Wednesday, February 7, 2018

Isaiah 14

Two chapters in succession! Chapter 13 was intriguing so I thought we had better continue. The restoration is in language that seems to go well beyond restoration.

Verse 4. The stem דהב is unique in the Hebrew text but recurs several times in the Aramaic where the ד substitutes for ז as in Hebrew זהב gold. It seems odd to find an Aramaic word in the Hebrew of Isaiah but not impossible. So what is מדהבה? It is in parallel to נגש which I have rendered as taskmaster, exact, harass, and exploit. The rule of money is not a rule that Solomon was ignorant of though here we are centuries later. It is not a rule that we are ignorant of either. The collapse of Babel also resonates with the message of Revelation. JB and NIV rephrase the text from other sources. "The meaning of the Hebrew word is uncertain". Indeed it is. But it seems that gold can be put in parallel to exploitation so the Aramaic solution is just fine.

Verse 5 contributes a nice pun. The משׁל proverb of verse 4 has become the משׁל governor. Verse 10 repeats the jibe.

Verse 6 is another proverb. Do not try to make sense of it. It is a riddle. It shows how exploiters bring themselves down. They powerful even turn from their ways with the stimulus of a feather.

Seraph in verse 19 seems a suitable word referring back to the vision of chapter 6. The fire is both incineration and healing, strangely enough.

Verse 1 seems positive, so I use a word that Charles Williams coined, rather than the usual glosses for this stem: lesion or deformed.

Isaiah 14 Fn Min Max Syll
כִּי֩ יְרַחֵ֨ם יְהוָ֜ה אֶֽת־יַעֲקֹ֗ב וּבָחַ֥ר עוֹד֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְהִנִּיחָ֖ם עַל־אַדְמָתָ֑ם
וְנִלְוָ֤ה הַגֵּר֙ עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם וְנִסְפְּח֖וּ עַל־בֵּ֥ית יַעֲקֹֽב
1 For Yahweh will nurture Jacob, and he will still chose Israel, and comfort them on their ground.
The guest will be allied over them, and they will co-inhere over the house of Jacob.
3e 4C 26
17
וּלְקָח֣וּם עַמִּים֮ וֶהֱבִיא֣וּם אֶל־מְקוֹמָם֒ וְהִֽתְנַחֲל֣וּם בֵּֽית־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל עַ֚ל אַדְמַ֣ת יְהוָ֔ה לַעֲבָדִ֖ים וְלִשְׁפָח֑וֹת
וְהָיוּ֙ שֹׁבִ֣ים לְשֹֽׁבֵיהֶ֔ם וְרָד֖וּ בְּנֹגְשֵׂיהֶֽם
2 And peoples will take them and bring them to their place. The house of Israel will inherit them in the ground of Yahweh as servants and as handmaidens,
and they will become captives of their captives, and they will rule in their taskmasters.
3e 4C 35
16
וְהָיָ֗ה בְּי֨וֹם הָנִ֤יחַ יְהוָה֙ לְךָ֔ מֵֽעָצְבְּךָ֖ וּמֵרָגְזֶ֑ךָ
וּמִן־הָעֲבֹדָ֥ה הַקָּשָׁ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עֻבַּד־בָּֽךְ
3 And it will happen in the day Yahweh has given rest to you from your hardship, and from your shuddering,
and from the hard service that he had served in you.
3e 4C 21
14
וְנָשָׂ֜אתָ הַמָּשָׁ֥ל הַזֶּ֛ה עַל־מֶ֥לֶךְ בָּבֶ֖ל וְאָמָ֑רְתָּ
אֵ֚יךְ שָׁבַ֣ת נֹגֵ֔שׂ שָׁבְתָ֖ה מַדְהֵבָֽה
4 So lift up this proverb on the king of Babel, and you say,
How the exploiter has ceased! Ceased is the reach of gold.
3d 4C 18
10
שָׁבַ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה מַטֵּ֣ה רְשָׁעִ֑ים
שֵׁ֖בֶט מֹשְׁלִֽים
5 Yahweh has shattered the rod of the wicked,
the sceptre of governors.
3e 4B 9
4
מַכֶּ֤ה עַמִּים֙ בְּעֶבְרָ֔ה מַכַּ֖ת בִּלְתִּ֣י סָרָ֑ה
רֹדֶ֤ה בָאַף֙ גּוֹיִ֔ם מֻרְדָּ֖ף בְּלִ֥י חָשָֽׂךְ
6 The one who struck peoples in fury is struck without revolt.
The one who ruled nations in anger is pursued without resistance.
3e 4C 13
12
נָ֥חָה שָׁקְטָ֖ה כָּל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
פָּצְח֖וּ רִנָּֽה
7 f At rest, quiet, is all the earth.
They erupt with a loud shout.
3e 4A 8
4
גַּם־בְּרוֹשִׁ֛ים שָׂמְח֥וּ לְךָ֖ אַרְזֵ֣י לְבָנ֑וֹן
מֵאָ֣ז שָׁכַ֔בְתָּ לֹֽא־יַעֲלֶ֥ה הַכֹּרֵ֖ת עָלֵֽינוּ
8 Even the fir trees are glad for you, the cedars of Lebanon.
Ever since you lay down, no cutters have come up over us.
3d 4B 13
14
שְׁא֗וֹל מִתַּ֛חַת רָגְזָ֥ה לְךָ֖ לִקְרַ֣את בּוֹאֶ֑ךָ
עוֹרֵ֨ר לְךָ֤ רְפָאִים֙ כָּל־עַתּ֣וּדֵי אָ֔רֶץ הֵקִים֙ מִכִּסְאוֹתָ֔ם כֹּ֖ל מַלְכֵ֥י גוֹיִֽם
9 Sheol beneath shudders for you, to encounter your entry.
It arouses for you the titans, all the competent of earth, raising from their thrones all the kings of nations.
3d 4C 14
24
כֻּלָּ֣ם יַֽעֲנ֔וּ וְיֹאמְר֖וּ אֵלֶ֑יךָ
גַּם־אַתָּ֛ה חֻלֵּ֥יתָ כָמ֖וֹנוּ אֵלֵ֥ינוּ נִמְשָֽׁלְתָּ
10 All of them will answer and say to you,
Even you, you are ill like us. To us you are a proverb.
3d 4B 11
15
הוּרַ֥ד שְׁא֛וֹל גְּאוֹנֶ֖ךָ הֶמְיַ֣ת נְבָלֶ֑יךָ
תַּחְתֶּ֙יךָ֙ יֻצַּ֣ע רִמָּ֔ה וּמְכַסֶּ֖יךָ תּוֹלֵעָֽה
11 Your pride is brought down to Sheol, the snarling of your corpses.
Under you, maggot is spread out and a worm covers you.
3d 4B 14
14
אֵ֛יךְ נָפַ֥לְתָּ מִשָּׁמַ֖יִם הֵילֵ֣ל בֶּן־שָׁ֑חַר
נִגְדַּ֣עְתָּ לָאָ֔רֶץ חוֹלֵ֖שׁ עַל־גּוֹיִֽם
12 d How you are fallen from the heavens, tormented child of dawn,
truncated to the earth, vanquished over nations.
3d 4B 12
11
וְאַתָּ֞ה אָמַ֤רְתָּ בִֽלְבָבְךָ֙ הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם אֶֽעֱלֶ֔ה מִמַּ֥עַל לְכֽוֹכְבֵי־אֵ֖ל אָרִ֣ים כִּסְאִ֑י
וְאֵשֵׁ֥ב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵ֖ד בְּיַרְכְּתֵ֥י צָפֽוֹן
13 And yourself, you said in your heart, I will ascend to the heavens. Above the stars of the One I will exalt my throne,
and I will sit on the hill of engagement by the flanks of the north.
3e 4C 26
13
אֶעֱלֶ֖ה עַל־בָּ֣מֳתֵי עָ֑ב
אֶדַּמֶּ֖ה לְעֶלְיֽוֹן
14 I will ascend over the high places of a thick cloud.
I will be like the Most High.
3e 4B 8
6
אַ֧ךְ אֶל־שְׁא֛וֹל תּוּרָ֖ד אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵי־בֽוֹר 15 c Surely to Sheol you will descend into the flanks of a pit. 3c 3g 11
רֹאֶ֙יךָ֙ אֵלֶ֣יךָ יַשְׁגִּ֔יחוּ אֵלֶ֖יךָ יִתְבּוֹנָ֑נוּ
הֲזֶ֤ה הָאִישׁ֙ מַרְגִּ֣יז הָאָ֔רֶץ מַרְעִ֖ישׁ מַמְלָכֽוֹת
16 They who see you will peer on you, will discern you,
Is this the person that made the earth shudder, that made kingdoms quake?
3e 4C 16
14
שָׂ֥ם תֵּבֵ֛ל כַּמִּדְבָּ֖ר וְעָרָ֣יו הָרָ֑ס
אֲסִירָ֖יו לֹא־פָ֥תַח בָּֽיְתָה
17 f That set the world as a wilderness and its cities overthrew.
for his prisoners, he did not open a way to hearth and home.
3d 4B 11
7
כָּל־מַלְכֵ֥י גוֹיִ֖ם כֻּלָּ֑ם
שָׁכְב֥וּ בְכָב֖וֹד אִ֥ישׁ בְּבֵיתֽוֹ
18 All kings of nations, all of them,
they lie down in glory, each in his house.
3e 4A 7
9
וְאַתָּ֞ה הָשְׁלַ֤כְתָּ מִֽקִּבְרְךָ֙ כְּנֵ֣צֶר נִתְעָ֔ב לְב֥וּשׁ הֲרֻגִ֖ים מְטֹ֣עֲנֵי חָ֑רֶב
יוֹרְדֵ֥י אֶל־אַבְנֵי־ב֖וֹר כְּפֶ֥גֶר מוּבָֽס
19 But you, you are cast from your tomb like an abhorrent scion, the raiment of the slain stabbed by sword,
descending to the stones of a pit as a carcass trodden down.
3e 4C 26
11
לֹֽא־תֵחַ֤ד אִתָּם֙ בִּקְבוּרָ֔ה כִּֽי־אַרְצְךָ֥ שִׁחַ֖תָּ עַמְּךָ֣ הָרָ֑גְתָּ
לֹֽא־יִקָּרֵ֥א לְעוֹלָ֖ם זֶ֥רַע מְרֵעִֽים
20 You will not be united with them in a tomb, for your land you destroyed, your people you have slain.
The seed of evildoers will not be acclaimed forever.
3e 4C 19
11
הָכִ֧ינוּ לְבָנָ֛יו מַטְבֵּ֖חַ בַּעֲוֺ֣ן אֲבוֹתָ֑ם
בַּל־יָקֻ֙מוּ֙ וְיָ֣רְשׁוּ אָ֔רֶץ וּמָלְא֥וּ פְנֵֽי־תֵבֵ֖ל עָרִֽים
21 Prepare slaughter for his children in the iniquity of their ancestors.
They will not arise or possess land or fill the face of the world with cities.
3c 4B 15
17
וְקַמְתִּ֣י עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֣ה צְבָא֑וֹת
וְהִכְרַתִּ֨י לְבָבֶ֜ל שֵׁ֥ם וּשְׁאָ֛ר וְנִ֥ין וָנֶ֖כֶד נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה
22 And I will arise over them, an oracle of Yahweh of hosts.
And I will cut off for Babel, name and residue and posterity and descendant, an oracle of Yahweh.
3d 4B 13
19
וְשַׂמְתִּ֛יהָ לְמוֹרַ֥שׁ קִפֹּ֖ד וְאַגְמֵי־מָ֑יִם
וְטֵֽאטֵאתִ֙יהָ֙ בְּמַטְאֲטֵ֣א הַשְׁמֵ֔ד נְאֻ֖ם יְהוָ֥ה צְבָאֽוֹת
23 But I will set it as a possession of porcupine, and pools of water,
and I will hurl it down in the mire of extermination, an oracle of Yahweh of hosts.
3d 4B 13
18
נִשְׁבַּ֛ע יְהוָ֥ה צְבָא֖וֹת לֵאמֹ֑ר
אִם־לֹ֞א כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר דִּמִּ֙יתִי֙ כֵּ֣ן הָיָ֔תָה וְכַאֲשֶׁ֥ר יָעַ֖צְתִּי הִ֥יא תָקֽוּם
24 Yahweh of hosts has sworn, saying,
Without fail, as my likeness, so is my becoming, and as I advise, it will arise.
3d 4C 9
22
לִשְׁבֹּ֤ר אַשּׁוּר֙ בְּאַרְצִ֔י וְעַל־הָרַ֖י אֲבוּסֶ֑נּוּ
וְסָ֤ר מֵֽעֲלֵיהֶם֙ עֻלּ֔וֹ וְסֻ֨בֳּל֔וֹ מֵעַ֥ל שִׁכְמ֖וֹ יָסֽוּר
25 To break Ashur in my land, and over my mountains tread him down,
and his shackle will be put aside from them, and his burden from his backside will be put aside.
3e 4C 15
18
זֹ֛את הָעֵצָ֥ה הַיְּעוּצָ֖ה עַל־כָּל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וְזֹ֛את הַיָּ֥ד הַנְּטוּיָ֖ה עַל־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִֽם
26 d This is the counsel that is counseled over all the earth,
and this the hand stretched out over all the nations.
3d 4A 12
12
כִּֽי־יְהוָ֧ה צְבָא֛וֹת יָעָ֖ץ וּמִ֣י יָפֵ֑ר
וְיָד֥וֹ הַנְּטוּיָ֖ה וּֽמִ֥י יְשִׁיבֶֽנָּה
27 For Yahweh of hosts has advised and who will annul?
And his hand is stretched out and who will turn it away?
3c 4B 13
12
בִּשְׁנַת־מ֖וֹת הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ אָחָ֑ז
הָיָ֖ה הַמַּשָּׂ֥א הַזֶּֽה
28 In the year of the death of the king Ahaz,
was this load.
3e 4B 8
7
אַֽל־תִּשְׂמְחִ֤י פְלֶ֙שֶׁת֙ כֻּלֵּ֔ךְ כִּ֥י נִשְׁבַּ֖ר שֵׁ֣בֶט מַכֵּ֑ךְ
כִּֽי־מִשֹּׁ֤רֶשׁ נָחָשׁ֙ יֵ֣צֵא צֶ֔פַע וּפִרְי֖וֹ שָׂרָ֥ף מְעוֹפֵֽף
29 Do not be glad, Philistia, any of you, that the sceptre of the one who struck you is broken,
for from the root of the snake will emerge an anaconda, and its fruit is a flying seraph.
3e 4C 16
17
וְרָעוּ֙ בְּכוֹרֵ֣י דַלִּ֔ים וְאֶבְיוֹנִ֖ים לָבֶ֣טַח יִרְבָּ֑צוּ
וְהֵמַתִּ֤י בָֽרָעָב֙ שָׁרְשֵׁ֔ךְ וּשְׁאֵרִיתֵ֖ךְ יַהֲרֹֽג
30 And the firstborn of the weak and the needy will graze. In trust they will recline,
and I will put to death in scarcity your root, and your residue he will slay.
3e 4C 18
16
הֵילִ֤ילִֽי שַׁ֙עַר֙ זַֽעֲקִי־עִ֔יר נָמ֖וֹג פְּלֶ֣שֶׁת כֻּלֵּ֑ךְ
כִּ֤י מִצָּפוֹן֙ עָשָׁ֣ן בָּ֔א וְאֵ֥ין בּוֹדֵ֖ד בְּמוֹעָדָֽיו
31 Howl O gate, appeal O city. Philistia is softened, all of you.
For from the north, smoke will come, and there is none isolated in its appointed time.
3e 4C 16
15
וּמַֽה־יַּעֲנֶ֖ה מַלְאֲכֵי־ג֑וֹי
כִּ֤י יְהוָה֙ יִסַּ֣ד צִיּ֔וֹן וּבָ֥הּ יֶחֱס֖וּ עֲנִיֵּ֥י עַמּֽוֹ
32 And what will one answer the messengers of a nation?
For Yahweh has founded Zion, and in her the poor of his people will take refuge.
3e 4C 9
17