I managed to do 7 verses from Daniel 5 about 3 days ago. I saw that it was taking me 20 to 30 minutes per verse. I had to investigate almost every word. It was slow going as I seeded the data so that the computer algorithms have more to deal with. Almost every guessed stem was wrong and I had largely excluded Daniel from my algorithms so no wonder the percentages guessed were low. To increase likely guesses, I have chosen to link to some of the equivalent Hebrew stems. But there are issues a plenty.
There is very little in the Aramaic corpus so though the puzzle is smaller, the evidence is sparser. Aramaic is much like Hebrew as far as I can see. In fact, Hebrew uses the Aramaic square script. For info on this see Alef Through the Looking Glass, by Jonathan Orr-Stav. But though they seem to share many stems, a stem may have morphed to some other sense. For example, עבד is always related to service in Hebrew, but in Aramaic, it appears to be functioning like עשה, to make or to do. בר (bar) is son in Aramaic and corn in Hebrew (or ברר pure). This is just a plain difference. There is no need to suppose that son morphed to corn or vice versa, and what son is pure? I note a few words that have morphed like the equivalent of רב (many or more carelessly great - גדל) but which will be great in Aramaic, and of ענה (answer). In this last case, the style of this chapter uses answer when there is nothing to answer, so I have substituted expounded.
A few examples will show some linguistic variation between the two tongues: knee is ברך in Hebrew and then as if the letters got shuffled, is רכב in Aramaic. Iron is ברזל in Hebrew and פרזל in Aramaic. Another interesting change is from a ז to a ד as in gold, זהב and דהב. Many stems are identical or so close that I need not invent an Aramaic stem. Where I do, I am trying initially to keep the rule of no overlap so that the Aramaic chapters will sound a bit different even in English. It remains to be seen how possible this is. E.g. I eschewed majesty and chose grandeur for רבו, a stem only in Aramaic. I have not used grandeur anywhere else.
Conjugation, construct also vary but many enclitic techniques are the same, though the grammatical letters in Aramaic have different uses: ה for his where Hebrew uses that letter for her. And Aramaic forms the definite with an א suffix where Hebrew forms it with an ה prefix. But in general the techniques of pattern recognition I am using seem to help me in both languages. Meaning and sense are attached to strings of sound in their usual mysterious ways.
Story also has its thrust. These stories in Daniel are about authority (שׁלט). Daniel uses this word 24 times, Qohelet 9 times, Ezekiel, Esther and Ezra twice each, and any other book that uses it has it only once as far as I can see at present. I used various glosses for it, authority, faculty, dominate, and domineer, and escutcheon. I hope it didn't matter if I had indigestion or not that day.
Choristers, I hope you don't mind being in the company of Belshazzar. No one knows what that word means. It is not necessarily concubines. And the Walton libretto requires "the cornet, flute, sackbut, psaltery, and all kinds of music."
I don't have any more poetry to do, (Eheu!) so I chose story as my respite from Torah. This chapter was at the bottom of my list! Daniel will pop up periodically as I work down the list.
|בֵּלְשַׁאצַּ֣ר מַלְכָּ֗א עֲבַד֙ לְחֶ֣ם רַ֔ב לְרַבְרְבָנ֖וֹהִי אֲלַ֑ף |
וְלָקֳבֵ֥ל אַלְפָּ֖א חַמְרָ֥א שָׁתֵֽה
|1||Belshazzar the king served a banquet of abundance to a thousand of his overlords, |
and before the thousand, he imbibed red wine.
|בֵּלְשַׁאצַּ֞ר אֲמַ֣ר ׀ בִּטְעֵ֣ם חַמְרָ֗א לְהַיְתָיָה֙ לְמָאנֵי֙ דַּהֲבָ֣א וְכַסְפָּ֔א דִּ֤י הַנְפֵּק֙ נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּ֣ר אֲב֔וּהִי מִן־הֵיכְלָ֖א דִּ֣י בִירוּשְׁלֶ֑ם |
וְיִשְׁתּ֣וֹן בְּה֗וֹן מַלְכָּא֙ וְרַבְרְבָנ֔וֹהִי שֵׁגְלָתֵ֖הּ וּלְחֵנָתֵֽהּ
|2||Belshazzar had said, while tasting the red wine, to bring the vessels of gold and silver that Nebuchadnezzar his father had appropriated from the temple that was in Jerusalem, |
that they might imbibe from them, the king and his overlords, his consorts, and his choristers.
|בֵּאדַ֗יִן הַיְתִיו֙ מָאנֵ֣י דַהֲבָ֔א דִּ֣י הַנְפִּ֗קוּ מִן־הֵֽיכְלָ֛א דִּֽי־בֵ֥ית אֱלָהָ֖א דִּ֣י בִירֽוּשְׁלֶ֑ם |
וְאִשְׁתִּ֣יו בְּה֗וֹן מַלְכָּא֙ וְרַבְרְבָנ֔וֹהִי שֵׁגְלָתֵ֖הּ וּלְחֵנָתֵֽהּ
|3||Then they brought the vessels of gold that had been appropriated from the temple that is the house of God that is in Jerusalem, |
and they imbibed from them, the king and his overlords, his consorts and his choristers.
|אִשְׁתִּ֖יו חַמְרָ֑א |
וְ֠שַׁבַּחוּ לֵֽאלָהֵ֞י דַּהֲבָ֧א וְכַסְפָּ֛א נְחָשָׁ֥א פַרְזְלָ֖א אָעָ֥א וְאַבְנָֽא
|4||They imbibed red wine, |
and they commended the gods of gold and silver, brass, iron, wood and stone.
|בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָ֗ה נְפַ֙קָה֙ אֶצְבְּעָן֙ דִּ֣י יַד־אֱנָ֔שׁ וְכָֽתְבָן֙ לָקֳבֵ֣ל נֶבְרַשְׁתָּ֔א עַל־גִּירָ֕א דִּֽי־כְתַ֥ל הֵיכְלָ֖א דִּ֣י מַלְכָּ֑א |
וּמַלְכָּ֣א חָזֵ֔ה פַּ֥ס יְדָ֖ה דִּ֥י כָתְבָֽה
|5||In the hour, the fingers of the hand of a mortal were appropriated, and they wrote in view of the candlestick on the stucco that is the embankment of the temple of the king, |
and the king perceived the fingertip of the hand that wrote.
|אֱדַ֤יִן מַלְכָּא֙ זִיוֺ֣הִי שְׁנ֔וֹהִי וְרַעיֹנֹ֖הִי יְבַהֲלוּנֵּ֑הּ |
וְקִטְרֵ֤י חַרְצֵהּ֙ מִשְׁתָּרַ֔יִן וְאַ֨רְכֻבָּתֵ֔הּ דָּ֥א לְדָ֖א נָֽקְשָֽׁן
|6||Then the king's countenance was at variance and his thoughts vexed him, |
and the knots of his loins were loosened, and his knees, one against the other, knocked.
|קָרֵ֤א מַלְכָּא֙ בְּחַ֔יִל לְהֶֽעָלָה֙ לְאָ֣שְׁפַיָּ֔א כַּשְׂדָּאֵ֖י וְגָזְרַיָּ֑א |
עָנֵ֨ה מַלְכָּ֜א וְאָמַ֣ר ׀ לְחַכִּימֵ֣י בָבֶ֗ל דִּ֣י כָל־אֱ֠נָשׁ דִּֽי־יִקְרֵ֞ה כְּתָבָ֣ה דְנָ֗ה וּפִשְׁרֵהּ֙ יְחַוִּנַּ֔נִי אַרְגְּוָנָ֣א יִלְבַּ֗שׁ וְהַֽמְנִיכָ֤א דִֽי־דַהֲבָא֙ עַֽל־צַוְּארֵ֔הּ וְתַלְתִּ֥י בְמַלְכוּתָ֖א יִשְׁלַֽט
|7||The king proclaimed forcefully, to bring in the astrologists, the Chaldeans, and the adjudicators. |
The king expounded and said to the wise of Babel, For any mortal that will read this writing and divulge its key, he will be clothed in purple and a chain of office of gold on his neck, and third in the kingdom, he will have authority.
|אֱדַ֙יִן֙ עָֽלִּ֔ין כֹּ֖ל חַכִּימֵ֣י מַלְכָּ֑א |
וְלָֽא־כָהֲלִ֤ין כְּתָבָא֙ לְמִקְרֵ֔א וּפִשְׁרֵ֖הּ לְהוֹדָעָ֥ה לְמַלְכָּֽא
|8||Then came in all the wise of the king, |
but they could not recite the writing nor its key make known to the king.
|אֱ֠דַיִן מַלְכָּ֤א בֵלְשַׁאצַּר֙ שַׂגִּ֣יא מִתְבָּהַ֔ל וְזִיוֺ֖הִי שָׁנַ֣יִן עֲל֑וֹהִי |
|9||~||Then the king Belshazzar was hugely vexed and his countenance was at variance in him, |
and his overlords were astounded.
|מַלְכְּתָ֕א לָקֳבֵ֨ל מִלֵּ֤י מַלְכָּא֙ וְרַבְרְבָנ֔וֹהִי לְבֵ֥ית מִשְׁתְּיָ֖א עַלַּ֑ת |
עֲנָ֨ת מַלְכְּתָ֜א וַאֲמֶ֗רֶת מַלְכָּא֙ לְעָלְמִ֣ין חֱיִ֔י אַֽל־יְבַהֲלוּךְ֙ רַעְיוֹנָ֔ךְ וְזִיוָ֖יךְ אַל־יִשְׁתַּנּֽוֹ
|10||The queen, in view of the speeches of the king and his overlords, came in to the house of the party. |
And the queen expounded and said, O king, forever live. Let not your thoughts be vexed nor your countenance be at variance.
|אִיתַ֨י גְּבַ֜ר בְּמַלְכוּתָ֗ךְ דִּ֠י ר֣וּחַ אֱלָהִ֣ין קַדִּישִׁין֮ בֵּהּ֒ וּבְיוֹמֵ֣י אֲב֗וּךְ נַהִיר֧וּ וְשָׂכְלְתָנ֛וּ וְחָכְמָ֥ה כְּחָכְמַת־אֱלָהִ֖ין הִשְׁתְּכַ֣חַת בֵּ֑הּ |
וּמַלְכָּ֤א נְבֻֽכַדְנֶצַּר֙ אֲב֔וּךְ רַ֧ב חַרְטֻמִּ֣ין אָֽשְׁפִ֗ין כַּשְׂדָּאִין֙ גָּזְרִ֔ין הֲקִימֵ֖הּ אֲב֥וּךְ מַלְכָּֽא
|11||There is one who is valiant in your kingdom, in whom is the spirit of the holy gods, and in the days of your father, radiance and insight and wisdom as the wisdom of God was found in him, |
and the king Nebuchadnezzar, your father, overlord of magicians, astrologists, Chaldeans, adjudicators, your father, the king, placed him.
|כָּל־קֳבֵ֡ל דִּ֣י ר֣וּחַ ׀ יַתִּירָ֡ה וּמַנְדַּ֡ע וְשָׂכְלְתָנ֡וּ מְפַשַּׁ֣ר חֶלְמִין֩ וַֽאַֽחֲוָיַ֨ת אֲחִידָ֜ן וּמְשָׁרֵ֣א קִטְרִ֗ין הִשְׁתְּכַ֤חַת בֵּהּ֙ בְּדָ֣נִיֵּ֔אל דִּֽי־מַלְכָּ֥א שָׂם־שְׁמֵ֖הּ בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּ֑ר |
כְּעַ֛ן דָּנִיֵּ֥אל יִתְקְרֵ֖י וּפִשְׁרָ֥ה יְהַֽחֲוֵֽה
|12||All because the spirit of excellence and knowledge and insight, the key to dreams, and divulging of riddles, and loosening of knots was found in him, in Daniel on whom the king did set his name, Belteshazzar. |
Now let Daniel be called and the key he will divulge.
|בֵּאדַ֙יִן֙ דָּֽנִיֵּ֔אל הֻעַ֖ל קֳדָ֣ם מַלְכָּ֑א |
עָנֵ֨ה מַלְכָּ֜א וְאָמַ֣ר לְדָנִיֵּ֗אל אַנְתְּ־ה֤וּא דָנִיֵּאל֙ דִּֽי־מִן־בְּנֵ֤י גָלוּתָא֙ דִּ֣י יְה֔וּד דִּ֥י הַיְתִ֛י מַלְכָּ֥א אַ֖בִי מִן־יְהֽוּד
|13||Then Daniel was brought before the king. |
The king expounded and said to Daniel, Are you he, Daniel, who is from the children of the exiles that are Judean, whom the king my father brought from Judea?
|וְשִׁמְעֵ֣ת עֲלָ֔ךְ דִּ֛י ר֥וּחַ אֱלָהִ֖ין בָּ֑ךְ |
וְנַהִיר֧וּ וְשָׂכְלְתָנ֛וּ וְחָכְמָ֥ה יַתִּירָ֖ה הִשְׁתְּכַ֥חַת בָּֽךְ
|14||For I have heard about you, that the spirit of gods is in you, |
and radiance and insight and excellent wisdom was found in you.
|וּכְעַ֞ן הֻעַ֣לּוּ קָֽדָמַ֗י חַכִּֽימַיָּא֙ אָֽשְׁפַיָּ֔א דִּֽי־כְתָבָ֤ה דְנָה֙ יִקְר֔וֹן וּפִשְׁרֵ֖הּ לְהוֹדָעֻתַ֑נִי |
וְלָֽא־כָהֲלִ֥ין פְּשַֽׁר־מִלְּתָ֖א לְהַחֲוָיָֽה
|15||And now have been brought before me, the wise, the astrologists, that this writing they should recite, and its key make known to me, |
but they could not divulge the key to the speech.
|וַאֲנָה֙ שִׁמְעֵ֣ת עֲלָ֔ךְ דִּֽי־תִיכּ֥וּל פִּשְׁרִ֛ין לְמִפְשַׁ֖ר וְקִטְרִ֣ין לְמִשְׁרֵ֑א |
כְּעַ֡ן הֵן֩ תִּכ֨וּל כְּתָבָ֜א לְמִקְרֵ֗א וּפִשְׁרֵהּ֙ לְהוֹדָ֣עֻתַ֔נִי אַרְגְּוָנָ֣א תִלְבַּ֗שׁ וְהַֽמְנִיכָ֤א דִֽי־דַהֲבָא֙ עַֽל־צַוְּארָ֔ךְ וְתַלְתָּ֥א בְמַלְכוּתָ֖א תִּשְׁלַֽט
|16||And I myself heard about you that you are able to decipher keys and loosen knots. |
Now if you are able to recite the writing and to make known its key, you will be clothed in purple and a chain of office of gold on your neck, and third in the kingdom, you will have authority.
|בֵּאדַ֜יִן עָנֵ֣ה דָנִיֵּ֗אל וְאָמַר֙ קֳדָ֣ם מַלְכָּ֔א מַתְּנָתָךְ֙ לָ֣ךְ לֶֽהֶוְיָ֔ן וּנְבָ֥זְבְּיָתָ֖ךְ לְאָחֳרָ֣ן הַ֑ב |
בְּרַ֗ם כְּתָבָא֙ אֶקְרֵ֣א לְמַלְכָּ֔א וּפִשְׁרָ֖א אֲהוֹדְעִנֵּֽהּ
|17||Then answered Daniel and said before the king, Your endowments be for yourself, and your awards for another, provide, |
yet the writing I will recite for the king and the key I will make known.
|אַ֖נְתְּ מַלְכָּ֑א |
אֱלָהָא֙ עִלָּאָ֔ה מַלְכוּתָ֤א וּרְבוּתָא֙ וִיקָרָ֣א וְהַדְרָ֔ה יְהַ֖ב לִנְבֻכַדְנֶצַּ֥ר אֲבֽוּךְ
|18||g||You, O king, |
God Supreme provided a kingdom and grandeur and esteem and honour to Nebuchadnezzar, your father,
|וּמִן־רְבוּתָא֙ דִּ֣י יְהַב־לֵ֔הּ כֹּ֣ל עַֽמְמַיָּ֗א אֻמַיָּא֙ וְלִשָּׁ֣נַיָּ֔א הֲו֛וֹ זָיְעִ֥ין וְדָחֲלִ֖ין מִן־קֳדָמ֑וֹהִי |
דִּֽי־הֲוָ֨ה צָבֵ֜א הֲוָ֣א קָטֵ֗ל וְדִֽי־הֲוָ֤ה צָבֵא֙ הֲוָ֣ה מַחֵ֔א וְדִֽי־הֲוָ֤ה צָבֵא֙ הֲוָ֣ה מָרִ֔ים וְדִֽי־הֲוָ֥ה צָבֵ֖א הֲוָ֥ה מַשְׁפִּֽיל
|19||And from the grandeur that he provided to him, all peoples, clans, and tongues were quavering and perturbed from before him. |
Whom he pleased, he killed, and whom he pleased, he kept alive, and whom he pleased, he exalted, and whom he pleased, he humbled.
|וּכְדִי֙ רִ֣ם לִבְבֵ֔הּ וְרוּחֵ֖הּ תִּֽקְפַ֣ת לַהֲזָדָ֑ה |
הָנְחַת֙ מִן־כָּרְסֵ֣א מַלְכוּתֵ֔הּ וִֽיקָרָ֖ה הֶעְדִּ֥יוּ מִנֵּֽהּ
|20||But as his heart was exalted and his spirit overcome with presumption, |
he was pinned down from his royal throne, and his esteem they removed from him.
|וּמִן־בְּנֵי֩ אֲנָשָׁ֨א טְרִ֜יד וְלִבְבֵ֣הּ ׀ עִם־חֵיוְתָ֣א שַׁוִּ֗יְו וְעִם־עֲרָֽדַיָּא֙ מְדוֹרֵ֔הּ עִשְׂבָּ֤א כְתוֹרִין֙ יְטַ֣עֲמוּנֵּ֔הּ וּמִטַּ֥ל שְׁמַיָּ֖א גִּשְׁמֵ֣הּ יִצְטַבַּ֑ע |
עַ֣ד דִּֽי־יְדַ֗ע דִּֽי־שַׁלִּ֞יט אֱלָהָ֤א עִלָּאָה֙ בְּמַלְכ֣וּת אֲנָשָׁ֔א וּלְמַן־דִּ֥י יִצְבֵּ֖ה יְהָקֵ֥ים עֲלַֽהּ
|21||And from the children of the mortal he was ostracized, and his heart with the animal was considered equal, and with the onager was his loitering. Field-grass like bulls they made him taste, and from the dew of the heavens his frame was wet, until that he knew that the authority is of God Supreme in the kingdom of mortals, and whom he pleases, he places over it.||3e||4C||48|
|וְאַ֤נְתְּ בְּרֵהּ֙ בֵּלְשַׁאצַּ֔ר לָ֥א הַשְׁפֵּ֖לְתְּ לִבְבָ֑ךְ |
כָּל־קֳבֵ֕ל דִּ֥י כָל־דְּנָ֖ה יְדַֽעְתָּ
|22||And you, his son, Belshazzar, have not not humbled your heart, |
though all this you know.
|וְעַ֣ל מָרֵֽא־שְׁמַיָּ֣א ׀ הִתְרוֹמַ֡מְתָּ וּלְמָֽאנַיָּ֨א דִֽי־בַיְתֵ֜הּ הַיְתִ֣יו קָֽדָמָ֗ךְ וְאַ֨נְתְּ וְרַבְרְבָנָ֜ךְ שֵֽׁגְלָתָ֣ךְ וּלְחֵנָתָךְ֮ חַמְרָא֮ שָׁתַ֣יִן בְּהוֹן֒ וְלֵֽאלָהֵ֣י כַסְפָּֽא־וְ֠דַהֲבָא נְחָשָׁ֨א פַרְזְלָ֜א אָעָ֣א וְאַבְנָ֗א דִּ֠י לָֽא־חָזַ֧יִן וְלָא־שָׁמְעִ֛ין וְלָ֥א יָדְעִ֖ין שַׁבַּ֑חְתָּ |
וְלֵֽאלָהָ֞א דִּֽי־נִשְׁמְתָ֥ךְ בִּידֵ֛הּ וְכָל־אֹרְחָתָ֥ךְ לֵ֖הּ לָ֥א הַדַּֽרְתָּ
|23||And against the Lord of the heavens you have exalted yourself, and the vessels of his house they have brought before you, and you and your overlords, your consorts and your choristers, red wine have imbibed from them, and the gods of silver and gold, brass, iron, wood and stone, that perceive not and hear not and know not, you have commended, |
and the God in whose hand is your breath, and whose are all your paths, you have not honoured.
|בֵּאדַ֙יִן֙ מִן־קֳדָמ֔וֹהִי שְׁלִ֖יַחַ פַּסָּ֣א דִֽי־יְדָ֑א |
וּכְתָבָ֥א דְנָ֖ה רְשִֽׁים
|24||Then from before him was sent the fingertip of the hand, |
and the writing is this, signified.
|וּדְנָ֥ה כְתָבָ֖א דִּ֣י רְשִׁ֑ים |
מְנֵ֥א מְנֵ֖א תְּקֵ֥ל וּפַרְסִֽין
|25||And this is the writing that was signified, |
MENE MENE TEQEL UPHARSIN.
|דְּנָ֖ה פְּשַֽׁר־מִלְּתָ֑א |
מְנֵ֕א מְנָֽה־אֱלָהָ֥א מַלְכוּתָ֖ךְ וְהַשְׁלְמַֽהּ
|26||This is the key to the speech, |
MENE, God has numbered your kingdom in its entirety.
תְּקִ֥ילְתָּה בְמֹֽאזַנְיָ֖א וְהִשְׁתְּכַ֥חַתְּ חַסִּֽיר
you are weighed in the balance and found lacking.
פְּרִיסַת֙ מַלְכוּתָ֔ךְ וִיהִיבַ֖ת לְמָדַ֥י וּפָרָֽס
your kingdom is redistributed, and is provided to the Medes and the Persians.
|בֵּאדַ֣יִן ׀ אֲמַ֣ר בֵּלְשַׁאצַּ֗ר וְהַלְבִּ֤ישׁוּ לְדָֽנִיֵּאל֙ אַרְגְּוָנָ֔א וְהַֽמְנִיכָ֥א דִֽי־דַהֲבָ֖א עַֽל־צַוְּארֵ֑הּ |
וְהַכְרִ֣זֽוּ עֲל֔וֹהִי דִּֽי־לֶהֱוֵ֥א שַׁלִּ֛יט תַּלְתָּ֖א בְּמַלְכוּתָֽא
|29||Then as Belshazzar said, so they clothed Daniel in purple, and a chain of office of gold on his neck, |
and they made a proclamation about him, that to him is the third authority in the kingdom.
|בֵּ֚הּ בְּלֵ֣ילְיָ֔א קְטִ֕יל בֵּלְאשַׁצַּ֖ר מַלְכָּ֥א כַשְׂדָּאָֽה||30||C||In that night Belshazzar was killed, the king of the Chaldeans.||3e||4C||15|