Saturday, 14 October 2017

Leviticus 7

We are ploughing through Leviticus because there is a great deal of internal repetition in this operations manual for the temple sacrifices. Every time we do a chapter, it stimulates the guesswork in others. As I start chapter 7, the chapters remaining to do in Leviticus range from 54% (chapter 6) to 27% done (chapter 13). Hmm, why is chapter 13 so different? It's very long. As the work progresses, it will be interesting to see how these chapters translate themselves.

Here's the state before starting chapter 7 (which was 57% guessed to start.)
Ch     Verses % guessed
6 23 54%
14 57 53%
15 33 53%
19 37 53%
5 26 51%
20 27 50%
18 30 48%
11 47 45%
12 8 45%
2 16 45%
27 34 37%
25 55 34%
26 46 34%
13 59 27%

When chapter 7 was at 75%, chapter 14 edged up above chapter 6, and chapter 5 edged up 1% also.
After finishing chapter 7, here are the results. Chapter 13 did not budge much. Chapter 19 moved up 2% as did chapter 5. I note in passing that chapter 19 has 6 times (42) the number of negatives in it compared with chapter 7 (7).
Ch Verses % guessed
19 37 55%
14 57 54%
6 23 54%
15 33 53%
5 26 53%
20 27 50%
18 30 48%
2 16 46%
11 47 45%
12 8 45%
27 34 37%
25 55 34%
26 46 34%
13 59 28%
So there is some additional overlap in phrasing in the remaining chapters compared with chapter 7. And that long chapter 13 is still way down the list. The total of guessed words was slightly higher by 1000 additional words after this chapter (about 500 words) was done.

Once I have decided on glosses, looking at the overall sense and each Hebrew word (which is often a phrase), I manipulate the glosses as little as possible when I form the verse so that the notes and ornaments for the Hebrew in the music will sit as closely as possible on the same words in English as they do in Hebrew. I have only consolidated this strategy over the last 2 years. Translations from the first 10 years of this project are still very close to Hebrew word order because that was always part of my intention and I have always respected the major cadences in the verses.

Word order suggests emphasis that might otherwise be missed. Some verses need no adjustment whatsoever. Verses 1 to 4 below required no word order adjustment. Verses 5 to 8 hardly any. Verse 13 gets a mangled word order in most translations. Simplest is best.

Certain offerings (מלא) have the role of fulfillment. This is translated as consecration (נזר) by some. It relates, I think, to the filling the hand of the priest. I.e. giving them a means of sustenance.

Leviticus 7 Fn Min Max Syll
וְזֹ֥את תּוֹרַ֖ת הָאָשָׁ֑ם
קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים הֽוּא
1 And this is the instruction for the guilt offering.
Holy of holy things it is.
3e 4A 7
בִּמְק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֤ר יִשְׁחֲטוּ֙ אֶת־הָ֣עֹלָ֔ה יִשְׁחֲט֖וּ אֶת־הָאָשָׁ֑ם
וְאֶת־דָּמ֛וֹ יִזְרֹ֥ק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב
2 In the place where they butcher the burnt offering, they will butcher the guilt offering,
and its blood he will dash on the altar round about.
3d 4C 18
וְאֵ֥ת כָּל־חֶלְבּ֖וֹ יַקְרִ֣יב מִמֶּ֑נּוּ
אֵ֚ת הָֽאַלְיָ֔ה וְאֶת־הַחֵ֖לֶב הַֽמְכַסֶּ֥ה אֶת־הַקֶּֽרֶב
3 And all its gross fat he will bring near from it,
the rump and the gross fat covering the entrails.
3e 4C 10
וְאֵת֙ שְׁתֵּ֣י הַכְּלָיֹ֔ת וְאֶת־הַחֵ֙לֶב֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֲלֵיהֶ֔ן אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־הַכְּסָלִ֑ים
וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶ֙רֶת֙ עַל־הַכָּבֵ֔ד עַל־הַכְּלָיֹ֖ת יְסִירֶֽנָּה
4 And the two kidneys, and the gross fat that is on them that is by the hips,
and the caudate lobe over the liver with the kidneys, he will put it aside.
3e 4B 23
וְהִקְטִ֨יר אֹתָ֤ם הַכֹּהֵן֙ הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חָה אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַיהוָ֑ה
אָשָׁ֖ם הֽוּא
5 And the priest will make them burn with smoke toward the altar.
An offering by fire to Yahweh, a guilt offering it is.
3e 4C 16
כָּל־זָכָ֥ר בַּכֹּהֲנִ֖ים יֹאכְלֶ֑נּוּ
בְּמָק֤וֹם קָדוֹשׁ֙ יֵאָכֵ֔ל קֹ֥דֶשׁ קָֽדָשִׁ֖ים הֽוּא
6 Every male among the priests will eat of it.
In the holy place it will be eaten. Holy of holy things it is.
3e 4C 10
כַּֽחַטָּאת֙ כָּֽאָשָׁ֔ם תּוֹרָ֥ה אַחַ֖ת לָהֶ֑ם
הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְכַפֶּר־בּ֖וֹ ל֥וֹ יִהְיֶֽה
7 As the sin offering, as the guilt offering, one instruction for them.
The priest who makes the cover-offering for it, his it is.
3d 4A 12
וְהַ֨כֹּהֵ֔ן הַמַּקְרִ֖יב אֶת־עֹ֣לַת אִ֑ישׁ
ע֤וֹר הָֽעֹלָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִקְרִ֔יב לַכֹּהֵ֖ן ל֥וֹ יִהְיֶֽה
8 And the priest, who brought near burnt offerings of each,
the skin of the burnt offering that was brought near for the priest, his it is.
3e 4C 11
וְכָל־מִנְחָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר תֵּֽאָפֶה֙ בַּתַּנּ֔וּר וְכָל־נַעֲשָׂ֥ה בַמַּרְחֶ֖שֶׁת וְעַֽל־מַחֲבַ֑ת
לַכֹּהֵ֛ן הַמַּקְרִ֥יב אֹתָ֖הּ ל֥וֹ תִֽהְיֶֽה
9 And every gift that is baked in an oven, and all made by stirring and on a pan,
for the priest who brought it near, his it will be.
3d 4C 26
וְכָל־מִנְחָ֥ה בְלוּלָֽה־בַשֶּׁ֖מֶן וַחֲרֵבָ֑ה
לְכָל־בְּנֵ֧י אַהֲרֹ֛ן תִּהְיֶ֖ה אִ֥ישׁ כְּאָחִֽיו
10 And every a gift mingled with oil or drained,
for all the children of Aaron it will be, each as its kin.
3c 4A 14
וְזֹ֥את תּוֹרַ֖ת זֶ֣בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֑ים
אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַקְרִ֖יב לַיהוָֽה
11 And this is the instruction for an offering of the peace offerings,
which he will bring near for Yahweh.
3e 4B 9
אִ֣ם עַל־תּוֹדָה֮ יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ֒ וְהִקְרִ֣יב ׀ עַל־זֶ֣בַח הַתּוֹדָ֗ה חַלּ֤וֹת מַצּוֹת֙ בְּלוּלֹ֣ת בַּשֶּׁ֔מֶן וּרְקִיקֵ֥י מַצּ֖וֹת מְשֻׁחִ֣ים בַּשָּׁ֑מֶן
וְסֹ֣לֶת מֻרְבֶּ֔כֶת חַלֹּ֖ת בְּלוּלֹ֥ת בַּשָּֽׁמֶן
12 B If for thanksgiving he will bring it near, then let him bring near concerning an offering of thanksgiving, cakes of unleavened bread mingled with oil, and wafers of unleavened bread anointed with oil,
and fried fine flour cakes mingled with oil.
3e 4C 38
עַל־חַלֹּת֙ לֶ֣חֶם חָמֵ֔ץ יַקְרִ֖יב קָרְבָּנ֑וֹ
עַל־זֶ֖בַח תּוֹדַ֥ת שְׁלָמָֽיו
13 With cakes of leavened bread, he will bring near his oblation,
with the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offerings.
3e 4B 12
וְהִקְרִ֨יב מִמֶּ֤נּוּ אֶחָד֙ מִכָּל־קָרְבָּ֔ן תְּרוּמָ֖ה לַיהוָ֑ה
לַכֹּהֵ֗ן הַזֹּרֵ֛ק אֶת־דַּ֥ם הַשְּׁלָמִ֖ים ל֥וֹ יִהְיֶֽה
14 And he will bring near from it one from the whole oblation, a contribution for Yahweh,
for the priest who dashes the blood of the peace offerings. His it is.
3d 4C 17
וּבְשַׂ֗ר זֶ֚בַח תּוֹדַ֣ת שְׁלָמָ֔יו בְּי֥וֹם קָרְבָּנ֖וֹ יֵאָכֵ֑ל
לֹֽא־יַנִּ֥יחַ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עַד־בֹּֽקֶר
15 And the flesh of the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offerings, on the day of its oblation, it will be eaten.
He will not leave from it until morning.
3e 4C 17
וְאִם־נֶ֣דֶר ׀ א֣וֹ נְדָבָ֗ה זֶ֚בַח קָרְבָּנ֔וֹ בְּי֛וֹם הַקְרִיב֥וֹ אֶת־זִבְח֖וֹ יֵאָכֵ֑ל
וּמִֽמָּחֳרָ֔ת וְהַנּוֹתָ֥ר מִמֶּ֖נּוּ יֵאָכֵֽל
16 And if a vow or a freewill offering is the offering of his oblation, on the day they bring near his offering, it will be eaten,
and on the morrow, when the remainder from it will be eaten.
3d 4C 24
וְהַנּוֹתָ֖ר מִבְּשַׂ֣ר הַזָּ֑בַח
בַּיּוֹם֙ הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֔י בָּאֵ֖שׁ יִשָּׂרֵֽף
17 And the remainder of the flesh of the sacrifice,
on the third day in the fire will be incinerated.
3e 4B 9
וְאִ֣ם הֵאָכֹ֣ל יֵ֠אָכֵל מִבְּשַׂר־זֶ֨בַח שְׁלָמָ֜יו בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי֮ לֹ֣א יֵרָצֶה֒ הַמַּקְרִ֣יב אֹת֗וֹ לֹ֧א יֵחָשֵׁ֛ב ל֖וֹ פִּגּ֣וּל יִהְיֶ֑ה
וְהַנֶּ֛פֶשׁ הָאֹכֶ֥לֶת מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עֲוֺנָ֥הּ תִּשָּֽׂא
18 And if to be eaten, the flesh of an offering of his peace offerings is eaten on the third day, it will be not accepted. It will not be considered his who brought it near. Fetid it is,
and the self that eats from it, its iniquity will bear.
3c 4B 38
וְהַבָּשָׂ֞ר אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּ֤ע בְּכָל־טָמֵא֙ לֹ֣א יֵֽאָכֵ֔ל בָּאֵ֖שׁ יִשָּׂרֵ֑ף
וְהַ֨בָּשָׂ֔ר כָּל־טָה֖וֹר יֹאכַ֥ל בָּשָֽׂר
19 And the flesh that touches anything unclean will not be eaten. In the fire it will be incinerated.
And the flesh, all who are clean will eat of flesh.
3e 4C 21
וְהַנֶּ֜פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאכַ֣ל בָּשָׂ֗ר מִזֶּ֤בַח הַשְּׁלָמִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לַיהוָ֔ה וְטֻמְאָת֖וֹ עָלָ֑יו
וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵעַמֶּֽיהָ
20 But the self that eats the flesh of the sacrifice of the peace offerings which are to Yahweh, and his uncleanness is over him,
then that very self will be cut off from its people.
3d 4C 26
וְנֶ֜פֶשׁ כִּֽי־תִגַּ֣ע בְּכָל־טָמֵ֗א בְּטֻמְאַ֤ת אָדָם֙ א֣וֹ ׀ בִּבְהֵמָ֣ה טְמֵאָ֗ה א֚וֹ בְּכָל־שֶׁ֣קֶץ טָמֵ֔א וְאָכַ֛ל מִבְּשַׂר־זֶ֥בַח הַשְּׁלָמִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר לַיהוָ֑ה
וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵעַמֶּֽיהָ
21 And the self that touches anything unclean in the uncleanness of a human, or in the unclean beast, or in any detestable uncleanness, or has eaten from the flesh of an offering of the peace offerings which are for Yahweh,
this very self will be cut off from its people.
3d 4C 42
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 22 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
דַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר
כָּל־חֵ֜לֶב שׁ֥וֹר וְכֶ֛שֶׂב וָעֵ֖ז לֹ֥א תֹאכֵֽלוּ
23 Speak to the children of Israel, saying,
All gross fat of a bull or young lamb or she-goat, you will not eat.
3d 4A 10
וְחֵ֤לֶב נְבֵלָה֙ וְחֵ֣לֶב טְרֵפָ֔ה יֵעָשֶׂ֖ה לְכָל־מְלָאכָ֑ה
וְאָכֹ֖ל לֹ֥א תֹאכְלֻֽהוּ
24 And the gross fat of a corpse, and the gross fat of prey may be used for any line of work,
but eating, you will not eat of it.
3e 4C 20
כִּ֚י כָּל־אֹכֵ֣ל חֵ֔לֶב מִן־הַ֨בְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַקְרִ֥יב מִמֶּ֛נָּה אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַיהוָ֑ה
וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הָאֹכֶ֖לֶת מֵֽעַמֶּֽיהָ
25 C If anyone eats gross fat from the beast that he brings near from an offering by fire to Yahweh,
then the very self who eats will be cut off from its people.
3d 4C 21
וְכָל־דָּם֙ לֹ֣א תֹאכְל֔וּ בְּכֹ֖ל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶ֑ם
לָע֖וֹף וְלַבְּהֵמָֽה
26 And all blood, you will not eat in all your settlements,
of a fowl or of a beast.
3e 4B 12
כָּל־נֶ֖פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאכַ֣ל כָּל־דָּ֑ם
וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵֽעַמֶּֽיהָ
27 Any self that eats any blood,
this very self will be cut off from its people.
3d 4B 9
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 28 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
דַּבֵּ֛ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר
הַמַּקְרִ֞יב אֶת־זֶ֤בַח שְׁלָמָיו֙ לַיהוָ֔ה יָבִ֧יא אֶת־קָרְבָּנ֛וֹ לַיהוָ֖ה מִזֶּ֥בַח שְׁלָמָֽיו
29 Speak to the children of Israel, saying,
The one who brings near the offering of his peace offerings for Yahweh, will bring his oblation for Yahweh, the sacrifice of his peace offerings.
3c 4C 10
יָדָ֣יו תְּבִיאֶ֔ינָה אֵ֖ת אִשֵּׁ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
אֶת־הַחֵ֤לֶב עַל־הֶֽחָזֶה֙ יְבִיאֶ֔נּוּ אֵ֣ת הֶחָזֶ֗ה לְהָנִ֥יף אֹת֛וֹ תְּנוּפָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה
30 His hands will bring the offerings by fire of Yahweh.
The gross fat over the torso, he will bring it with the torso, for its elevation, a wave offering in the presence of Yahweh.
3d 4C 11
וְהִקְטִ֧יר הַכֹּהֵ֛ן אֶת־הַחֵ֖לֶב הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חָה
וְהָיָה֙ הֶֽחָזֶ֔ה לְאַהֲרֹ֖ן וּלְבָנָֽיו
31 And the priest will make the gross fat burn with smoke toward the altar,
and the torso will be for Aaron and for his children.
3c 4A 14
וְאֵת֙ שׁ֣וֹק הַיָּמִ֔ין תִּתְּנ֥וּ תְרוּמָ֖ה לַכֹּהֵ֑ן
מִזִּבְחֵ֖י שַׁלְמֵיכֶֽם
32 And the right leg you will give, a contribution for the priest,
from the altar of your peace offerings.
3e 4B 14
הַמַּקְרִ֞יב אֶת־דַּ֧ם הַשְּׁלָמִ֛ים וְאֶת־הַחֵ֖לֶב מִבְּנֵ֣י אַהֲרֹ֑ן
ל֧וֹ תִהְיֶ֛ה שׁ֥וֹק הַיָּמִ֖ין לְמָנָֽה
33 The one who brings near the blood of the peace offerings and the gross fat among the children of Aaron,
the right leg will be his for a portion.
3c 4B 18
כִּי֩ אֶת־חֲזֵ֨ה הַתְּנוּפָ֜ה וְאֵ֣ת ׀ שׁ֣וֹק הַתְּרוּמָ֗ה לָקַ֙חְתִּי֙ מֵאֵ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מִזִּבְחֵ֖י שַׁלְמֵיהֶ֑ם
וָאֶתֵּ֣ן אֹ֠תָם לְאַהֲרֹ֨ן הַכֹּהֵ֤ן וּלְבָנָיו֙ לְחָק־עוֹלָ֔ם מֵאֵ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
34 For the torso of the wave offering, and the leg of the contribution, I have taken from the children of Israel from the altar of their peace offerings,
and I have assigned them for Aaron the priest and for his children as a statute forever from the children of Israel.
3e 4C 29
זֹ֣את מִשְׁחַ֤ת אַהֲרֹן֙ וּמִשְׁחַ֣ת בָּנָ֔יו מֵאִשֵּׁ֖י יְהוָ֑ה
בְּיוֹם֙ הִקְרִ֣יב אֹתָ֔ם לְכַהֵ֖ן לַיהוָֽה
35 B This is the anointing of Aaron and the anointing of his children from the fire of Yahweh,
in the day they were brought near to serve as priests for Yahweh,
3e 4C 16
אֲשֶׁר֩ צִוָּ֨ה יְהוָ֜ה לָתֵ֣ת לָהֶ֗ם בְּיוֹם֙ מָשְׁח֣וֹ אֹתָ֔ם מֵאֵ֖ת בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם לְדֹרֹתָֽם
36 Which Yahweh commanded to give for them on the day of his anointing them from the children of Israel,
a statute forever for their generations.
3e 4B 23
זֹ֣את הַתּוֹרָ֗ה לָֽעֹלָה֙ לַמִּנְחָ֔ה וְלַֽחַטָּ֖את וְלָאָשָׁ֑ם
וְלַ֨מִּלּוּאִ֔ים וּלְזֶ֖בַח הַשְּׁלָמִֽים
37 B This is the instruction for a burnt offering, for a gift, and for a sin offering, and for a guilt offering,
and for the fulfillments, and for the sacrifices of the peace offerings,
3e 4B 18
אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֖ה בְּהַ֣ר סִינָ֑י
בְּי֨וֹם צַוֺּת֜וֹ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לְהַקְרִ֧יב אֶת־קָרְבְּנֵיהֶ֛ם לַיהוָ֖ה בְּמִדְבַּ֥ר סִינָֽי
38 Which Yahweh commanded Moses on mount Sinai,
on the day he commanded the children of Israel to bring near their oblations for Yahweh in the wilderness of Sinai.
3c 4B 13

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