Friday, June 22, 2018

A test of a whole chapter in interlinear format

Most people don't think interlinears are a good way to learn a language. I think glossaries are worse. But both are useful tools. Well, I have used them! And I can create this interleaved word form in Hebrew sequence from what I have done. This is one way of checking my readings. (It could be possible to learn to read it this way - bilingual reading - and it does summarize my reasoning.)

Here is Nehemiah 9 verse 1 - scheduled for some time in early August
1וביום and on the day עשׂרים twenty וארבעה fourth לחדשׁ of month הזה this נאספו gathered בני the children of ישׂראל Israel בצום with fasting ובשׂקים and in sackcloth ואדמה and debris from the ground עליהם upon them
The verse reads left to right like my native tongue, but the Hebrew reads in its normal sequence (each word reading right to left of course). So for instance in verse 1, twenty four (or fourth) is obviously עשׂרים וארבעה and the whole date takes 5 words in Hebrew to express including in this case the emphasis הזה added as part of the phrase. When הזה the this occurs in the sentence, the emphasis takes precedence over the immediately prior ה in the sentence. In literal English 'of the month the this' we would never read. It becomes: of this month. And the whole initial phrase: on the twenty-fourth of this month. The next bit of verse 1 is verb - third person plural masculine - subject - in construct and an implied definite article - and the children of Israel gathered. Then clearly how they gathered with fasting and in sackcloth and finally, ואדמה is interpreted from the following עליהם as meaning that they had covered themselves with some sort of debris - but I had to get ground or humus into that interpretation.(See also 2 Samuel 1:2, 15:32 same phrase) 

All the possible glosses associated with the stems for verse 1 (excluding the grammar domain) that I have used are 

אדם humanity (219) ground (195) human (182) earthling (127) adam (12) humus (7) debris ground (3) dust-bowl (1)
אסף gather (166) ingather (3) gathered sayings (1)
בן children (2,269) child (1,435) son (314) sons (149) he- (33) squab (11) untranslated (5) little (4) ben- (3) -kin (2) concerning children (2) grandson (2) kids (2) male foal (2) calve (1) children - (1) cubs (1) destiny (1) eaglet (1)
חדשׁ month (183) new moon (62) new (48) renovate (3) new thing (2)
יום day (1,126) days (745) today (179) day long (43) untranslated (13) regular (9) day span (8) two day (5) day require (2) many day (2) very day (2) days ago (1) days stretch (1) few day (1) full year (1) other day (1) plurality day (1) working day (1)
עשׂר twenty (279) untranslated (256) ten (142) tenth (72) tithe (23) eleven (14) eleventh (13) twentieth (8) tens (3) teen (1) twenty-first (1)
צום fast (42)
רבע four (208) forty (121) fourth (57) fourteen (26) fourteenth (22) four generation (4) fourth part (2) fortieth (1) four part (1) fourfold (1)
שׂק sackcloth (32)

Here's the whole chapter which if you read it, you could probably grade my paper and find some bugs in my reasoning. -- indicates no translation for the word. In verse 2 על could be rendered as concerning or the like. It is like most prepositions very flexible and in this case is interpreted as 'not required' in the English phrase. This stem is untranslated about 5% of the time.

1וביום and on the day עשׂרים twenty וארבעה fourth לחדשׁ of month הזה this נאספו gathered בני the children of ישׂראל Israel בצום with fasting ובשׂקים and in sackcloth ואדמה and debris from the ground עליהם upon them
2ויבדלו and differentiated themselves זרע the seed of ישׂראל Israel מכל among all בני the children of נכר the alien ויעמדו and they stood ויתודו and confessed על -- חטאתיהם their sins ועונות and the iniquities of אבתיהם their ancestors
3ויקומו and they arose על in עמדם their standing ויקראו and they recited בספר in the book of תורת the instruction of יהוה Yahweh אלהיהם their God רבעית a fourth part of היום the day ורבעית and a fourth part מתודים they confessed ומשׁתחוים and prostrated themselves ליהוה to Yahweh אלהיהם their God
4ויקם and arose על on מעלה the stairs הלוים the Levites ישׁוע Jeshua ובני and the children of קדמיאל Qadmiel שׁבניה Shebanyah בני Bunni שׁרביה Sherebiah בני the children of כנני Kenani ויזעקו and they appealed בקול with a voice גדול great אל to יהוה Yahweh אלהיהם their God
5ויאמרו and said הלוים the Levites ישׁוע Jeshua וקדמיאל and Qadmiel בני Bunni חשׁבניה Xashabniah שׁרביה Sherebiah הודיה Hodyah שׁבניה Shebanyah פתחיה Petaxiah קומו arise ברכו bless את -- יהוה Yahweh אלהיכם your God מן from העולם the everlasting עד to העולם the everlasting ויברכו and let them bless שׁם the name of כבודך your glory ומרומם and let it be celebrated על over כל all ברכה blessing ותהלה and praise
6אתה you are הוא he יהוה Yahweh לבדך you only אתה yourself עשׂית you have made את -- השׁמים the heavens שׁמי the heaven of השׁמים the heavens וכל and all צבאם their hosts הארץ the earth וכל and all אשׁר that עליה is on it הימים the seas וכל and all אשׁר that בהם is in them ואתה and you מחיה revive את -- כלם them all וצבא and the host of השׁמים the heavens לך you משׁתחוים worship
7אתה you are הוא he יהוה Yahweh האלהים the God אשׁר who בחרת chose באברם in Abram והוצאתו and brought him out מאור from Ur of כשׂדים Chaldea ושׂמת and set his שׁמו his name אברהם Abraham
8ומצאת and you found את -- לבבו his heart נאמן faithful לפניך before you וכרות and you cut עמו with him הברית the covenant לתת to give את -- ארץ the land of הכנעני the Canaanite החתי the Hittite האמרי the Amorite והפרזי and the Perizzite והיבוסי and the Jebusite והגרגשׁי and the Girgashite לתת to give לזרעו for his seed ותקם and you have placed את -- דבריך your words כי for צדיק a righteous one אתה you are
9ותרא and you saw את -- עני the impoverishment of אבתינו our ancestors במצרים in Egypt ואת and זעקתם their appeal שׁמעת you heard על at ים the sea of סוף reeds
10ותתן and you gave אתת signs ומפתים and portents בפרעה to Pharaoh ובכל and to all עבדיו his servants ובכל and to all עם the people of ארצו his land כי for ידעת you knew כי that הזידו they acted presumptuously עליהם over them ותעשׂ and you made לך yourself שׁם a name כהיום as at day הזה this
11והים and the sea בקעת you split לפניהם before them ויעברו and they crossed over בתוך in the midst of הים the sea ביבשׁה on dry land ואת and רדפיהם their pursuers השׁלכת you cast במצולת into the depths כמו as אבן a stone במים in waters עזים the strong
12ובעמוד and in a pillar of ענן cloud הנחיתם you guided them יומם by day ובעמוד and in a pillar of אשׁ fire לילה by night להאיר to give light להם to them את in הדרך the way אשׁר that ילכו they should walk בה in
13ועל and on הר mount סיני Sinai ירדת you came down ודבר and spoke עמהם with them משׁמים from the heavens ותתן and you gave להם them משׁפטים judgments ישׁרים upright ותורות and instruction אמת true חקים statutes ומצות and commandments טובים that are good
14ואת and שׁבת Sabbath קדשׁך your holy הודעת you made known להם to them ומצוות and commandments וחקים and statutes ותורה and instructions צוית you commanded להם them ביד by the hand of משׁה Moses עבדך your servant
15ולחם and bread משׁמים from the heavens נתתה you gave להם for them לרעבם for their hunger ומים and water מסלע from a cliff הוצאת you brought forth להם for them לצמאם for their thirst ותאמר and you said להם to them לבוא to enter לרשׁת to possess את -- הארץ the land אשׁר that נשׂאת you had lifted up את -- ידך your hand לתת to give להם them
16והם but they ואבתינו and our ancestors הזידו were presumptuous ויקשׁו and they hardened את -- ערפם their scruffs ולא and not שׁמעו they did hear אל -- מצותיך your commandments
17וימאנו and they would not לשׁמע hear ולא and not זכרו they did remember נפלאתיך your wonders אשׁר that עשׂית you did עמהם with them ויקשׁו but they hardened את -- ערפם their scruffs ויתנו and they put forth ראשׁ a head לשׁוב to return לעבדתם to their service במרים in their provocation ואתה but you אלוה are the God of סליחות pardons חנון gracious ורחום and compassionate ארך slow to אפים anger ורב and of abundant חסדי kindness ולא and not עזבתם you did forsake them
18אף indeed כי for עשׂו they made להם for themselves עגל a calf מסכה a molten image ויאמרו and said זה this is אלהיך your God אשׁר who העלך brought you up ממצרים from Egypt ויעשׂו and they undertook נאצות blasphemies גדלות great
19ואתה but you ברחמיך in your compassions הרבים many לא not עזבתם you did forsake them במדבר in the wilderness את -- עמוד the pillar of הענן cloud לא not סר did turn aside מעליהם from over them ביומם by day להנחתם to guide them בהדרך in the way ואת nor עמוד the pillar of האשׁ the fire בלילה by night להאיר as light להם for them ואת and הדרך the way אשׁר that ילכו they should walk בה in
20ורוחך and your spirit הטובה good נתת you gave להשׂכילם to give them insight ומנך and your manna לא not מנעת you did withhold מפיהם from their mouth ומים and water נתתה you gave להם for them לצמאם for their thirst
21וארבעים and forty שׁנה years כלכלתם you nourished them במדבר in the wilderness לא nothing חסרו they lacked שׂלמתיהם their apparel לא not בלו did wear out ורגליהם and their feet לא not בצקו did blister
22ותתן and you gave להם them ממלכות kingdoms ועממים and peoples ותחלקם and divisions לפאה into quarters ויירשׁו and they possessed את -- ארץ the land of סיחון Sihon ואת and ארץ the land of מלך the king of חשׁבון Heshbon ואת and ארץ the land of עוג Og מלך king of הבשׁן Bashan
23ובניהם and their children הרבית you have increased כככבי as the stars of השׁמים the heavens ותביאם and you brought them אל to הארץ the land אשׁר which אמרת you had promised לאבתיהם to their ancestors לבוא to enter לרשׁת to possess
24ויבאו and entered הבנים the children ויירשׁו and they possessed את -- הארץ the land ותכנע and you subdued לפניהם before them את -- ישׁבי the inhabitants of הארץ the land הכנענים the Canaanites ותתנם and you gave them בידם into their hands ואת and מלכיהם their kings ואת and עממי the peoples of הארץ the land לעשׂות to do בהם with them כרצונם according as they found acceptance with them
25וילכדו and they conquered ערים cities בצרות enclosed ואדמה and a ground שׁמנה stout ויירשׁו and they possessed בתים houses מלאים full of כל all טוב good ברות cisterns חצובים hewn כרמים vineyards וזיתים and olive trees ועץ and trees מאכל for food לרב in abundance ויאכלו and they ate וישׂבעו and were sated וישׁמינו and became stout ויתעדנו and enthralled themselves בטובך in goodness הגדול great
26וימרו and they were provocative וימרדו and they mutinied בך in you וישׁלכו and they flung את -- תורתך your instruction אחרי behind גום their backs ואת and נביאיך your prophets הרגו they slew אשׁר who העידו witnessed בם in them להשׁיבם to return them אליך to you ויעשׂו and they undertook נאצות blasphemies גדולת great
27ותתנם and you gave them ביד into the hand of צריהם their adversaries ויצרו and they were trouble להם to them ובעת and in the time of צרתם their trouble יצעקו they cried out אליך to you ואתה and yourself משׁמים from the heavens תשׁמע you heard וכרחמיך and according to your compassions הרבים many תתן you gave להם them מושׁיעים saviours ויושׁיעום and they saved them מיד from the hand of צריהם their adversaries
28וכנוח but as had rest להם they ישׁובו they returned לעשׂות to do רע evil לפניך before you ותעזבם and you forsook them ביד into the hand of איביהם their enemies וירדו and they ruled בהם them וישׁובו and they returned ויזעקוך and they appealed ואתה and yourself משׁמים from the heavens תשׁמע you heard ותצילם and you delivered כרחמיך according to your compassions רבות many עתים times
29ותעד and you testified בהם against them להשׁיבם to return them אל to תורתך your instruction והמה but they הזידו acted presumptuously ולא and not שׁמעו they did hear למצותיך your commandments ובמשׁפטיך but against your judgments חטאו they sinned בם -- אשׁר that יעשׂה does אדם a human וחיה so he will live בהם in them ויתנו and they put forth כתף a shoulder סוררת turned aside וערפם and their scruff הקשׁו they hardened ולא and not שׁמעו they did hear
30ותמשׁך and you drew out עליהם them שׁנים years רבות many ותעד and testified בם in them ברוחך your spirit ביד by the hand of נביאיך your prophets ולא but not האזינו they did give ear ותתנם and you gave them ביד into the hand of עמי the people of הארצת the lands
31וברחמיך but in your compassions הרבים many לא not עשׂיתם you did undertake them כלה to consume ולא and not עזבתם you did forsake them כי for אל a God חנון gracious ורחום and compassionate אתה you are
32ועתה and now אלהינו our God האל the One הגדול the Great הגבור the Valiant והנורא and the Fearful שׁומר who keeps הברית the covenant והחסד and the kindness אל not ימעט let be too little לפניך before you את -- כל all התלאה the exasperation אשׁר that מצאתנו has found us למלכינו for our kings לשׂרינו for our chiefs ולכהנינו and for our priests ולנביאנו and for our prophets ולאבתינו and for our ancestors ולכל and for all עמך your people מימי from the days of מלכי the kings of אשׁור Ashur עד to היום day הזה this
33ואתה and you are צדיק a righteous one על in כל all הבא that has come עלינו over us כי because אמת truth עשׂית you have done ואנחנו and ourselves הרשׁענו we are wicked
34ואת and מלכינו our kings שׂרינו our chiefs כהנינו our priests ואבתינו and our ancestors לא not עשׂו they did do תורתך your instruction ולא and not הקשׁיבו they did attend אל to מצותיך your commandments ולעדותיך your testimonies אשׁר which העידת you testified with בהם against them
35והם and they במלכותם in their kingdoms ובטובך and in your good הרב abundant אשׁר that נתת you gave להם to them ובארץ and in the land הרחבה broad והשׁמנה and stout אשׁר that נתת you gave לפניהם before them לא not עבדוך they did serve you ולא and not שׁבו they did turn ממעלליהם from their practices of הרעים evil
36הנה behold אנחנו we are היום today עבדים servants והארץ and the land אשׁר that נתתה you gave לאבתינו to our ancestors לאכל to eat את -- פריה its fruit ואת and טובה its good הנה behold אנחנו we are עבדים servants עליה on it
37ותבואתה and its income מרבה is increased למלכים to the kings אשׁר that נתתה you gave עלינו over us בחטאותינו in our sins ועל and over גויתינו our bodies משׁלים they govern ובבהמתנו and with our cattle כרצונם at their bidding ובצרה and in straits גדולה great אנחנו we are


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