Saturday, July 14, 2018

Joshua 10

We have been delayed, like the sun and the moon in the story today. We found, by a little algorithm, over 120 mistakes in paragraphing, places where there is an atnah in the Hebrew and no corresponding carriage return in the English (now there's a technologically obsolescent phrase). So our battle with the words was delayed for a full day (at least) while we had vengeance on over 100 blog posts. (You probably did not notice. The error rate was about 0.5% in 19,700 odd verses.) But we were delayed.

Now about the sun standing still (or not). Stand is the dominant gloss for עמד stand (176) stood (122) pillar (85) standing (85) install (16) give standing (2) keep foothold (2) kept foothold (2) stand still (2) standing-place (2) stood back (2) stood up (2) foothold (1) lo stand (1) stand back (1) standing here (1) standing pillar (1) steady (1) stood still (1) through pillar (1)

The stem here about the sun is not עמד. It is either דמם bloodied or דמה undone. These are the candidate stems. I am more inclined to think it is related to דמה, mute (40) likeness (27) undone (11) liken (5) suppose (3) akin (2) whisper (2) dumb - mute - still (1)

דמם on the other hand would be blood (314) bloody (5) bloodshed (2) guilt shed blood (2) Blood (1) Bloody (1)

Of course this is a snippet of a poem and a mantra for delay in order to win a battle. This whole passage, like Numbers 31, is very formulaic in style. Everything goes right, at least from Israel's point of view in the story of the conquests. (The Shambles is traditionally Ai.)

I have refrained in this chapter from allowing the female pronouns she/her to stand for the cities, lands, peoples, etc. They are all grammatically female. I have often used the female pronouns in other chapters. Where you see it you can substitute her or she as needed. To see them, search for בה or for an ה suffix.

The female may find the grammatical female objectionable, or even the grammatical male, or even the male as generic. I do not know if grammatical female is significant. As a male or a female, I am encouraged by the Scriptural imagery to take a female point of view. This is true of the Old as well as the New Testaments. In the Revelation, it is the bride and bridegroom imagery. In the Song, we are encouraged to identify with the bride. There is a consummation to be desired. It is not deceptive, but it requires following in faith. Many distractions get in the way.

I think I should retain grammatical gender as long as it is not a distraction. Here I wonder if it would be.

Joshua 10 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְהִי֩ כִשְׁמֹ֨עַ אֲדֹֽנִי־צֶ֜דֶק מֶ֣לֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם כִּֽי־לָכַ֨ד יְהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ אֶת־הָעַי֮ וַיַּחֲרִימָהּ֒ כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשָׂ֤ה לִֽירִיחוֹ֙ וּלְמַלְכָּ֔הּ כֵּן־עָשָׂ֥ה לָעַ֖י וּלְמַלְכָּ֑הּ
וְכִ֨י הִשְׁלִ֜ימוּ יֹשְׁבֵ֤י גִבְעוֹן֙ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיִּֽהְי֖וּ בְּקִרְבָּֽם
1 And it happened when Adoni Zedek, the king of Jerusalem, heard that Joshua had conquered the Shambles and had utterly destroyed it, (as he had done to Jericho and to its king, so he had dealt to the Shambles and to its king),
and that the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were among them,
3e 4C 48
19
וַיִּֽירְא֣וּ מְאֹ֔ד כִּ֣י עִ֤יר גְּדוֹלָה֙ גִּבְע֔וֹן כְּאַחַ֖ת עָרֵ֣י הַמַּמְלָכָ֑ה
וְכִ֨י הִ֤יא גְדוֹלָה֙ מִן־הָעַ֔י וְכָל־אֲנָשֶׁ֖יהָ גִּבֹּרִֽים
2 That they feared much, for Gibeon was a great city, as one of the royal cities,
and because it was greater than the Shambles, and all its men were valiant.
3e 4C 21
18
וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח אֲדֹנִי־צֶ֜דֶק מֶ֣לֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם אֶל־הוֹהָ֣ם מֶֽלֶךְ־חֶ֠בְרוֹן וְאֶל־פִּרְאָ֨ם מֶֽלֶךְ־יַרְמ֜וּת וְאֶל־יָפִ֧יעַ מֶֽלֶךְ־לָכִ֛ישׁ וְאֶל־דְּבִ֥יר מֶֽלֶךְ־עֶגְל֖וֹן לֵאמֹֽר 3 So Adoni Zedek, the king of Jerusalem, sent to Hoham, the king of Hebron, and to Piram, the king of Yarmut, and to Yapya, the king of Lachish, and to Debir, the king of Eglon, saying, 3c 4B 47
עֲלֽוּ־אֵלַ֣י וְעִזְרֻ֔נִי וְנַכֶּ֖ה אֶת־גִּבְע֑וֹן
כִּֽי־הִשְׁלִ֥ימָה אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ וְאֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
4 Come up to me, and help me, and let us strike Gibeon,
for he has made peace with Joshua and the children of Israel.
3e 4B 13
16
וַיֵּאָסְפ֨וּ וַֽיַּעֲל֜וּ חֲמֵ֣שֶׁת ׀ מַלְכֵ֣י הָאֱמֹרִ֗י מֶ֣לֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַ֜ם מֶֽלֶךְ־חֶבְר֤וֹן מֶֽלֶךְ־יַרְמוּת֙ מֶֽלֶךְ־לָכִ֣ישׁ מֶֽלֶךְ־עֶגְל֔וֹן הֵ֖ם וְכָל־מַֽחֲנֵיהֶ֑ם
וַֽיַּחֲנוּ֙ עַל־גִּבְע֔וֹן וַיִּֽלָּחֲמ֖וּ עָלֶֽיהָ
5 And five kings of the Amorites gathered and went up, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Yarmut, the king of Lachish, the king of Eglon, they and all their armies.
and they encamped by Gibeon, and fought against it.
3e 4C 46
15
וַיִּשְׁלְח֣וּ אַנְשֵׁי֩ גִבְע֨וֹן אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֤עַ אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶה֙ הַגִּלְגָּ֣לָה לֵאמֹ֔ר אַל־תֶּ֥רֶף יָדֶ֖יךָ מֵֽעֲבָדֶ֑יךָ
עֲלֵ֧ה אֵלֵ֣ינוּ מְהֵרָ֗ה וְהוֹשִׁ֤יעָה לָּ֙נוּ֙ וְעָזְרֵ֔נוּ כִּ֚י נִקְבְּצ֣וּ אֵלֵ֔ינוּ כָּל־מַלְכֵ֥י הָאֱמֹרִ֖י יֹשְׁבֵ֥י הָהָֽר
6 And the soldiers of Gibeon sent to Joshua, to the camp at Gilgal, saying, Do not let go your hands from your servants.
Come up to us swiftly, and save us, and help us, for collected against us are all kings of the Amorites, the inhabitants of the mountain.
3c 4C 35
36
וַיַּ֨עַל יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ מִן־הַגִּלְגָּ֗ל ה֚וּא וְכָל־עַ֤ם הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ עִמּ֔וֹ וְכֹ֖ל גִּבּוֹרֵ֥י הֶחָֽיִל 7 And Joshua went up from Gilgal, he and all the people of battle with him, and all the valiant of force. 3e 4C 29
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֤ה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ אַל־תִּירָ֣א מֵהֶ֔ם כִּ֥י בְיָדְךָ֖ נְתַתִּ֑ים
לֹֽא־יַעֲמֹ֥ד אִ֛ישׁ מֵהֶ֖ם בְּפָנֶֽיךָ
8 And Yahweh said to Joshua, Do not fear from them, for into your hand I have given them.
Not a person will stand from them before you.
3d 4C 22
10
וַיָּבֹ֧א אֲלֵיהֶ֛ם יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ פִּתְאֹ֑ם
כָּל־הַלַּ֕יְלָה עָלָ֖ה מִן־הַגִּלְגָּֽל
9 And Joshua came to them suddenly,
all the night long ascending from Gilgal.
3c 4A 12
10
וַיְהֻמֵּ֤ם יְהוָה֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיַּכֵּ֥ם מַכָּֽה־גְדוֹלָ֖ה בְּגִבְע֑וֹן
וַֽיִּרְדְּפֵ֗ם דֶּ֚רֶךְ מַעֲלֵ֣ה בֵית־חוֹרֹ֔ן וַיַּכֵּ֥ם עַד־עֲזֵקָ֖ה וְעַד־מַקֵּדָֽה
10 And Yahweh confused them before Israel, and they struck them, a great striking in Gibeon.
And they pursued them the way of the ascent of Beth-Horon, and they struck them until Azeiqah and to Maqeidah.
3e 4C 21
24
וַיְהִ֞י בְּנֻסָ֣ם ׀ מִפְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל הֵ֞ם בְּמוֹרַ֤ד בֵּית־חוֹרֹן֙ וַֽיהוָ֡ה הִשְׁלִ֣יךְ עֲלֵיהֶם֩ אֲבָנִ֨ים גְּדֹל֧וֹת מִן־הַשָּׁמַ֛יִם עַד־עֲזֵקָ֖ה וַיָּמֻ֑תוּ
רַבִּ֗ים אֲשֶׁר־מֵ֙תוּ֙ בְּאַבְנֵ֣י הַבָּרָ֔ד מֵאֲשֶׁ֥ר הָרְג֛וּ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בֶּחָֽרֶב
11 And it happened when they withdrew from before Israel, they were on the descent to Beth-Horon, and Yahweh cast down on them great stones from the heavens until Azeiqah, and they died.
Many more died in the hail stones than the children of Israel slew by the sword.
3c 4C 42
25
אָ֣ז יְדַבֵּ֤ר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה בְּי֗וֹם תֵּ֤ת יְהוָה֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֱמֹרִ֔י לִפְנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ לְעֵינֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל שֶׁ֚מֶשׁ בְּגִבְע֣וֹן דּ֔וֹם וְיָרֵ֖חַ בְּעֵ֥מֶק אַיָּלֽוֹן
12 B Then Joshua spoke to Yahweh on the day Yahweh gave the Amorite before the children of Israel,
and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun in Gibeon, be undone, and moon in the valley of Elon.
3e 4C 27
25
וַיִּדֹּ֨ם הַשֶּׁ֜מֶשׁ וְיָרֵ֣חַ עָמָ֗ד עַד־יִקֹּ֥ם גּוֹי֙ אֹֽיְבָ֔יו הֲלֹא־הִ֥יא כְתוּבָ֖ה עַל־סֵ֣פֶר הַיָּשָׁ֑ר
וַיַּעֲמֹ֤ד הַשֶּׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ בַּחֲצִ֣י הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְלֹא־אָ֥ץ לָב֖וֹא כְּי֥וֹם תָּמִֽים
13 And the sun was undone and the moon stood, until nation had avenged its enemies. Is this not written in the record of the upright?
So the sun stood in the middle of the heavens, and was not importuned to set for a complete day.
3e 4C 30
22
וְלֹ֨א הָיָ֜ה כַּיּ֤וֹם הַהוּא֙ לְפָנָ֣יו וְאַחֲרָ֔יו לִשְׁמֹ֥עַ יְהוָ֖ה בְּק֣וֹל אִ֑ישׁ
כִּ֣י יְהוָ֔ה נִלְחָ֖ם לְיִשְׂרָאֵֽל
14 And there was no day like that before it or after it, that Yahweh heard with the voice of a man.
For Yahweh fought for Israel.
3e 4C 23
9
וַיָּ֤שָׁב יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל עִמּ֔וֹ אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֖ה הַגִּלְגָּֽלָה 15 And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to the camp at Gilgal. 3e 4C 23
וַיָּנֻ֕סוּ חֲמֵ֖שֶׁת הַמְּלָכִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה
וַיֵּחָבְא֥וּ בַמְּעָרָ֖ה בְּמַקֵּדָֽה
16 And these five kings withdrew.
And camouflaged themselves in the cave in Maqeidah.
3e 4B 13
11
וַיֻּגַּ֖ד לִיהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ לֵאמֹ֑ר
נִמְצְאוּ֙ חֲמֵ֣שֶׁת הַמְּלָכִ֔ים נֶחְבְּאִ֥ים בַּמְּעָרָ֖ה בְּמַקֵּדָֽה
17 And it was told to Joshua, saying,
Five kings were found camouflaged in the cave in Maqeidah.
3e 4B 9
19
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ גֹּ֛לּוּ אֲבָנִ֥ים גְּדֹל֖וֹת אֶל־פִּ֣י הַמְּעָרָ֑ה
וְהַפְקִ֧ידוּ עָלֶ֛יהָ אֲנָשִׁ֖ים לְשָׁמְרָֽם
18 And Joshua said, Roll great stones to the mouth of the cave,
and conscript persons over it to guard them.
3c 4B 20
13
וְאַתֶּם֙ אַֽל־תַּעֲמֹ֔דוּ רִדְפוּ֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֔ם וְזִנַּבְתֶּ֖ם אוֹתָ֑ם
אַֽל־תִּתְּנ֗וּם לָבוֹא֙ אֶל־עָ֣רֵיהֶ֔ם כִּ֧י נְתָנָ֛ם יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֖ם בְּיֶדְכֶֽם
19 And you, Do not stand still. Pursue after your enemies and tail them.
Do not slumber to let them enter their cities, for Yahweh your God has given them into your hand.
3c 4B 22
22
וַיְהִי֩ כְּכַלּ֨וֹת יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ וּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לְהַכּוֹתָ֛ם מַכָּ֥ה גְדוֹלָֽה־מְאֹ֖ד עַד־תֻּמָּ֑ם
וְהַשְּׂרִידִים֙ שָׂרְד֣וּ מֵהֶ֔ם וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ אֶל־עָרֵ֥י הַמִּבְצָֽר
20 And it was when Joshua and the children of Israel finished striking a very great strike until they completed.
And the survivors who survived from them entered into the enclosed cities.
3d 4B 28
17
וַיָּשֻׁבוּ֩ כָל־הָעָ֨ם אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶ֧ה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֛עַ מַקֵּדָ֖ה בְּשָׁל֑וֹם
לֹֽא־חָרַ֞ץ לִבְנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל לְאִ֖ישׁ אֶת־לְשֹׁנֽוֹ
21 And all the people returned to the camp, to Joshua at Maqeidah, in peace.
There was no sharpness for the children of Israel for anyone with his tongue.
3c 4A 23
13
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ פִּתְח֖וּ אֶת־פִּ֣י הַמְּעָרָ֑ה
וְהוֹצִ֣יאוּ אֵלַ֗י אֶת־חֲמֵ֛שֶׁת הַמְּלָכִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה מִן־הַמְּעָרָֽה
22 And Joshua said, Open the mouth of the cave,
and bring forth to me those five kings from the cave.
3d 4B 14
20
וַיַּ֣עֲשׂוּ כֵ֔ן וַיֹּצִ֣יאוּ אֵלָ֗יו אֶת־חֲמֵ֛שֶׁת הַמְּלָכִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה מִן־הַמְּעָרָ֑ה
אֵ֣ת ׀ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם אֶת־מֶ֤לֶךְ חֶבְרוֹן֙ אֶת־מֶ֣לֶךְ יַרְמ֔וּת אֶת־מֶ֥לֶךְ לָכִ֖ישׁ אֶת־מֶ֥לֶךְ עֶגְלֽוֹן
23 And they did so, and brought out to him, those five kings from the cave,
the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Yarmut, the king of Lachish, the king of Eglon.
3d 4C 25
27
וַ֠יְהִי כְּֽהוֹצִיאָ֞ם אֶת־הַמְּלָכִ֣ים הָאֵלֶּה֮ אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ֒ וַיִּקְרָ֨א יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ אֶל־כָּל־אִ֣ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וַ֠יֹּאמֶר אֶל־קְצִינֵ֞י אַנְשֵׁ֤י הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ הֶהָלְכ֣וּא אִתּ֔וֹ קִרְב֗וּ שִׂ֚ימוּ אֶת־רַגְלֵיכֶ֔ם עַֽל־צַוְּארֵ֖י הַמְּלָכִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה
וַֽיִּקְרְב֔וּ וַיָּשִׂ֥ימוּ אֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־צַוְּארֵיהֶֽם
24 ~ And it was when they had brought out those kings to Joshua, that Joshua called to everyone of Israel, and he said to the lieutenants of the warriors who went with him, Come near. Put your feet on the necks of these kings.
And they came near and they put their feet on their necks.
3e 4C 67
17
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם֙ יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ אַל־תִּֽירְא֖וּ וְאַל־תֵּחָ֑תּוּ
חִזְק֣וּ וְאִמְצ֔וּ כִּ֣י כָ֗כָה יַעֲשֶׂ֤ה יְהוָה֙ לְכָל־אֹ֣יְבֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתֶּ֖ם נִלְחָמִ֥ים אוֹתָֽם
25 And Joshua said to them, Do not fear, and do not be dismayed.
Be courageous and be assured, for thus Yahweh will do to all your enemies with whom you fight.
3e 4C 18
27
וַיַּכֵּ֨ם יְהוֹשֻׁ֤עַ אַֽחֲרֵי־כֵן֙ וַיְמִיתֵ֔ם וַיִּתְלֵ֕ם עַ֖ל חֲמִשָּׁ֣ה עֵצִ֑ים
וַיִּֽהְי֛וּ תְּלוּיִ֥ם עַל־הָעֵצִ֖ים עַד־הָעָֽרֶב
26 And Joshua struck them after this, and so put them to death, and hung them on five trees.
And they were hanging on the trees till evening.
3d 4C 23
14
וַיְהִ֞י לְעֵ֣ת ׀ בּ֣וֹא הַשֶּׁ֗מֶשׁ צִוָּ֤ה יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ וַיֹּֽרִידוּם֙ מֵעַ֣ל הָעֵצִ֔ים וַיַּ֨שְׁלִכֻ֔ם אֶל־הַמְּעָרָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר נֶחְבְּאוּ־שָׁ֑ם
וַיָּשִׂ֜מוּ אֲבָנִ֤ים גְּדֹלוֹת֙ עַל־פִּ֣י הַמְּעָרָ֔ה עַד־עֶ֖צֶם הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה
27 And it happened at the time of the going down of the sun, Joshua commanded, and they brought them down from the trees, and cast them to the cave where they had been camouflaged.
And they set great stones on the mouth of the cave until this selfsame day.
3e 4C 37
22
וְאֶת־מַקֵּדָה֩ לָכַ֨ד יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא וַיַּכֶּ֣הָ לְפִי־חֶרֶב֮ וְאֶת־מַלְכָּהּ֒ הֶחֱרִ֣ם אוֹתָ֗ם וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּ֙פֶשׁ֙ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֔הּ לֹ֥א הִשְׁאִ֖יר שָׂרִ֑יד
וַיַּ֙עַשׂ֙ לְמֶ֣לֶךְ מַקֵּדָ֔ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָׂ֖ה לְמֶ֥לֶךְ יְרִיחֽוֹ
28 And Joshua conquered Maqeidah in that day and struck it with the edge of the sword, and its king he utterly destroyed. Of them and all the group that was in it, he did not leave a trace of a survivor.
and he did to the king of Maqeidah as he had done to the king of Jericho.
3e 4B 45
20
וַיַּעֲבֹ֣ר יְ֠הוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָֽל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל עִמּ֛וֹ מִמַּקֵּדָ֖ה לִבְנָ֑ה
וַיִּלָּ֖חֶם עִם־לִבְנָֽה
29 And Joshua crossed over, and all Israel with him, from Maqeidah to Libnah,
and fought the people of Libnah.
3d 4B 21
7
וַיִּתֵּן֩ יְהוָ֨ה גַּם־אוֹתָ֜הּ בְּיַ֣ד יִשְׂרָאֵ֘ל וְאֶת־מַלְכָּהּ֒ וַיַּכֶּ֣הָ לְפִי־חֶ֗רֶב וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּ֙פֶשׁ֙ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֔הּ לֹֽא־הִשְׁאִ֥יר בָּ֖הּ שָׂרִ֑יד
וַיַּ֣עַשׂ לְמַלְכָּ֔הּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָׂ֖ה לְמֶ֥לֶךְ יְרִיחֽוֹ
30 And Yahweh gave it also into the hand of Israel, and its king. And he struck it with the edge of the sword and all the group that was in it. He did not leave a trace of a survivor in it.
And he did to its king as he had done to the king of Jericho.
3e 4B 39
17
וַיַּעֲבֹ֣ר יְ֠הוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל עִמּ֛וֹ מִלִּבְנָ֖ה לָכִ֑ישָׁה
וַיִּ֣חַן עָלֶ֔יהָ וַיִּלָּ֖חֶם בָּֽהּ
31 And Joshua crossed over, and all Israel with him, from Libnah towards Lachish,
and encamped against it and fought against it.
3d 4B 21
11
וַיִּתֵּן֩ יְהוָ֨ה אֶת־לָכִ֜ישׁ בְּיַ֣ד יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וַֽיִּלְכְּדָהּ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשֵּׁנִ֔י וַיַּכֶּ֣הָ לְפִי־חֶ֔רֶב וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּ֖פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֑הּ
כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֖ה לְלִבְנָֽה
32 And Yahweh gave Lachish into the hand of Israel, and conquered it by the second day and he struck it with the edge of the sword, and all the group that was in it,
according to all that he had done to Libnah.
3e 4B 38
9
אָ֣ז עָלָ֗ה הֹרָם֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ גֶּ֔זֶר לַעְזֹ֖ר אֶת־לָכִ֑ישׁ
וַיַּכֵּ֤הוּ יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ וְאֶת־עַמּ֔וֹ עַד־בִּלְתִּ֥י הִשְׁאִֽיר־ל֖וֹ שָׂרִֽיד
33 B Then Horam, the king of Gezer, came up to help Lachish,
and Joshua struck him and his people, until he was without a trace of a survivor.
3e 4C 14
20
וַיַּעֲבֹ֣ר יְ֠הוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל עִמּ֛וֹ מִלָּכִ֖ישׁ עֶגְלֹ֑נָה
וַיַּחֲנ֣וּ עָלֶ֔יהָ וַיִּֽלָּחֲמ֖וּ עָלֶֽיהָ
34 And Joshua crossed over, and all Israel with him, from Lachish toward Eglon,
and they encamped against it and fought against it.
3d 4B 21
15
וַֽיִּלְכְּד֜וּהָ בַּיּ֤וֹם הַהוּא֙ וַיַּכּ֣וּהָ לְפִי־חֶ֔רֶב וְאֵת֙ כָּל־הַנֶּ֣פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֔הּ בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא הֶחֱרִ֑ים
כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֖ה לְלָכִֽישׁ
35 And conquered it in that day, and struck it with the edge of the sword, and all the group that was in it in that day he utterly destroyed,
according to all that he had done to Lachish.
3e 4C 32
9
וַיַּ֣עַל יְ֠הוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָֽל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל עִמּ֛וֹ מֵעֶגְל֖וֹנָה חֶבְר֑וֹנָה
וַיִּֽלָּחֲמ֖וּ עָלֶֽיהָ
36 And Joshua went up, and all Israel with him, from Eglon toward Hebron,
and fought against it.
3d 4B 21
8
וַיִּלְכְּד֣וּהָ וַיַּכּֽוּהָ־לְפִי־חֶ֠רֶב וְאֶת־מַלְכָּ֨הּ וְאֶת־כָּל־עָרֶ֜יהָ וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּ֤פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ֙ לֹֽא־הִשְׁאִ֣יר שָׂרִ֔יד כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֖ה לְעֶגְל֑וֹן
וַיַּחֲרֵ֣ם אוֹתָ֔הּ וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּ֖פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּֽהּ
37 And conquered it and struck it with the edge of the sword, and its king, and all its cities, and all the group that was in it. He did not leave a trace of a survivor, according to all that he had done to Eglon,
and he utterly destroyed it and all the group that was in it.
3e 4C 45
15
וַיָּ֧שָׁב יְהוֹשֻׁ֛עַ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל עִמּ֖וֹ דְּבִ֑רָה
וַיִּלָּ֖חֶם עָלֶֽיהָ
38 And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, toward Debir,
and fought against it.
3c 4A 17
7
וַֽיִּלְכְּדָ֞הּ וְאֶת־מַלְכָּ֤הּ וְאֶת־כָּל־עָרֶ֙יהָ֙ וַיַּכּ֣וּם לְפִי־חֶ֔רֶב וַֽיַּחֲרִ֙ימוּ֙ אֶת־כָּל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֔הּ לֹ֥א הִשְׁאִ֖יר שָׂרִ֑יד
כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשָׂ֜ה לְחֶבְר֗וֹן כֵּן־עָשָׂ֤ה לִדְבִ֙רָה֙ וּלְמַלְכָּ֔הּ וְכַאֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָׂ֛ה לְלִבְנָ֖ה וּלְמַלְכָּֽהּ
39 And conquered it, and its king, and all its cities, and they struck them with the edge of the sword, and they utterly destroyed all the group that was in it. He did not leave a trace of a survivor,
as he had done to Hebron, so he dealt to Debir and to its king, and as he had done to Libnah and to its king.
3d 4C 37
29
וַיַּכֶּ֣ה יְהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ אֶת־כָּל־הָאָ֡רֶץ הָהָר֩ וְהַנֶּ֨גֶב וְהַשְּׁפֵלָ֜ה וְהָאֲשֵׁד֗וֹת וְאֵת֙ כָּל־מַלְכֵיהֶ֔ם לֹ֥א הִשְׁאִ֖יר שָׂרִ֑יד
וְאֵ֤ת כָּל־הַנְּשָׁמָה֙ הֶחֱרִ֔ים כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוָּ֔ה יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
40 So Joshua struck all the land of the hill, and the Negev, and the lowly places, and the slopes, and all their kings. He did not leave a trace of a survivor,
and all the breath-bearing he utterly destroyed, as Yahweh the God of Israel had commanded.
3e 4C 38
22
וַיַּכֵּ֧ם יְהוֹשֻׁ֛עַ מִקָּדֵ֥שׁ בַּרְנֵ֖עַ וְעַד־עַזָּ֑ה
וְאֵ֛ת כָּל־אֶ֥רֶץ גֹּ֖שֶׁן וְעַד־גִּבְעֽוֹן
41 And Joshua struck them from Qadesh Barnea and to Gaza,
and all the land of Goshen and to Gibeon.
3c 4A 17
11
וְאֵ֨ת כָּל־הַמְּלָכִ֤ים הָאֵ֙לֶּה֙ וְאֶת־אַרְצָ֔ם לָכַ֥ד יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ פַּ֣עַם אֶחָ֑ת
כִּ֗י יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל נִלְחָ֖ם לְיִשְׂרָאֵֽל
42 And all these kings and their land Joshua conquered at one time,
for Yahweh the God of Israel fought for Israel.
3e 4C 23
15
וַיָּ֤שָׁב יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל עִמּ֔וֹ אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֖ה הַגִּלְגָּֽלָה 43 And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to the camp at Gilgal. 3e 4C 23
In the grand metaphor, all enemies are defeated by the act of Yahweh. We are not without enemies, but these are not other people or other nations or other clans. Our enemies that are too strong for us are internal: prejudice, fear, lust, anger and so on, all those things that stop us from continuing in what is good. You can boil them down to sex, money, and personal relations. It is not necessary to trace 'development' of this concept. The ancient texts have plenty in their content and structure that tells us they were not written to be followed in a spirit of the utter destruction of others.

We are called to govern well from the first story when we are placed in the temple of the garden 'to dress and keep it well' as the carol goes. And to love the stranger and our neighbour, our associate, as ourselves. These stories of utter destruction are written to explain that we must not put up with or justify our own internal enemies. We are to give them to the fire of Yahweh's wrath completely so that we may be made new and responsible for the good of ourselves and of all with whom we come in contact.

When we find ourselves shooting people, or building walls, and so on, we are not alive in God, but dead in our sin. We must change our policy. It is a governance problem for the Vine that is our shared humanity. No deal is available with our self-deception, our self-protection, or any other sin. We will be destroyed by such things without mercy, until shame and grief make us turn from them to the life that is only in God. There is no life in our sin. This applies across the board whatever our religion or sect or creed or race or anything else that makes someone else appear different from our own self-image.

Self is נפשׁ, soul. This word applies to the whole as well as to the individual within the whole. Self is called individually and corporately, in the individual body and in the bodies in which we find ourselves, family, community, church, town, county, state, province, country, race, religion, biosphere. Every such group is covered by that word commonly rendered as soul. But none of these groups is adequate for ultimate worship. If G-d was not, G-d would have to be invented to protect us from too narrow an interest.

All these stories are given to us as that gift of hope. G-d in us, with us, giving us more than we are capable of having, a land flowing with milk and honey. The work required is severe, nothing less than our own self-giving. It is not accomplished with guns, money, or walls. If you think about the metaphor of salvation, Gibeon is the first treaty, and all the others gang up. The inner sins we have will gang up on us. We need the metaphorical 'Joshua' and 'all Israel with him' to fight against them.



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