Saturday, June 9, 2018

Numbers 35

Here (verse 27) and Psalm 51, דמם is read as implying guilt of shed blood, but the guilt (אשׁם bear guilt, guilt offering) is not in the text, only blood.

The legitimization of revenge killing is not one that is prescriptive for our behaviour (in case you were wondering). But what does the death of the 'great' priest כהן גדל (or traditionally the 'high' priest) do? It appears to release the need for vengeance in the redeemer. What a strange thought. If only this were true, that one person's death would change the desire for vengeance in others. Is this a legal change or a real change of heart? Where did this idea come from? It is strange that it is not brought out in the NT, especially the epistle to the Hebrews.

Sorry about the archaic thereto. Often with אשׁר (that) and שׁם (there) I gloss the relative pronoun as where and omit the there. But in this case the archaic works better.

Verse 25, the verb is not passive voice (niphal). It is either whom he anointed, where he has no antecedent, or it is who anointed. Translations I have looked at all read it as niphal.

Murderer? Murder is not my only gloss for רצח so perhaps I should find a different English gloss for the case of accidental death. Suggestions? (Slay, kill, are already in use).  Verse 30 is hard to read. So is the rest of the chapter. Who takes responsibility for all the blood shed in the world?

Numbers 35 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְדַבֵּ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֖ה בְּעַֽרְבֹ֣ת מוֹאָ֑ב
עַל־יַרְדֵּ֥ן יְרֵח֖וֹ לֵאמֹֽר
1 And Yahweh spoke to Moses in the steppes of Moab,
at the Jordan by Jericho, saying.
3c 4B 13
צַו֮ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וְנָתְנ֣וּ לַלְוִיִּ֗ם מִֽנַּחֲלַ֛ת אֲחֻזָּתָ֖ם עָרִ֣ים לָשָׁ֑בֶת
וּמִגְרָ֗שׁ לֶֽעָרִים֙ סְבִיבֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם תִּתְּנ֖וּ לַלְוִיִּֽם
2 Command the children of Israel that they give to the Levites, from the inheritance of their holdings, cities for settlement.
And from the outlands of the cities round about them, you will give to the Levites.
3d 4B 26
וְהָי֧וּ הֶֽעָרִ֛ים לָהֶ֖ם לָשָׁ֑בֶת
וּמִגְרְשֵׁיהֶ֗ם יִהְי֤וּ לִבְהֶמְתָּם֙ וְלִרְכֻשָׁ֔ם וּלְכֹ֖ל חַיָּתָֽם
3 And the cities will be theirs for settlement,
and their outlands will be for their cattle, and for their steeds, and for all their animals.
3c 4C 11
וּמִגְרְשֵׁי֙ הֶֽעָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּתְּנ֖וּ לַלְוִיִּ֑ם
מִקִּ֤יר הָעִיר֙ וָח֔וּצָה אֶ֥לֶף אַמָּ֖ה סָבִֽיב
4 And the outlands of the cities that you give to the Levites,
will be from the housewall of the city outside, a thousand cubits round about.
3e 4C 14
וּמַדֹּתֶ֞ם מִח֣וּץ לָעִ֗יר אֶת־פְּאַת־קֵ֣דְמָה אַלְפַּ֪יִם בָּֽאַמָּ֟ה וְאֶת־פְּאַת־נֶגֶב֩ אַלְפַּ֨יִם בָּאַמָּ֜ה וְאֶת־פְּאַת־יָ֣ם ׀ אַלְפַּ֣יִם בָּֽאַמָּ֗ה וְאֵ֨ת פְּאַ֥ת צָפ֛וֹן אַלְפַּ֥יִם בָּאַמָּ֖ה וְהָעִ֣יר בַּתָּ֑וֶךְ
זֶ֚ה יִהְיֶ֣ה לָהֶ֔ם מִגְרְשֵׁ֖י הֶעָרִֽים
5 And you will measure outside of the city the eastern edge, two thousand cubits, and the southern edge, two thousand cubits, and the western edge two thousand cubits, and the northern edge two thousand cubits and the city in the centre.
This is for them, the outlands of the cities.
3d 4C 56
וְאֵ֣ת הֶֽעָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר תִּתְּנוּ֙ לַלְוִיִּ֔ם אֵ֚ת שֵׁשׁ־עָרֵ֣י הַמִּקְלָ֔ט אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּתְּנ֔וּ לָנֻ֥ס שָׁ֖מָּה הָרֹצֵ֑חַ
וַעֲלֵיהֶ֣ם תִּתְּנ֔וּ אַרְבָּעִ֥ים וּשְׁתַּ֖יִם עִֽיר
6 And the cities which you give to the Levites will be the six cities of asylum, that you assign for the withdrawal thereto of the murderer,
and to them you will give forty two cities.
3e 4C 31
כָּל־הֶעָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר תִּתְּנוּ֙ לַלְוִיִּ֔ם אַרְבָּעִ֥ים וּשְׁמֹנֶ֖ה עִ֑יר
אֶתְהֶ֖ן וְאֶת־מִגְרְשֵׁיהֶֽן
7 All the cities that you give to the Levites are forty eight cities,
them and their outlands.
3e 4C 18
וְהֶֽעָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר תִּתְּנוּ֙ מֵאֲחֻזַּ֣ת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מֵאֵ֤ת הָרַב֙ תַּרְבּ֔וּ וּמֵאֵ֥ת הַמְעַ֖ט תַּמְעִ֑יטוּ
אִ֗ישׁ כְּפִ֤י נַחֲלָתוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִנְחָ֔לוּ יִתֵּ֥ן מֵעָרָ֖יו לַלְוִיִּֽם
8 And the cities that you give will be from the holdings of the children of Israel, from the many you will have many, and from the few you will have few.
Each in proportion to his inheritance that he inherited, will give from his cities to the Levites.
3e 4C 31
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 9 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
דַּבֵּר֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם
כִּ֥י אַתֶּ֛ם עֹבְרִ֥ים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן אַ֥רְצָה כְּנָֽעַן
10 Speak to the children of Israel and say to them,
When you have crossed over Jordan toward the land of Canaan,
3d 4B 15
וְהִקְרִיתֶ֤ם לָכֶם֙ עָרִ֔ים עָרֵ֥י מִקְלָ֖ט תִּהְיֶ֣ינָה לָכֶ֑ם
וְנָ֥ס שָׁ֙מָּה֙ רֹצֵ֔חַ מַכֵּה־נֶ֖פֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָֽה
11 You will proclaim for yourselves cities to be the cities of asylum. They will be for you,
that a murderer may withdraw there who struck someone inadvertently.
3e 4C 17
וְהָי֨וּ לָכֶ֧ם הֶעָרִ֛ים לְמִקְלָ֖ט מִגֹּאֵ֑ל
וְלֹ֤א יָמוּת֙ הָרֹצֵ֔חַ עַד־עָמְד֛וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י הָעֵדָ֖ה לַמִּשְׁפָּֽט
12 And they will become for you cities for asylum from a redeemer,
that the murderer may not die until he stands before the assembly for judgment.
3c 4C 14
וְהֶעָרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּתֵּ֑נוּ
שֵׁשׁ־עָרֵ֥י מִקְלָ֖ט תִּהְיֶ֥ינָה לָכֶֽם
13 Of the cities that you give,
six will be the cities of asylum. They will be for you.
3e 4B 9
אֵ֣ת ׀ שְׁלֹ֣שׁ הֶעָרִ֗ים תִּתְּנוּ֙ מֵעֵ֣בֶר לַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וְאֵת֙ שְׁלֹ֣שׁ הֶֽעָרִ֔ים תִּתְּנ֖וּ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן
עָרֵ֥י מִקְלָ֖ט תִּהְיֶֽינָה
14 B Three cities you will give from beyond Jordan, and three cities you will give in the land of Canaan.
Cities of asylum they will be.
3e 4B 29
לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְלַגֵּ֤ר וְלַתּוֹשָׁב֙ בְּתוֹכָ֔ם תִּהְיֶ֛ינָה שֵׁשׁ־הֶעָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה לְמִקְלָ֑ט
לָנ֣וּס שָׁ֔מָּה כָּל־מַכֵּה־נֶ֖פֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָֽה
15 For the children of Israel, and for the guest, and for the immigrant among them, these six cities will be for asylum,
to let anyone withdraw there who struck someone inadvertently.
3d 4C 28
וְאִם־בִּכְלִ֨י בַרְזֶ֧ל ׀ הִכָּ֛הוּ וַיָּמֹ֖ת רֹצֵ֣חַֽ ה֑וּא
מ֥וֹת יוּמַ֖ת הָרֹצֵֽחַ
16 And if with an instrument of iron he struck him, and he died, a murderer he is.
The murderer will be put to death.
3c 4B 16
וְאִ֡ם בְּאֶ֣בֶן יָד֩ אֲשֶׁר־יָמ֨וּת בָּ֥הּ הִכָּ֛הוּ וַיָּמֹ֖ת רֹצֵ֣חַֽ ה֑וּא
מ֥וֹת יוּמַ֖ת הָרֹצֵֽחַ
17 And if with a stone by hand, that he dies by it. He struck him and he died, a murderer he is.
The murderer will be put to death.
3d 4B 21
א֡וֹ בִּכְלִ֣י עֵֽץ־יָד֩ אֲשֶׁר־יָמ֨וּת בּ֥וֹ הִכָּ֛הוּ וַיָּמֹ֖ת רֹצֵ֣חַֽ ה֑וּא
מ֥וֹת יוּמַ֖ת הָרֹצֵֽחַ
18 ~ Or with a vessel of wood by hand, that he dies by it. He struck him and he died, a murderer he is.
The murderer will be put to death.
3d 4B 20
גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּ֔ם ה֥וּא יָמִ֖ית אֶת־הָרֹצֵ֑חַ
בְּפִגְעוֹ־ב֖וֹ ה֥וּא יְמִיתֶֽנּוּ
19 The one redeeming the blood, he himself will put to death the murderer.
When he comes across him, he himself will put him to death.
3e 4B 12
וְאִם־בְּשִׂנְאָ֖ה יֶהְדָּפֶ֑נּוּ
אֽוֹ־הִשְׁלִ֥יךְ עָלָ֛יו בִּצְדִיָּ֖ה וַיָּמֹֽת
20 And if in hatred he drove him out,
or he casts on him by design and he died,
3d 4A 9
א֣וֹ בְאֵיבָ֞ה הִכָּ֤הוּ בְיָדוֹ֙ וַיָּמֹ֔ת מֽוֹת־יוּמַ֥ת הַמַּכֶּ֖ה רֹצֵ֣חַֽ ה֑וּא
גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּ֗ם יָמִ֛ית אֶת־הָרֹצֵ֖חַ בְּפִגְעוֹ־בֽוֹ
21 B Or in enmity he struck him with his hand and he died, he who struck will be put to death. A murderer he is.
The one redeeming the blood will put to death the murderer, when he comes across him.
3d 4C 23
וְאִם־בְּפֶ֥תַע בְּלֹא־אֵיבָ֖ה הֲדָפ֑וֹ
אוֹ־הִשְׁלִ֥יךְ עָלָ֛יו כָּל־כְּלִ֖י בְּלֹ֥א צְדִיָּֽה
22 And if suddenly, not from enmity he has driven him out,
or has cast on him any vessel, not from design,
3d 4A 11
א֣וֹ בְכָל־אֶ֜בֶן אֲשֶׁר־יָמ֥וּת בָּהּ֙ בְּלֹ֣א רְא֔וֹת וַיַּפֵּ֥ל עָלָ֖יו וַיָּמֹ֑ת
וְהוּא֙ לֹא־אוֹיֵ֣ב ל֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א מְבַקֵּ֖שׁ רָעָתֽוֹ
23 B Or with any a stone, that he might die by it, but not seeing, and it fell on him, and he died,
and he was not his enemy nor was he seeking his hurt,
3e 4B 22
וְשָֽׁפְטוּ֙ הָֽעֵדָ֔ה בֵּ֚ין הַמַּכֶּ֔ה וּבֵ֖ין גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּ֑ם
עַ֥ל הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה
24 Then the assembly will judge between the striker and the one redeeming the blood,
over these judgments.
3e 4C 16
וְהִצִּ֨ילוּ הָעֵדָ֜ה אֶת־הָרֹצֵ֗חַ מִיַּד֮ גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּם֒ וְהֵשִׁ֤יבוּ אֹתוֹ֙ הָֽעֵדָ֔ה אֶל־עִ֥יר מִקְלָט֖וֹ אֲשֶׁר־נָ֣ס שָׁ֑מָּה
וְיָ֣שַׁב בָּ֗הּ עַד־מוֹת֙ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּדֹ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־מָשַׁ֥ח אֹת֖וֹ בְּשֶׁ֥מֶן הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ
25 And the assembly will deliver the murderer from the hand of the one redeeming the blood, and the assembly will return him to the city of his asylum where he withdrew,
and he will settle in it until the death of the great priest who anointed with the holy oil.
3e 4C 37
וְאִם־יָצֹ֥א יֵצֵ֖א הָרֹצֵ֑חַ
אֶת־גְּבוּל֙ עִ֣יר מִקְלָט֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָנ֖וּס שָֽׁמָּה
26 And if the murderer emerges beyond,
the border of the city of his asylum where he has withdrawn,
3e 4B 10
וּמָצָ֤א אֹתוֹ֙ גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּ֔ם מִח֕וּץ לִגְב֖וּל עִ֣יר מִקְלָט֑וֹ
וְרָצַ֞ח גֹּאֵ֤ל הַדָּם֙ אֶת־הָ֣רֹצֵ֔חַ אֵ֥ין ל֖וֹ דָּֽם
27 And the one redeeming the blood finds him outside of the border of the city of his asylum,
and the one redeeming the blood murders the murderer, there is no guilt of shed blood for him.
3e 4C 17
כִּ֣י בְעִ֤יר מִקְלָטוֹ֙ יֵשֵׁ֔ב עַד־מ֖וֹת הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּדֹ֑ל
וְאַחֲרֵ֥י מוֹת֙ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּדֹ֔ל יָשׁוּב֙ הָרֹצֵ֔חַ אֶל־אֶ֖רֶץ אֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ
28 B For in the city of his asylum he is to inhabit until the death of the great priest,
and after the death of the great priest the murderer may return to the land of his holdings.
3e 4C 16
וְהָי֨וּ אֵ֧לֶּה לָכֶ֛ם לְחֻקַּ֥ת מִשְׁפָּ֖ט לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶ֑ם
בְּכֹ֖ל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶֽם
29 And these will be for you for a statute, a judgment for your generations,
in all your settlements.
3c 4A 17
כָּל־מַ֨כֵּה־נֶ֔פֶשׁ לְפִ֣י עֵדִ֔ים יִרְצַ֖ח אֶת־הָרֹצֵ֑חַ
וְעֵ֣ד אֶחָ֔ד לֹא־יַעֲנֶ֥ה בְנֶ֖פֶשׁ לָמֽוּת
30 Anyone who strikes someone, by the mouth of witnesses, the one murdering will be murdered,
but one witness will not be answered by anyone's death.
3e 4B 16
וְלֹֽא־תִקְח֥וּ כֹ֙פֶר֙ לְנֶ֣פֶשׁ רֹצֵ֔חַ אֲשֶׁר־ה֥וּא רָשָׁ֖ע לָמ֑וּת
כִּי־מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽת
31 And you will not take a cover-price for the cadaver of a murderer that is condemned to die,
for he will be put to death.
3e 4B 19
וְלֹא־תִקְח֣וּ כֹ֔פֶר לָנ֖וּס אֶל־עִ֣יר מִקְלָט֑וֹ
לָשׁוּב֙ לָשֶׁ֣בֶת בָּאָ֔רֶץ עַד־מ֖וֹת הַכֹּהֵֽן
32 And you will not take a cover-price for one who withdraws to the city of his asylum,
to return to settle in the land until the death of the priest.
3e 4B 13
וְלֹֽא־תַחֲנִ֣יפוּ אֶת־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתֶּם֙ בָּ֔הּ כִּ֣י הַדָּ֔ם ה֥וּא יַחֲנִ֖יף אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וְלָאָ֣רֶץ לֹֽא־יְכֻפַּ֗ר לַדָּם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר שֻׁפַּךְ־בָּ֔הּ כִּי־אִ֖ם בְּדַ֥ם שֹׁפְכֽוֹ
33 And you will not pollute the land that you are in. For blood, this pollutes the land.
And for the land, there is no cover-price for blood that is shed in it, except in the blood of the one who shed it.
3e 4C 25
וְלֹ֧א תְטַמֵּ֣א אֶת־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתֶּם֙ יֹשְׁבִ֣ים בָּ֔הּ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנִ֖י שֹׁכֵ֣ן בְּתוֹכָ֑הּ
כִּ֚י אֲנִ֣י יְהוָ֔ה שֹׁכֵ֕ן בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
34 And you will not defile the land that you will settle in where I am dwelling in its midst,
for I, Yahweh, dwell among the children of Israel.
3c 4C 25