Saturday, October 7, 2017

Leviticus 22

Verse 2 is hard to understand word for word. The first three tokens of the second part of the verse, אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֵ֧ם מַקְדִּשִׁ֛ים, are in a very strange order. I understand from a friend that
Both Rashi and Nachmanides had problems explaining Leviticus 22.2, but your suspicion is close to the Jewish midrash which has a plausible explanation, to wit: "You Levites—don't let your status as the priests in charge of the holy vessels go to your head: these vessels are not yours, so avoid treating them as such. I am the Lord, [those vessels are mine], and don't you forget it..."
O what I might have done if I had allowed soul for nephesh, נפשׁ. In this chapter a נפשׁ can touch, can be cut off, and can be bought, and a נפשׁ is a cadaver to boot.

One stem יבל in the list of proscribed offerings (v 22) is the same stem as Jubilee. It might seem that one would not offer an animal due to be returned to its owner to Yahweh either. I have not seen a translation that renders this hapax in this way.

Leviticus 22 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 1 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
דַּבֵּ֨ר אֶֽל־אַהֲרֹ֜ן וְאֶל־בָּנָ֗יו וְיִנָּֽזְרוּ֙ מִקָּדְשֵׁ֣י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְלֹ֥א יְחַלְּל֖וּ אֶת־שֵׁ֣ם קָדְשִׁ֑י
אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֵ֧ם מַקְדִּשִׁ֛ים לִ֖י אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
2 Speak to Aaron and to his children that they be consecrated from the holy things of the children of Israel and they not profane my holy name,
from those things that they sanctify for me. I am Yahweh.
3c 4B 31
11
אֱמֹ֣ר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם לְדֹרֹ֨תֵיכֶ֜ם כָּל־אִ֣ישׁ ׀ אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרַ֣ב מִכָּל־זַרְעֲכֶ֗ם אֶל־הַקֳּדָשִׁים֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַקְדִּ֤ישׁוּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה וְטֻמְאָת֖וֹ עָלָ֑יו
וְנִכְרְתָ֞ה הַנֶּ֧פֶשׁ הַהִ֛וא מִלְּפָנַ֖י אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
3 Say to them, For your generations, everyone who will approach from all your seed to the holy things, that the children of Israel will sanctify to Yahweh, and his uncleanness is over him,
then that being will be cut off from my presence. I am Yahweh.
3c 4C 44
16
אִ֣ישׁ אִ֞ישׁ מִזֶּ֣רַע אַהֲרֹ֗ן וְה֤וּא צָר֙וּעַ֙ א֣וֹ זָ֔ב בַּקֳּדָשִׁים֙ לֹ֣א יֹאכַ֔ל עַ֖ד אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִטְהָ֑ר
וְהַנֹּגֵ֙עַ֙ בְּכָל־טְמֵא־נֶ֔פֶשׁ א֣וֹ אִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֵּצֵ֥א מִמֶּ֖נּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָֽרַע
4 B Any person from the seed of Aaron who is a leper or has a discharge, in holiness he will not eat until he is clean,
or who touches anything unclean, cadaver, or a man from whom has gone forth from him an emission of seed,
3e 4C 27
24
אוֹ־אִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִגַּ֔ע בְּכָל־שֶׁ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִטְמָא־ל֑וֹ
א֤וֹ בְאָדָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִטְמָא־ל֔וֹ לְכֹ֖ל טֻמְאָתֽוֹ
5 Or someone who touches any teeming thing that makes it unclean,
or in a human that makes it unclean of any of its uncleanness.
3e 4C 15
14
נֶ֚פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּגַּע־בּ֔וֹ וְטָמְאָ֖ה עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב
וְלֹ֤א יֹאכַל֙ מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁ֔ים כִּ֛י אִם־רָחַ֥ץ בְּשָׂר֖וֹ בַּמָּֽיִם
6 C A being that touches it then is unclean till evening,
and not will eat from the holy things except it washes its flesh in water.
3d 4C 14
19
וּבָ֥א הַשֶּׁ֖מֶשׁ וְטָהֵ֑ר
וְאַחַר֙ יֹאכַ֣ל מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י לַחְמ֖וֹ הֽוּא
7 When the sun recedes then it will be clean,
and after let it eat from the holy things for its bread it is.
3e 4B 8
14
נְבֵלָ֧ה וּטְרֵפָ֛ה לֹ֥א יֹאכַ֖ל לְטָמְאָה־בָ֑הּ
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
8 A corpse or what is torn, it will not eat to be defiled in it,
I am Yahweh.
3c 4A 13
4
וְשָׁמְר֣וּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּ֗י וְלֹֽא־יִשְׂא֤וּ עָלָיו֙ חֵ֔טְא וּמֵ֥תוּ ב֖וֹ כִּ֣י יְחַלְּלֻ֑הוּ
אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה מְקַדְּשָֽׁם
9 And they will keep my watch that they not bear sin over it and they die by it, for they profane it.
I am Yahweh who sanctifies them.
3e 4C 23
7
וְכָל־זָ֖ר לֹא־יֹ֣אכַל קֹ֑דֶשׁ
תּוֹשַׁ֥ב כֹּהֵ֛ן וְשָׂכִ֖יר לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל קֹֽדֶשׁ
10 And no stranger will eat of what is holy.
A house-guest of a priest or a mercenary will not eat of what is holy.
3d 4B 7
11
וְכֹהֵ֗ן כִּֽי־יִקְנֶ֥ה נֶ֙פֶשׁ֙ קִנְיַ֣ן כַּסְפּ֔וֹ ה֖וּא יֹ֣אכַל בּ֑וֹ
וִילִ֣יד בֵּית֔וֹ הֵ֖ם יֹאכְל֥וּ בְלַחְמֽוֹ
11 But a priest that buys a being, bought with his silver, he will eat of it,
and what is born of his house, they will eat of his bread.
3e 4B 16
10
וּבַת־כֹּהֵ֔ן כִּ֥י תִהְיֶ֖ה לְאִ֣ישׁ זָ֑ר
הִ֕וא בִּתְרוּמַ֥ת הַקֳּדָשִׁ֖ים לֹ֥א תֹאכֵֽל
12 And the daughter of a priest that was for a stranger,
she, of a contribution of the holy things, she will not eat.
3e 4B 10
11
וּבַת־כֹּהֵן֩ כִּ֨י תִהְיֶ֜ה אַלְמָנָ֣ה וּגְרוּשָׁ֗ה וְזֶרַע֮ אֵ֣ין לָהּ֒ וְשָׁבָ֞ה אֶל־בֵּ֤ית אָבִ֙יהָ֙ כִּנְעוּרֶ֔יהָ מִלֶּ֥חֶם אָבִ֖יהָ תֹּאכֵ֑ל
וְכָל־זָ֖ר לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל בּֽוֹ
13 But the daughter of a priest that is a widow or divorced and she has no seed, and is returned to the house of her father as in her youth, from the bread of her father she will eat,
but no stranger will eat of it.
3e 4C 38
6
וְאִ֕ישׁ כִּֽי־יֹאכַ֥ל קֹ֖דֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָ֑ה
וְיָסַ֤ף חֲמִֽשִׁיתוֹ֙ עָלָ֔יו וְנָתַ֥ן לַכֹּהֵ֖ן אֶת־הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ
14 And anyone that eats what is holy inadvertently,
will add a fifth over it to give for the priest, with the holy thing.
3e 4C 9
19
וְלֹ֣א יְחַלְּל֔וּ אֶת־קָדְשֵׁ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־יָרִ֖ימוּ לַיהוָֽה
15 And they will not profane the holy things of the children of Israel,
that they contribute to Yahweh.
3e 4B 13
8
וְהִשִּׂ֤יאוּ אוֹתָם֙ עֲוֺ֣ן אַשְׁמָ֔ה בְּאָכְלָ֖ם אֶת־קָדְשֵׁיהֶ֑ם
כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה מְקַדְּשָֽׁם
16 Or let bear them the iniquity of offense when they eat their holy things,
for I am Yahweh who sanctifies them.
3d 4C 17
8
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 17 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
דַּבֵּ֨ר אֶֽל־אַהֲרֹ֜ן וְאֶל־בָּנָ֗יו וְאֶל֙ כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם
אִ֣ישׁ אִישׁ֩ מִבֵּ֨ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל וּמִן־הַגֵּ֣ר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַקְרִ֤יב קָרְבָּנוֹ֙ לְכָל־נִדְרֵיהֶם֙ וּלְכָל־נִדְבוֹתָ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִ֥יבוּ לַיהוָ֖ה לְעֹלָֽה
18 Speak to Aaron and to his children, and to all the children of Israel, and say to them,
Any person from the house of Israel, or from the guest in Israel, who brings near his oblation for all their vows, and for all their freewill offerings that they will bring near to Yahweh for a burnt offering,
3e 4C 25
42
לִֽרְצֹנְכֶ֑ם
תָּמִ֣ים זָכָ֔ר בַּבָּקָ֕ר בַּכְּשָׂבִ֖ים וּבָֽעִזִּֽים
19 to be accepted for you,
a complete male in oxen, in young lambs, or in she-goats.
3e 4B 3
14
כֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־בּ֥וֹ מ֖וּם לֹ֣א תַקְרִ֑יבוּ
כִּי־לֹ֥א לְרָצ֖וֹן יִהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶֽם
20 d Any that has in it a spot, you will not bring near,
for it will not be acceptable for you.
3d 4B 9
8
וְאִ֗ישׁ כִּֽי־יַקְרִ֤יב זֶֽבַח־שְׁלָמִים֙ לַיהוָ֔ה לְפַלֵּא־נֶ֙דֶר֙ א֣וֹ לִנְדָבָ֔ה בַּבָּקָ֖ר א֣וֹ בַצֹּ֑אן
תָּמִ֤ים יִֽהְיֶה֙ לְרָצ֔וֹן כָּל־מ֖וּם לֹ֥א יִהְיֶה־בּֽוֹ
21 And anyone that approaches to offer peace offerings to Yahweh for a wonderful vow or for a freewill offering in oxen or in sheep,
complete it will be to be acceptable. There will not be any spot in it.
3e 4C 27
13
עַוֶּרֶת֩ א֨וֹ שָׁב֜וּר אוֹ־חָר֣וּץ אֽוֹ־יַבֶּ֗לֶת א֤וֹ גָרָב֙ א֣וֹ יַלֶּ֔פֶת לֹא־תַקְרִ֥יבוּ אֵ֖לֶּה לַיהוָ֑ה
וְאִשֶּׁ֗ה לֹא־תִתְּנ֥וּ מֵהֶ֛ם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ לַיהוָֽה
22 Blind, or broken, or maimed, or with a running sore, or scabbed, or mangy, you will not bring these near to Yahweh,
nor will you give an offering by fire of them on the altar to Yahweh.
3d 4C 26
15
וְשׁ֥וֹר וָשֶׂ֖ה שָׂר֣וּעַ וְקָל֑וּט
נְדָבָה֙ תַּעֲשֶׂ֣ה אֹת֔וֹ וּלְנֵ֖דֶר לֹ֥א יֵרָצֶֽה
23 And bull or lamb with anything superfluous, or handicapped,
a freewill offering you may make with it, but for a vow, it will not be accepted.
3e 4B 10
15
וּמָע֤וּךְ וְכָתוּת֙ וְנָת֣וּק וְכָר֔וּת לֹ֥א תַקְרִ֖יבוּ לַֽיהוָ֑ה
וּֽבְאַרְצְכֶ֖ם לֹ֥א תַעֲשֽׂוּ
24 And the emasculated, or the beaten, or the snapped, or the cut, you will not bring near for Yahweh,
nor in your land will you do it.
3e 4C 18
8
וּמִיַּ֣ד בֶּן־נֵכָ֗ר לֹ֥א תַקְרִ֛יבוּ אֶת־לֶ֥חֶם אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֖ם מִכָּל־אֵ֑לֶּה
כִּ֣י מָשְׁחָתָ֤ם בָּהֶם֙ מ֣וּם בָּ֔ם לֹ֥א יֵרָצ֖וּ לָכֶֽם
25 And from the hand of the child of a foreigner, you will not bring near the bread of your God from any of these,
for their impairment is in them. Spot is in them. They will not be accepted for you.
3d 4C 21
14
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 26 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
שׁ֣וֹר אוֹ־כֶ֤שֶׂב אוֹ־עֵז֙ כִּ֣י יִוָּלֵ֔ד וְהָיָ֛ה שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִ֖ים תַּ֣חַת אִמּ֑וֹ
וּמִיּ֤וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי֙ וָהָ֔לְאָה יֵרָצֶ֕ה לְקָרְבַּ֥ן אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַיהוָֽה
27 B A bull or a young lamb or a she-goat that is born, will be seven days under its mother,
and from the eighth day and thereafter, it will be accepted to be brought near as an offering by fire to Yahweh.
3d 4C 20
19
וְשׁ֖וֹר אוֹ־שֶׂ֑ה
אֹת֣וֹ וְאֶת־בְּנ֔וֹ לֹ֥א תִשְׁחֲט֖וּ בְּי֥וֹם אֶחָֽד
28 And bull or lamb,
it and its child you will not butcher in one day.
3e 4B 4
14
וְכִֽי־תִזְבְּח֥וּ זֶֽבַח־תּוֹדָ֖ה לַיהוָ֑ה
לִֽרְצֹנְכֶ֖ם תִּזְבָּֽחוּ
29 And when you offer a sacrifice of thanksgiving to Yahweh,
of your acceptance you will offer it.
3e 4A 11
6
בַּיּ֤וֹם הַהוּא֙ יֵאָכֵ֔ל לֹֽא־תוֹתִ֥ירוּ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ עַד־בֹּ֑קֶר
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
30 In that day it will be eaten. Let nothing remain from it until morning.
I am Yahweh.
3e 4C 16
4
וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם֙ מִצְוֺתַ֔י וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑ם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
31 And keep my commandments and do them.
I am Yahweh.
3e 4A 12
4
וְלֹ֤א תְחַלְּלוּ֙ אֶת־שֵׁ֣ם קָדְשִׁ֔י וְנִ֨קְדַּשְׁתִּ֔י בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶֽם
32 And you will not profane my holy name, but I will be sanctified among the children of Israel.
I am Yahweh who sanctifies you,
3e 4C 20
8
הַמּוֹצִ֤יא אֶתְכֶם֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם לִהְי֥וֹת לָכֶ֖ם לֵאלֹהִ֑ים
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
33 Who brought you out from the land of Egypt to become your God.
I am Yahweh.
3e 4C 17
4