Sunday, October 29, 2017

Exodus 2

As often, when there is a real story in the text, it is not what I was expecting.

וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לָֽרָשָׁ֔ע לָ֥מָּה תַכֶּ֖ה רֵעֶֽךָ
and he said to the one in the wrong [lit.wicked one], Why do you strike your associate?

Most think of this as a kinship relationship, and therefore a family squabble, but the word with its stem רעה is what is rendered as neighbour elsewhere (as well as a few other glosses like shepherd!) So the emphasis is not on the object that is struck but on the one who is doing the striking. Why do you strike your shepherd, your associate, etc... I.e. you are of the same wider family. You should know better. But it appears that Moses had not yet learned that the Egyptian was also an associate. It appears to be a long development from revelation to working out the patterns of non-exploitation and love that will appear based on the specific statement of Leviticus 19:18.

Leviticus 19 Fn Min Max Syll
לֹֽא־תִקֹּ֤ם וְלֹֽא־תִטֹּר֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י עַמֶּ֔ךָ וְאָֽהַבְתָּ֥ לְרֵעֲךָ֖ כָּמ֑וֹךָ
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
18 You will not avenge, and you will not hold back with the children of your people, but you will love your associate as yourself.
I am Yahweh.
3e 4C 22
4
But even this great commandment in this context is still a local kinship policy where associate (trad. neighbour) is of the children of your people. It is not yet a call to universal care outside conventional familial boundaries.

You might remember I called Noah's boat a barge. Ark I reserved for the ark of the covenant. I couldn't put Moses in a barge. It would be hard to hide it in the rushes. So he is in a creel. You could say it is a very small barge.

Exodus 2 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ אִ֖ישׁ מִבֵּ֣ית לֵוִ֑י
וַיִּקַּ֖ח אֶת־בַּת־לֵוִֽי
1 And there went a man of the house of Levi,
and he took a daughter of Levi.
3e 4B 8
7
וַתַּ֥הַר הָאִשָּׁ֖ה וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֑ן
וַתֵּ֤רֶא אֹתוֹ֙ כִּי־ט֣וֹב ה֔וּא וַֽתִּצְפְּנֵ֖הוּ שְׁלֹשָׁ֥ה יְרָחִֽים
2 And the woman became pregnant and she gave birth to a son.
And she saw him, that he was good, and she treasured him three moons.
3e 4C 10
19
וְלֹא־יָכְלָ֣ה עוֹד֮ הַצְּפִינוֹ֒ וַתִּֽקַּֽח־לוֹ֙ תֵּ֣בַת גֹּ֔מֶא וַתַּחְמְרָ֥ה בַחֵמָ֖ר וּבַזָּ֑פֶת
וַתָּ֤שֶׂם בָּהּ֙ אֶת־הַיֶּ֔לֶד וַתָּ֥שֶׂם בַּסּ֖וּף עַל־שְׂפַ֥ת הַיְאֹֽר
3 When she was not able to treasure him further, she took for him a creel of rush, and she slathered it in red mud and tar.
And she put the boy in it, and she put it in the reeds by the bank of the Nile.
3e 4C 27
18
וַתֵּתַצַּ֥ב אֲחֹת֖וֹ מֵרָחֹ֑ק
לְדֵעָ֕ה מַה־יֵּעָשֶׂ֖ה לֽוֹ
4 And his sister monitored at a distance,
to ascertain what would be done to him.
3e 4A 10
8
וַתֵּ֤רֶד בַּת־פַּרְעֹה֙ לִרְחֹ֣ץ עַל־הַיְאֹ֔ר וְנַעֲרֹתֶ֥יהָ הֹלְכֹ֖ת עַל־יַ֣ד הַיְאֹ֑ר
וַתֵּ֤רֶא אֶת־הַתֵּבָה֙ בְּת֣וֹךְ הַסּ֔וּף וַתִּשְׁלַ֥ח אֶת־אֲמָתָ֖הּ וַתִּקָּחֶֽהָ
5 And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash at the Nile, and her lasses walked along the dike of the canal.
And she saw the creel in the midst of the reeds, and she sent her maidservant to lay hold of it.
3e 4C 23
23
וַתִּפְתַּח֙ וַתִּרְאֵ֣הוּ אֶת־הַיֶּ֔לֶד וְהִנֵּה־נַ֖עַר בֹּכֶ֑ה
וַתַּחְמֹ֣ל עָלָ֔יו וַתֹּ֕אמֶר מִיַּלְדֵ֥י הָֽעִבְרִ֖ים זֶֽה
6 And she opened and she saw the boy, and behold the youngster wept,
and she had pity on him, and she said, From the newborns of the Hebrews this is.
3e 4B 18
15
וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אֲחֹתוֹ֮ אֶל־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה֒ הַאֵלֵ֗ךְ וְקָרָ֤אתִי לָךְ֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה מֵינֶ֔קֶת מִ֖ן הָעִבְרִיֹּ֑ת
וְתֵינִ֥ק לָ֖ךְ אֶת־הַיָּֽלֶד
7 And his sister said to the daughter of Pharaoh, May I go and call for you a woman, a wet-nurse from the Hebrews,
and she will suckle for you the boy?
3e 4C 28
8
וַתֹּֽאמֶר־לָ֥הּ בַּת־פַּרְעֹ֖ה לֵ֑כִי
וַתֵּ֙לֶךְ֙ הָֽעַלְמָ֔ה וַתִּקְרָ֖א אֶת־אֵ֥ם הַיָּֽלֶד
8 And the daughter of Pharaoh said to her, Go.
And the young woman went and she called the mother of the boy.
3e 4A 9
14
וַתֹּ֧אמֶר לָ֣הּ בַּת־פַּרְעֹ֗ה הֵילִ֜יכִי אֶת־הַיֶּ֤לֶד הַזֶּה֙ וְהֵינִקִ֣הוּ לִ֔י וַאֲנִ֖י אֶתֵּ֣ן אֶת־שְׂכָרֵ֑ךְ
וַתִּקַּ֧ח הָאִשָּׁ֛ה הַיֶּ֖לֶד וַתְּנִיקֵֽהוּ
9 And the daughter of Pharaoh said to her, Go with this boy. Be his wet-nurse for me, and I, I will give your wage.
And the woman took the boy and was his wet-nurse.
3c 4C 31
13
וַיִגְדַּ֣ל הַיֶּ֗לֶד וַתְּבִאֵ֙הוּ֙ לְבַת־פַּרְעֹ֔ה וַֽיְהִי־לָ֖הּ לְבֵ֑ן
וַתִּקְרָ֤א שְׁמוֹ֙ מֹשֶׁ֔ה וַתֹּ֕אמֶר כִּ֥י מִן־הַמַּ֖יִם מְשִׁיתִֽהוּ
10 And the boy grew and she brought him to the daughter of Pharaoh, and he became for her as a son.
And she called his name Moses, and she said, For from the water I drew him out.
3e 4C 19
18
וַיְהִ֣י ׀ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֗ם וַיִּגְדַּ֤ל מֹשֶׁה֙ וַיֵּצֵ֣א אֶל־אֶחָ֔יו וַיַּ֖רְא בְּסִבְלֹתָ֑ם
וַיַּרְא֙ אִ֣ישׁ מִצְרִ֔י מַכֶּ֥ה אִישׁ־עִבְרִ֖י מֵאֶחָֽיו
11 And it happened in those days, when Moses was grown, that he went out to his kin, and saw their burdens,
and he saw an Egyptian man striking a Hebrew man from his kin.
3e 4C 24
13
וַיִּ֤פֶן כֹּה֙ וָכֹ֔ה וַיַּ֖רְא כִּ֣י אֵ֣ין אִ֑ישׁ
וַיַּךְ֙ אֶת־הַמִּצְרִ֔י וַֽיִּטְמְנֵ֖הוּ בַּחֽוֹל
12 And he faced thus and thus, and saw that there was no person,
and he struck the Egyptian and buried him in the sand.
3e 4C 11
13
וַיֵּצֵא֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשֵּׁנִ֔י וְהִנֵּ֛ה שְׁנֵֽי־אֲנָשִׁ֥ים עִבְרִ֖ים נִצִּ֑ים
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לָֽרָשָׁ֔ע לָ֥מָּה תַכֶּ֖ה רֵעֶֽךָ
13 And he went out on the second day and behold two men of the Hebrews struggling,
and he said to the one in the wrong, Why do you strike your associate?
3d 4B 19
13
וַ֠יֹּאמֶר מִ֣י שָֽׂמְךָ֞ לְאִ֨ישׁ שַׂ֤ר וְשֹׁפֵט֙ עָלֵ֔ינוּ הַלְהָרְגֵ֙נִי֙ אַתָּ֣ה אֹמֵ֔ר כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר הָרַ֖גְתָּ אֶת־הַמִּצְרִ֑י
וַיִּירָ֤א מֹשֶׁה֙ וַיֹּאמַ֔ר אָכֵ֖ן נוֹדַ֥ע הַדָּבָֽר
14 ~ And he said, Who has set you as man in chief, and as judge over us? Are you promising to slay me as you have slain the Egyptian?
And Moses feared and he said, Notwithstanding the matter is known.
3e 4C 33
15
וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע פַּרְעֹה֙ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה וַיְבַקֵּ֖שׁ לַהֲרֹ֣ג אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֑ה
וַיִּבְרַ֤ח מֹשֶׁה֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֔ה וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב בְּאֶֽרֶץ־מִדְיָ֖ן וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב עַֽל־הַבְּאֵֽר
15 When Pharaoh heard of this matter, he sought to slay Moses,
so Moses ran away from the presence of Pharaoh and settled in the land of Midian [strife]. And he sat down by the well.
3e 4C 20
23
וּלְכֹהֵ֥ן מִדְיָ֖ן שֶׁ֣בַע בָּנ֑וֹת
וַתָּבֹ֣אנָה וַתִּדְלֶ֗נָה וַתְּמַלֶּ֙אנָה֙ אֶת־הָ֣רְהָטִ֔ים לְהַשְׁק֖וֹת צֹ֥אן אֲבִיהֶֽן
16 And the priest of Midian had seven daughters,
and they came,and they pulled up, and they filled their troughs, to irrigate the sheep of their father.
3e 4B 9
23
וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ הָרֹעִ֖ים וַיְגָרְשׁ֑וּם
וַיָּ֤קָם מֹשֶׁה֙ וַיּ֣וֹשִׁעָ֔ן וַיַּ֖שְׁקְ אֶת־צֹאנָֽם
17 And the shepherds came and expelled them,
and Moses arose and saved them, and made their flock drink.
3e 4C 9
15
וַתָּבֹ֕אנָה אֶל־רְעוּאֵ֖ל אֲבִיהֶ֑ן
וַיֹּ֕אמֶר מַדּ֛וּעַ מִהַרְתֶּ֥ן בֹּ֖א הַיּֽוֹם
18 And they came to Reueil their father,
and he said, Why so swiftly have you come today?
3d 4A 11
12
וַתֹּאמַ֕רְןָ אִ֣ישׁ מִצְרִ֔י הִצִּילָ֖נוּ מִיַּ֣ד הָרֹעִ֑ים
וְגַם־דָּלֹ֤ה דָלָה֙ לָ֔נוּ וַיַּ֖שְׁקְ אֶת־הַצֹּֽאן
19 And they said, An Egyptian man delivered us from the hand of the shepherds,
and moreover he pulled up, he pulled up for us, and made the flock drink.
3e 4C 16
14
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֶל־בְּנֹתָ֖יו וְאַיּ֑וֹ
לָ֤מָּה זֶּה֙ עֲזַבְתֶּ֣ן אֶת־הָאִ֔ישׁ קִרְאֶ֥ן ל֖וֹ וְיֹ֥אכַל לָֽחֶם
20 And he said to his daughters, And where is he?
Why this forsaking of the man? Call him and let him eat bread.
3e 4C 10
17
וַיּ֥וֹאֶל מֹשֶׁ֖ה לָשֶׁ֣בֶת אֶת־הָאִ֑ישׁ
וַיִּתֵּ֛ן אֶת־צִפֹּרָ֥ה בִתּ֖וֹ לְמֹשֶֽׁה
21 And Moses was humoured to settle with the man,
so he gave Zipporah his daughter to Moses.
3d 4B 11
12
וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֔ן וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ גֵּרְשֹׁ֑ם
כִּ֣י אָמַ֔ר גֵּ֣ר הָיִ֔יתִי בְּאֶ֖רֶץ נָכְרִיָּֽה
22 And she gave birth to a son and she called his name Gershom,
for, he said, a guest I was in an alien land.
3e 4B 12
13
וַיְהִי֩ בַיָּמִ֨ים הָֽרַבִּ֜ים הָהֵ֗ם וַיָּ֙מָת֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיֵּאָנְח֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מִן־הָעֲבֹדָ֖ה וַיִּזְעָ֑קוּ
וַתַּ֧עַל שַׁוְעָתָ֛ם אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים מִן־הָעֲבֹדָֽה
23 And it happened in those many days that the king of Egypt died, and the children of Israel sighed from their servitude, and they appealed.
And their cry ascended to God from the servitude.
3c 4B 35
16
וַיִּשְׁמַ֥ע אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־נַאֲקָתָ֑ם
וַיִּזְכֹּ֤ר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־בְּרִית֔וֹ אֶת־אַבְרָהָ֖ם אֶת־יִצְחָ֥ק וְאֶֽת־יַעֲקֹֽב
24 And God heard their groaning.
And God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Yitschaq and Jacob.
3e 4C 11
22
וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיֵּ֖דַע אֱלֹהִֽים
25 And saw God the children of Israel,
and God knew.
3e 4B 11
6

There is a second well story here. The terminology is different from the servant of Abraham meeting Rebekah. Two separate words are used for whatever containers they used, and two separate terms for drawing שׁאב from the well or pulling up, דלה, the same letters as gateway. This pulling up is also in the Psalms (30:2). The word for water does not occur in this passage but is assumed. You might notice that I have not found synonyms in English for the multiple types of drawing from water that there are in Hebrew. That word draw is compromised, but I am stuck. It is of course used for drawing a bow, or a picture, or water, or just magnetic attraction. And there are few synonyms for it in English that I can find.
משׁה draw out(2), drew out(1), Moses(744), silk(2)
משׁך belt(1), charade(1), dragging out(1), drags out(1), drags(2), draw out(6), draw(2), drawn out(2), draws(1), drew out(2), drew(2), Meshec(1), Meshek(2), trail(2), trails(1)
פעל about works(1), draw(1), work out(1), work(42), worked(9), workers(23), working(2), works(14)
שׁאב draw water(1), draw(7), drawn(1), draws(1), drew(3)
שׁלף being clipped(1), draw(3), drawn(2), drew(1), flip(1), flipped(1), Shalef(2)