Thursday, July 26, 2018

2 Kings 3

When should one use a period and when a comma? I have been tending toward more periods recently. One's style changes over a 4 year period. With the Psalms, I avoided punctuation entirely at first. I depended on recurring sounds, grammar, and parallelism. Only later did I find the music of the accents. The music is a sure guide, but the other guides are all useful. In poetry particularly, recurring words have patterns too remarkable to be accidental.

Music - see verse 15. As Milton says, (P.L Book 2 c line 555)
Thir Song was partial, but the harmony
(What could it less when Spirits immortal sing?)
Suspended Hell, and took with ravishment
The thronging audience. 
Verse 16 - fosse - real word, equivalent to ditch. I am having to search far and wide for some glosses. The stem גב is also arch (in Ezekiel) and back as in the body-part. A shape, I suppose, whether right side up or upside down.

English is utterly full of exceptions and when to apply them is a subtle process. Reducing one's English to a lemma form is very tricky. I have spent days on my routine recently. It has a dozen subroutines and about 550 lines of code. May the sun stand still long enough for me to finish this project!

I see about 700 exceptions in my data lists. I expect this is about 15% of the total lemma count. That count is a little difficult to determine exactly at the moment. I have about 7500 English lemma forms apart from grammar and names, and about 2200 Hebrew stems. There are 2031 distinct stems in the name category at present. Some of these comprise multiple spellings - so there are 2228 'English' equivalents. These counts are as expected very close.

In the grammar domain, there are 125 distinct roots, and 1764 distinct English forms, because with grammar I cannot reduce the forms very much. Every Hebrew word is a phrase and can include prepositions, conjunctions, and pronouns, and I can't take them out of the grammar because there would be nothing left. (I could take prepositions out of pronouns maybe, but what would I do with לך where it is a pronoun + a preposition? I would have to break down grammar piece by piece and you would get bored. One day we will have more detail. Nothing is lost.) Also remember how a single preposition can have several English glosses. (Just as every English preposition has several nuances in usage, so does every Hebrew preposition.)

Re the ruddy blood in Edom, note the recurring sound of דם d-m. The rising sun may have been deceptive.

2 Kings 3 Fn Min Max Syll
וִיהוֹרָ֣ם בֶּן־אַחְאָ֗ב מָלַ֤ךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ בְּשֹׁ֣מְר֔וֹן בִּשְׁנַת֙ שְׁמֹנֶ֣ה עֶשְׂרֵ֔ה לִיהוֹשָׁפָ֖ט מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה
וַיִּמְלֹ֖ךְ שְׁתֵּים־עֶשְׂרֵ֥ה שָׁנָֽה
1 And Jehoram child, of Ahab, began to reign over Israel in Samaria, in the eighth year of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah.
And he reigned twelve years.
3e 4C 31
9
וַיַּעֲשֶׂ֤ה הָרַע֙ בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה רַ֕ק לֹ֥א כְאָבִ֖יו וּכְאִמּ֑וֹ
וַיָּ֙סַר֙ אֶת־מַצְּבַ֣ת הַבַּ֔עַל אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָׂ֖ה אָבִֽיו
2 And he did evil in the eyes of Yahweh, but not like his father or his mother.
And he put aside the monument of Baal that his father had made.
3e 4C 19
15
רַ֠ק בְּחַטֹּ֞אות יָרָבְעָ֧ם בֶּֽן־נְבָ֛ט אֲשֶׁר־הֶחֱטִ֥יא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל דָּבֵ֑ק
לֹא־סָ֖ר מִמֶּֽנָּה
3 ~ But in the sin of Jeroboam, child of Nabat, who made Israel to sin, he clung.
He did not depart from it.
3c 4A 22
5
וּמֵישַׁ֥ע מֶֽלֶךְ־מוֹאָ֖ב הָיָ֣ה נֹקֵ֑ד
וְהֵשִׁ֤יב לְמֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מֵאָה־אֶ֣לֶף כָּרִ֔ים וּמֵ֥אָה אֶ֖לֶף אֵילִ֥ים צָֽמֶר
4 Meisha, the king of Moab, was a herdsman.
And he paid tribute to the king of Israel, a hundred thousand butting lambs, and a hundred thousand rams, wool.
3e 4C 11
24
וַיְהִ֖י כְּמ֣וֹת אַחְאָ֑ב
וַיִּפְשַׁ֥ע מֶֽלֶךְ־מוֹאָ֖ב בְּמֶ֥לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
5 And it happened with the death of Ahab,
that the king of Moab transgressed against the king of Israel.
3e 4B 6
13
וַיֵּצֵ֞א הַמֶּ֧לֶךְ יְהוֹרָ֛ם בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא מִשֹּׁמְר֑וֹן
וַיִּפְקֹ֖ד אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
6 And king Jehoram went out in that day from Samaria.
And he took a census of all Israel.
3c 4A 16
8
וַיֵּ֡לֶךְ וַיִּשְׁלַח֩ אֶל־יְהוֹשָׁפָ֨ט מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֜ה לֵאמֹ֗ר מֶ֤לֶךְ מוֹאָב֙ פָּשַׁ֣ע בִּ֔י הֲתֵלֵ֥ךְ אִתִּ֛י אֶל־מוֹאָ֖ב לַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֶעֱלֶ֔ה כָּמ֧וֹנִי כָמ֛וֹךָ כְּעַמִּ֥י כְעַמֶּ֖ךָ כְּסוּסַ֥י כְּסוּסֶֽיךָ
7 And he went and he sent to Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, saying, The king of Moab transgressed against me. Will you go with me to Moab to war?
And he said, I will go up. Like me like you, as my people as your people, as my horses as your horses.
3c 4C 37
26
וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אֵי־זֶ֥ה הַדֶּ֖רֶךְ נַעֲלֶ֑ה
וַיֹּ֕אמֶר דֶּ֖רֶךְ מִדְבַּ֥ר אֱדֽוֹם
8 And he said, Which way will we go up?
And he said, The way of the wilderness of Edom.
3e 4A 11
9
וַיֵּלֶךְ֩ מֶ֨לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֤ל וּמֶֽלֶך־יְהוּדָה֙ וּמֶ֣לֶךְ אֱד֔וֹם וַיָּסֹ֕בּוּ דֶּ֖רֶךְ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים
וְלֹא־הָיָ֨ה מַ֧יִם לַֽמַּחֲנֶ֛ה וְלַבְּהֵמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּרַגְלֵיהֶֽם
9 And the king of Israel went, and the king of Judah, and the king of Edom, and they circled around a journey of seven days.
And there was no water for the army, or for the cattle that were around their feet.
3c 4C 29
18
וַיֹּ֖אמֶר מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
אֲהָ֕הּ כִּֽי־קָרָ֣א יְהוָ֗ה לִשְׁלֹ֙שֶׁת֙ הַמְּלָכִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה לָתֵ֥ת אוֹתָ֖ם בְּיַד־מוֹאָֽב
10 And the king of Israel said,
Aye yai yai, that Yahweh called these three kings to give them into the hand of Moab.
3e 4B 8
23
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוֹשָׁפָ֗ט הַאֵ֨ין פֹּ֤ה נָבִיא֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה וְנִדְרְשָׁ֥ה אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה מֵאוֹת֑וֹ
וַ֠יַּעַן אֶחָ֞ד מֵעַבְדֵ֤י מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר פֹּ֚ה אֱלִישָׁ֣ע בֶּן־שָׁפָ֔ט אֲשֶׁר־יָ֥צַק מַ֖יִם עַל־יְדֵ֥י אֵלִיָּֽהוּ
11 And Jehoshaphat said, Is there no mouth of a prophet of Yahweh, that we may search out Yahweh through him?
And one of the servants of the king of Israel answered, and he said, The mouth of Elisha, child of Shaphat, who infused water on the hands of Elijah.
3e 4C 24
35
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ יְה֣וֹשָׁפָ֔ט יֵ֥שׁ אוֹת֖וֹ דְּבַר־יְהוָ֑ה
וַיֵּרְד֣וּ אֵלָ֗יו מֶ֧לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל וִיהוֹשָׁפָ֖ט וּמֶ֥לֶךְ אֱדֽוֹם
12 And Jehoshaphat said, There is with him the word of Yahweh.
And they descended upon him, the king of Israel, and Jehoshaphat, and the king of Edom.
3c 4B 14
19
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֱלִישָׁ֜ע אֶל־מֶ֤לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מַה־לִּ֣י וָלָ֔ךְ לֵ֚ךְ אֶל־נְבִיאֵ֣י אָבִ֔יךָ וְאֶל־נְבִיאֵ֖י אִמֶּ֑ךָ
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אַ֗ל כִּֽי־קָרָ֤א יְהוָה֙ לִשְׁלֹ֙שֶׁת֙ הַמְּלָכִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה לָתֵ֥ת אוֹתָ֖ם בְּיַד־מוֹאָֽב
13 And Elisha said to the king of Israel, What have I? So you, go to the prophets of your father, and to the prophets of your mother.
And the king of Israel said to him, No. Because Yahweh has called these three kings to give them into the hand of Moab.
3e 4C 32
31
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֱלִישָׁ֗ע חַי־יְהוָ֤ה צְבָאוֹת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָמַ֣דְתִּי לְפָנָ֔יו כִּ֗י לוּלֵ֛י פְּנֵ֛י יְהוֹשָׁפָ֥ט מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֖ה אֲנִ֣י נֹשֵׂ֑א
אִם־אַבִּ֥יט אֵלֶ֖יךָ וְאִם־אֶרְאֶֽךָּ
14 And Elisha said, Yahweh of hosts lives, before whom I stand. But unless I was partial to the presence of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah,
I would not notice you or see you.
3d 4C 39
11
וְעַתָּ֖ה קְחוּ־לִ֣י מְנַגֵּ֑ן
וְהָיָה֙ כְּנַגֵּ֣ן הַֽמְנַגֵּ֔ן וַתְּהִ֥י עָלָ֖יו יַד־יְהוָֽה
15 And now, get me music.
And it was when the musician performed, then the hand of Yahweh was upon him.
3e 4B 9
16
וַיֹּ֕אמֶר כֹּ֖ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה
עָשֹׂ֛ה הַנַּ֥חַל הַזֶּ֖ה גֵּבִ֥ים ׀ גֵּבִֽים
16 And he said, Thus says Yahweh,
Make this wadi with fosses upon fosses.
3d 4B 8
11
כִּֽי־כֹ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה לֹֽא־תִרְא֥וּ ר֙וּחַ֙ וְלֹֽא־תִרְא֣וּ גֶ֔שֶׁם וְהַנַּ֥חַל הַה֖וּא יִמָּ֣לֵא מָ֑יִם
וּשְׁתִיתֶ֛ם אַתֶּ֥ם וּמִקְנֵיכֶ֖ם וּֽבְהֶמְתְּכֶֽם
17 Because thus says Yahweh, You will not see wind, nor will you see heavy rain, but this wadi will be full of water,
that you may imbibe, you and your livestock and your cattle.
3d 4B 28
13
וְנָקַ֥ל זֹ֖את בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
וְנָתַ֥ן אֶת־מוֹאָ֖ב בְּיֶדְכֶֽם
18 And this is light in the eyes of Yahweh.
And he will give Moab into your hand.
3e 4B 9
9
וְהִכִּיתֶ֞ם כָּל־עִ֤יר מִבְצָר֙ וְכָל־עִ֣יר מִבְח֔וֹר וְכָל־עֵ֥ץ טוֹב֙ תַּפִּ֔ילוּ וְכָל־מַעְיְנֵי־מַ֖יִם תִּסְתֹּ֑מוּ
וְכֹל֙ הַחֶלְקָ֣ה הַטּוֹבָ֔ה תַּכְאִ֖בוּ בָּאֲבָנִֽים
19 And you will strike every enclosed city and every choice city, and every good tree you will fell, and every spring of water you will block,
and every good parcel you will make sorrowful with stones.
3e 4C 29
15
וַיְהִ֤י בַבֹּ֙קֶר֙ כַּעֲל֣וֹת הַמִּנְחָ֔ה וְהִנֵּה־מַ֥יִם בָּאִ֖ים מִדֶּ֣רֶךְ אֱד֑וֹם
וַתִּמָּלֵ֥א הָאָ֖רֶץ אֶת־הַמָּֽיִם
20 And it happened in the morning, as the gift was offered up, and behold, waters coming from the way of Edom,
and the land was filled with the waters.
3e 4C 22
11
וְכָל־מוֹאָב֙ שָֽׁמְע֔וּ כִּֽי־עָל֥וּ הַמְּלָכִ֖ים לְהִלָּ֣חֶם בָּ֑ם
וַיִּצָּעֲק֗וּ מִכֹּ֨ל חֹגֵ֤ר חֲגֹרָה֙ וָמַ֔עְלָה וַיַּעַמְד֖וּ עַֽל־הַגְּבֽוּל
21 And all Moab heard that the kings had gone up to fight with them,
and they mobilized from all who could wear a sash and upward, and they stood on the border.
3e 4C 16
22
וַיַּשְׁכִּ֣ימוּ בַבֹּ֔קֶר וְהַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ זָרְחָ֣ה עַל־הַמָּ֑יִם
וַיִּרְא֨וּ מוֹאָ֥ב מִנֶּ֛גֶד אֶת־הַמַּ֖יִם אֲדֻמִּ֥ים כַּדָּֽם
22 And they rose early in the morning and the sun rose over the waters,
and Moab saw evidence, the waters, ruddy like blood.
3d 4B 17
16
וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ דָּ֣ם זֶ֔ה הָחֳרֵ֤ב נֶֽחֶרְבוּ֙ הַמְּלָכִ֔ים וַיַּכּ֖וּ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵ֑הוּ
וְעַתָּ֥ה לַשָּׁלָ֖ל מוֹאָֽב
23 And they said, This is blood. The kings have been put to the sword and they have struck each his associate.
And now, to the spoil, Moab.
3e 4C 22
8
וַיָּבֹאוּ֮ אֶל־מַחֲנֵ֣ה יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וַיָּקֻ֤מוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וַיַּכּ֣וּ אֶת־מוֹאָ֔ב וַיָּנֻ֖סוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֑ם
וַיַּכּוּ־בָ֔הּ וְהַכּ֖וֹת אֶת־מוֹאָֽב
24 And they came to the army of Israel, and Israel arose and they struck Moab. And they withdrew from before them.
And they struck on. And they struck Moab.
3e 4C 30
10
וְהֶעָרִ֣ים יַהֲרֹ֡סוּ וְכָל־חֶלְקָ֣ה ט֠וֹבָה יַשְׁלִ֨יכוּ אִישׁ־אַבְנ֜וֹ וּמִלְא֗וּהָ וְכָל־מַעְיַן־מַ֤יִם יִסְתֹּ֙מוּ֙ וְכָל־עֵֽץ־ט֣וֹב יַפִּ֔ילוּ עַד־הִשְׁאִ֧יר אֲבָנֶ֛יהָ בַּקִּ֖יר חֲרָ֑שֶׂת
וַיָּסֹ֥בּוּ הַקַּלָּעִ֖ים וַיַּכּֽוּהָ
25 And the cities they overthrew, and on every good parcel they each flung a stone, and they filled it.
And every spring of water, they blocked, and every good tree, they felled, until the residue of her stones were in Qyr Xareset, and the slingers circled around and struck her.
3c 4C 51
12
וַיַּרְא֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מוֹאָ֔ב כִּֽי־חָזַ֥ק מִמֶּ֖נּוּ הַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה
וַיִּקַּ֣ח א֠וֹתוֹ שְׁבַע־מֵא֨וֹת אִ֜ישׁ שֹׁ֣לֵֽף חֶ֗רֶב לְהַבְקִ֛יעַ אֶל־מֶ֥לֶךְ אֱד֖וֹם וְלֹ֥א יָכֹֽלוּ
26 And the king of Moab saw that resolute against him was the battle.
And he took with him seven hundred men that drew a sword to split the king of Edom in two, but they were not able.
3d 4B 15
28
וַיִּקַּח֩ אֶת־בְּנ֨וֹ הַבְּכ֜וֹר אֲשֶׁר־יִמְלֹ֣ךְ תַּחְתָּ֗יו וַיַּעֲלֵ֤הוּ עֹלָה֙ עַל־הַ֣חֹמָ֔ה וַיְהִ֥י קֶצֶף־גָּד֖וֹל עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיִּסְעוּ֙ מֵֽעָלָ֔יו וַיָּשֻׁ֖בוּ לָאָֽרֶץ
27 And he took his firstborn child that would reign in his stead, and offered him up as a burnt offering on the wall. And there was great rage over Israel.
And they pulled out from him, and they returned to the land.
3e 4C 35
13