Thursday, October 26, 2017

Drinking and imbibing - a translation exercise

The first time one reads this corpus, one likely gets little from it. This is true also of the subtleties of reading in a tongue that is not one's own and one notes that the reading alters one's own tongue.

My rigidity may not make good sense in some cases. Suppose that two stems, e.g. שׁקה and שׁתה really are the same, but one is used in one way and the other complements it. Is it somewhat foolish to let them be forced into a separate stream of glosses? It is possible when the whole corpus has been studied, that one will realize they are so related and will allow them to overlap in the host language.

There may be other examples. But I haven't seen any yet that are as clear as this pair. Now why did I not know this before beginning to translate? Well - guess why. No one - not even a native speaker, knows this sort of thing at the beginning of a journey. That's not the way one learns a language. (There is a note about this one in Lambdin and in Gesenius.)

Here's a touch of exploration around my status re drink and imbibe. These are not exact synonyms in English, so the artifice of separating the glosses may give a nuance to a verse that it does not deserve. Equally well, if one uses the synonyms freely, one may still impose an intent onto the text that was unintended.

Here are my uses of English drink, drunk, imbibe. Which ones do I need to investigate?

שׁקה cupbearer(17), drank(1), drenched(1), drink(10), gave drink(6), give drink(6), gives drink(1), irrigate(4), irrigated(3), irrigating(1), letting drink(1), made drink(2), make drink(5), trough(1)
שׁתה beverage(2), drunk-(1), imbibe(94), imbibed(23), imbibers(3), imbibes(6), imbibing(18), let's party(1), parties(4), party(23), partying(7)
שׁכר -ards(1), became intoxicated(1), boozers(1), drunk(1), drunkard(1), drunken(1), intoxicated(8), intoxication(1), made intoxicated(1), make drunk(1), strong drink(15)

It is quite an amusing question. But seriously, imbibe does not mean make to drink, but irrigate in the transitive with a direct object has this sense. It looks as if there is a generally causative usage of שׁקה but not entirely since drink occurs as does imbibe in a normal intransitive sense without any requirement for external causation.

Drunk crept in to this list unexpectedly. Note the two in succession in Psalm 69. At the moment, based on these examples below, I don't see a need to change my decision.

Deuteronomy 32 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁכִּ֤יר חִצַּי֙ מִדָּ֔ם וְחַרְבִּ֖י תֹּאכַ֣ל בָּשָׂ֑ר
מִדַּ֤ם חָלָל֙ וְשִׁבְיָ֔ה מֵרֹ֖אשׁ פַּרְע֥וֹת אוֹיֵֽב
42 I will make my arrows drunk with blood and my sword will devour flesh,
from the blood of one who is profaned, and captives from the head of the premiers of the enemy.
3e 4C 13
13
1 Kings 16 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיִּקְשֹׁ֤ר עָלָיו֙ עַבְדּ֣וֹ זִמְרִ֔י שַׂ֖ר מַחֲצִ֣ית הָרָ֑כֶב
וְה֤וּא בְתִרְצָה֙ שֹׁתֶ֣ה שִׁכּ֔וֹר בֵּ֣ית אַרְצָ֔א אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הַבַּ֖יִת בְּתִרְצָֽה
9 And his servant Zimri colluded against him. The chief of half the chariots,
was himself in Tirzah partying drunk. (The house is Artsa's who is over the house in Tirzah.)
3e 4C 16
21
Nahum 3 Fn Min Max Syll
גַּם אַ֣תְּ תִּשְׁכְּרִ֔י תְּהִ֖י נַֽעֲלָמָ֑ה
גַּם אַ֛תְּ תְּבַקְשִׁ֥י מָע֖וֹז מֵאוֹיֵֽב
11 Likewise, drunken you will be, obscured.
Likewise, you will seek strength from an enemy.
3d 4B 11
10
Psalms 69 Fn Min Max Syll
יָשִׂ֣יחוּ בִ֭י יֹ֣שְׁבֵי שָׁ֑עַר
וּ֝נְגִינ֗וֹת שׁוֹתֵ֥י שֵׁכָֽר
13 Those sitting by the gate blather about me,
with the warblings of drunkards.

3e 4B 8
7
Proverbs 26 Fn Min Max Syll
ח֭וֹחַ עָלָ֣ה בְיַד־שִׁכּ֑וֹר
וּ֝מָשָׁ֗ל בְּפִ֣י כְסִילִֽים
9 g A thorn goes up into the hand of a drunkard,
and a proverb in the mouth of dullards.
3e 4B 8
8

Party takes its stimulus from Job 1. Here's a sampling.
Genesis 19 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיִּפְצַר־בָּ֣ם מְאֹ֔ד וַיָּסֻ֣רוּ אֵלָ֔יו וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ אֶל־בֵּית֑וֹ
וַיַּ֤עַשׂ לָהֶם֙ מִשְׁתֶּ֔ה וּמַצּ֥וֹת אָפָ֖ה וַיֹּאכֵֽלוּ
3 And he urged them much and they turned aside to him and they came to his house.
And he made for them a party. Unleavened bread he baked, and they ate.
3e 4C 18
16
1 Kings 3 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיִּקַ֥ץ שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה וְהִנֵּ֣ה חֲל֑וֹם
וַיָּב֨וֹא יְרוּשָׁלִַ֜ם וַֽיַּעֲמֹ֣ד ׀ לִפְנֵ֣י ׀ אֲר֣וֹן בְּרִית־אֲדֹנָ֗י וַיַּ֤עַל עֹלוֹת֙ וַיַּ֣עַשׂ שְׁלָמִ֔ים וַיַּ֥עַשׂ מִשְׁתֶּ֖ה לְכָל־עֲבָדָֽיו
15 And Solomon awoke and behold, a dream.
And he came to Jerusalem and stood before the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and he offered up burnt offerings, and he made peace offerings, and he made a party for all his servants.
3e 4C 11
41
1 Kings 16 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיִּקְשֹׁ֤ר עָלָיו֙ עַבְדּ֣וֹ זִמְרִ֔י שַׂ֖ר מַחֲצִ֣ית הָרָ֑כֶב
וְה֤וּא בְתִרְצָה֙ שֹׁתֶ֣ה שִׁכּ֔וֹר בֵּ֣ית אַרְצָ֔א אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הַבַּ֖יִת בְּתִרְצָֽה
9 And his servant Zimri colluded against him. The chief of half the chariots,
was himself in Tirzah partying drunk. (The house is Artsa's who is over the house in Tirzah.)
3e 4C 16
21
Jeremiah 2 Fn Min Max Syll
וְעַתָּ֗ה מַה־לָּךְ֙ לְדֶ֣רֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם לִשְׁתּ֖וֹת מֵ֣י שִׁח֑וֹר
וּמַה־לָּךְ֙ לְדֶ֣רֶךְ אַשּׁ֔וּר לִשְׁתּ֖וֹת מֵ֥י נָהָֽר
18 And now what is it to you to journey to Egypt to party with the waters of Shichor?
Or what is it to you to journey to Ashur to party with river waters?
3e 4B 15
13
Jeremiah 16 Fn Min Max Syll
וּבֵית־מִשְׁתֶּ֥ה לֹא־תָב֖וֹא לָשֶׁ֣בֶת אוֹתָ֑ם
לֶאֱכֹ֖ל וְלִשְׁתּֽוֹת
8 And the house of partying do not enter to sit with them,
to eat and imbibe.
3e 4B 11
6
Amos 4 Fn Min Max Syll
שִׁמְע֞וּ הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֗ה פָּר֤וֹת הַבָּשָׁן֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ בְּהַ֣ר שֹֽׁמְר֔וֹן הָעֹשְׁק֣וֹת דַּלִּ֔ים הָרֹצְצ֖וֹת אֶבְיוֹנִ֑ים
הָאֹמְרֹ֥ת לַאֲדֹֽנֵיהֶ֖ם הָבִ֥יאָה וְנִשְׁתֶּֽה
1 Hear this word, young bulls of Bashan who are in the hill of Samaria, the oppressors of the weak, who damage the needy,
who say to their masters, Come let's party.
3e 4C 29
14
וְנָע֡וּ שְׁתַּיִם֩ שָׁלֹ֨שׁ עָרִ֜ים אֶל עִ֥יר אַחַ֛ת לִשְׁתּ֥וֹת מַ֖יִם וְלֹ֣א יִשְׂבָּ֑עוּ
וְלֹֽא שַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָדַ֖י נְאֻם יְהוָֽה
8 And two, three cities tottered to one city to party with water but they were not satisfied,
and you do not turn to me. An oracle of Yahweh.
3d 4B 21
10
Job 1 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְהִ֡י כִּ֣י הִקִּיפֽוּ֩ יְמֵ֨י הַמִּשְׁתֶּ֜ה וַיִּשְׁלַ֧ח אִיּ֣וֹב וַֽיְקַדְּשֵׁ֗ם וְהִשְׁכִּ֣ים בַּבֹּקֶר֮ וְהֶעֱלָ֣ה עֹלוֹת֮ מִסְפַּ֣ר כֻּלָּם֒ כִּ֚י אָמַ֣ר אִיּ֔וֹב אוּלַי֙ חָטְא֣וּ בָנַ֔י וּבֵרֲכ֥וּ אֱלֹהִ֖ים בִּלְבָבָ֑ם
כָּ֛כָה יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה אִיּ֖וֹב כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים פ
5 And it would be that after the striking off of party days, Job would send and sanctify them, rising early in the morning to offer up burnt offerings for all of them, for Job said, Perhaps my sons have sinned and blessed God in their hearts.
Thus did Job every one of the days.
3c 4C 56
12
Qohelet 10 Fn Min Max Syll
אַשְׁרֵ֣יךְ אֶ֔רֶץ שֶׁמַּלְכֵּ֖ךְ בֶּן־חוֹרִ֑ים
וְשָׂרַ֙יִךְ֙ בָּעֵ֣ת יֹאכֵ֔לוּ בִּגְבוּרָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א בַשְּׁתִֽי
17 Happy are you, earth, that your king is the child of the freeborn,
and your nobility in time eat for valour and not for partying.
3e 4B 10
16
Esther 1 Fn Min Max Syll
בִּשְׁנַ֤ת שָׁלוֹשׁ֙ לְמָלְכ֔וֹ עָשָׂ֣ה מִשְׁתֶּ֔ה לְכָל־שָׂרָ֖יו וַעֲבָדָ֑יו
חֵ֣יל ׀ פָּרַ֣ס וּמָדַ֗י הַֽפַּרְתְּמִ֛ים וְשָׂרֵ֥י הַמְּדִינ֖וֹת לְפָנָֽיו
3 in the year third of his reign, he made a party for all his nobles and his servants,
the wealth of Persia and Media, the patricians and the chiefs of provinces, in his presence,
3d 4C 19
19
וּבִמְל֣וֹאת ׀ הַיָּמִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה עָשָׂ֣ה הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ לְכָל־הָעָ֣ם הַנִּמְצְאִים֩ בְּשׁוּשַׁ֨ן הַבִּירָ֜ה לְמִגָּ֧דוֹל וְעַד־קָטָ֛ן מִשְׁתֶּ֖ה שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֑ים
בַּחֲצַ֕ר גִּנַּ֥ת בִּיתַ֖ן הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
5 In the fullness of these days, the king made for all the people that were found in Shushan, the temple precincts, from the greatest and to the least, a party of seven days,
in the court of the garden of the mansion of the king:
3c 4B 42
10
גַּ֚ם וַשְׁתִּ֣י הַמַּלְכָּ֔ה עָשְׂתָ֖ה מִשְׁתֵּ֣ה נָשִׁ֑ים
בֵּ֚ית הַמַּלְכ֔וּת אֲשֶׁ֖ר לַמֶּ֥לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֽוֹשׁ ס
9 C Even Vashti the queen made a party for women,
the house of the royal estates that belonged to the king Ahasuerus.
3e 4C 12
14
Esther is all about partying - further examples in chapters 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9

Daniel 5 Fn Min Max Syll
מַלְכְּתָ֕א לָקֳבֵ֨ל מִלֵּ֤י מַלְכָּא֙ וְרַבְרְבָנ֔וֹהִי לְבֵ֥ית מִשְׁתְּיָ֖א עַלַּ֑ת
עֲנָ֨ת מַלְכְּתָ֜א וַאֲמֶ֗רֶת מַלְכָּא֙ לְעָלְמִ֣ין חֱיִ֔י אַֽל־יְבַהֲלוּךְ֙ רַעְיוֹנָ֔ךְ וְזִיוָ֖יךְ אַל־יִשְׁתַּנּֽוֹ
10 The queen, in view of the speeches of the king and his overlords, came in to the house of the party.
And the queen expounded and said, O king, forever live. Let not your thoughts be vexed nor your countenance be at variance.
3e 4C 23
31