ סְבִֽיבוֹתָ֖יו קִבְרֹתֶ֑הָ
כֻּלָּ֣ם עֲרֵלִ֣ים חַלְלֵי־חֶ֡רֶב כִּֽי־נִתַּ֨ן חִתִּיתָ֜ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ חַיִּ֗ים וַיִּשְׂא֤וּ כְלִמָּתָם֙ אֶת־י֣וֹרְדֵי ב֔וֹר בְּת֥וֹךְ חֲלָלִ֖ים נִתָּֽן
25 Among profaned, her litter is positioned by all her tumult, her tomb round about him.
All of them, fore-skinned, are profaned by sword, for their dismay was given in the land of the living, and they have borne their humiliation with those going down into a pit. Among profaned, he is positioned.
3e 4C 23
36
שָׁ֣ם מֶ֤שֶׁךְ תֻּבַל֙ וְכָל־הֲמוֹנָ֔הּ סְבִֽיבוֹתָ֖יו קִבְרוֹתֶ֑יהָ
כֻּלָּ֤ם עֲרֵלִים֙ מְחֻ֣לְלֵי חֶ֔רֶב כִּֽי־נָתְנ֥וּ חִתִּיתָ֖ם בְּאֶ֥רֶץ חַיִּֽים
26 B There is Charade, the world and all her tumult, round about him her tombs.
All of them fore-skinned, profaned by sword, for they gave their dismay in the land of the living.
3e 4C 18
21
וְלֹ֤א יִשְׁכְּבוּ֙ אֶת־גִּבּוֹרִ֔ים נֹפְלִ֖ים מֵעֲרֵלִ֑ים
אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָרְדֽוּ־שְׁא֣וֹל בִּכְלֵֽי־מִלְחַמְתָּם֩ וַיִּתְּנ֨וּ אֶת־חַרְבוֹתָ֜ם תַּ֣חַת רָאשֵׁיהֶ֗ם וַתְּהִ֤י עֲוֺֽנֹתָם֙ עַל־עַצְמוֹתָ֔ם כִּֽי־חִתִּ֥ית גִּבּוֹרִ֖ים בְּאֶ֥רֶץ חַיִּֽים
27 And with the valiant, the fallen from the fore-skinned will not lie down,
who descended to the grave in the instruments of their battle, and positioned their swords under their heads. But their iniquities will be over their bones, for the dismay of the valiant in the land of the living.
3e 4C 15
43
וְאַתָּ֗ה בְּת֧וֹךְ עֲרֵלִ֛ים תִּשָּׁבַ֥ר וְתִשְׁכַּ֖ב אֶת־חַלְלֵי־חָֽרֶב 28 And you will be among the fore-skinned, broken, and you will lie down with those profaned by sword. 3c 3g 18
שָׁ֣מָּה אֱד֗וֹם מְלָכֶ֙יהָ֙ וְכָל־נְשִׂיאֶ֔יהָ אֲשֶׁר־נִתְּנ֥וּ בִגְבוּרָתָ֖ם אֶת־חַלְלֵי־חָ֑רֶב
הֵ֛מָּה אֶת־עֲרֵלִ֥ים יִשְׁכָּ֖בוּ וְאֶת־יֹ֥רְדֵי בֽוֹר
29 B There is Edom, her kings and all her principals, that are positioned with their valiant, with those profaned by sword.
They with the fore-skinned will lie down, and with those going down into a pit.
3d 4B 26
14
שָׁ֣מָּה נְסִיכֵ֥י צָפ֛וֹן כֻּלָּ֖ם וְכָל־צִֽדֹנִ֑י
אֲשֶׁר־יָרְד֣וּ אֶת־חֲלָלִ֗ים בְּחִתִּיתָ֤ם מִגְבֽוּרָתָם֙ בּוֹשִׁ֔ים וַיִּשְׁכְּב֤וּ עֲרֵלִים֙ אֶת־חַלְלֵי־חֶ֔רֶב וַיִּשְׂא֥וּ כְלִמָּתָ֖ם אֶת־י֥וֹרְדֵי בֽוֹר
30 B There are the libations of the north, all of them, and all Zidonians,
who descended with the profaned, with their dismay, ashamed of their valour and they lie down fore-skinned with those profaned by sword, and they have borne their humiliation with those going down into a pit.
3d 4C 14
40
אוֹתָם֙ יִרְאֶ֣ה פַרְעֹ֔ה וְנִחַ֖ם עַל־כָּל־הֲמוֹנ֑וֹ
חַלְלֵי־חֶ֙רֶב֙ פַּרְעֹ֣ה וְכָל־חֵיל֔וֹ נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה
31 Them Pharaoh will see and will sigh over all his tumult,
profaned by sword, Pharaoh and all his force, an oracle of my Lord Yahweh.
3e 4B 14
16
כִּֽי־נָתַ֥תִּי אֶת־חִתִּיתִ֖י בְּאֶ֣רֶץ חַיִּ֑ים
וְהֻשְׁכַּב֩ בְּת֨וֹךְ עֲרֵלִ֜ים אֶת־חַלְלֵי־חֶ֗רֶב פַּרְעֹה֙ וְכָל־הֲמוֹנֹ֔ה נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה
32 For I have given my dismay in the land of the living.
And he will lie down among the fore-skinned, with those profaned by sword, Pharaoh and all her tumult, an oracle of my Lord Yahweh.
3e 4B 12
26