Monday, February 12, 2018

1 Kings 5

I don't know quite how to read the משׁל governance issue of Solomon. It sounds to me like he was a powerful business magnate (not their king מלך) with a number of powerful friends in neighboring countries. I never get the impression that e.g. Hiram is subject to Solomon.

Equally, the emphasis on Solomon's wisdom, חכם, reads to me as overdone.  As if to say, if you really believe this, I have a bridge to sell you. I am not alone in criticizing Solomon. I have the remembered company of Walter Bruggemann. One of the reasons for my use of both shrewdness and wisdom for חכם is exactly the irony of the too-often repeated claim.

The antecedent list of monitors / administrators (verse 7)  is in the prior chapter. The verse appears to be out of place. The mixed metaphor of verse 9 is another allusion to chapter 4. The verse and chapter numbers here are different between the English and the Hebrew.

The depicted golden age of verse 18 is clearly a temporary respite if indeed we can read this as accurate. The tensions within the kingdom of Israel explode at the beginning of Solomon's reign and at the end. Too much gold, too many horses, too many women, use of enforced service. These are the nub of my critical reading.

Verse 28 בביתו might 'mean' at home, but that's not explicit to my reading.

1 Kings 5 Fn Min Max Syll
וּשְׁלֹמֹ֗ה הָיָ֤ה מוֹשֵׁל֙ בְּכָל־הַמַּמְלָכ֔וֹת מִן־הַנָּהָר֙ אֶ֣רֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וְעַ֖ד גְּב֣וּל מִצְרָ֑יִם
מַגִּשִׁ֥ים מִנְחָ֛ה וְעֹבְדִ֥ים אֶת־שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה כָּל־יְמֵ֥י חַיָּֽיו
1 And Solomon had governance with all the kingdoms from the river of the land of the Philistines, and to the border of Egypt.
They made overture with a gift, and served Solomon all the days of his life.
3d 4C 29
17
וַיְהִ֥י לֶֽחֶם־שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה לְי֣וֹם אֶחָ֑ד
שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים כֹּר֙ סֹ֔לֶת וְשִׁשִּׁ֥ים כֹּ֖ר קָֽמַח
2 And the bread of Solomon for one day was,
thirty cor of fine flour and sixty cor of flour,
3e 4B 11
12
עֲשָׂרָ֨ה בָקָ֜ר בְּרִאִ֗ים וְעֶשְׂרִ֥ים בָּקָ֛ר רְעִ֖י וּמֵ֣אָה צֹ֑אן
לְ֠בַד מֵֽאַיָּ֤ל וּצְבִי֙ וְיַחְמ֔וּר וּבַרְבֻּרִ֖ים אֲבוּסִֽים
3 Ten firm oxen and twenty oxen of the pasture and one hundred sheep,
besides hart and gazelle and roebuck and stuffed geese.
3d 4C 19
17
כִּי־ה֞וּא רֹדֶ֣ה ׀ בְּכָל־עֵ֣בֶר הַנָּהָ֗ר מִתִּפְסַח֙ וְעַד־עַזָּ֔ה בְּכָל־מַלְכֵ֖י עֵ֣בֶר הַנָּהָ֑ר
וְשָׁל֗וֹם הָ֥יָה ל֛וֹ מִכָּל־עֲבָרָ֖יו מִסָּבִֽיב
4 For he ruled in all beyond the river from Tipsah and to Gaza among all the kings beyond the river,
and peace was his from all his thoroughfares round about.
3d 4B 26
14
וַיֵּשֶׁב֩ יְהוּדָ֨ה וְיִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל לָבֶ֗טַח אִ֣ישׁ תַּ֤חַת גַּפְנוֹ֙ וְתַ֣חַת תְּאֵֽנָת֔וֹ מִדָּ֖ן וְעַד־בְּאֵ֣ר שָׁ֑בַע
כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֥י שְׁלֹמֹֽה
5 And Judah and Israel settled in trust, everyone under their vine and under their fig tree from Dan and to Beer-Sheva,
all the days of Solomon.
3e 4C 33
6
וַיְהִ֣י לִשְׁלֹמֹ֗ה אַרְבָּעִ֥ים אֶ֛לֶף אֻרְוֺ֥ת סוּסִ֖ים לְמֶרְכָּב֑וֹ
וּשְׁנֵים־עָשָׂ֥ר אֶ֖לֶף פָּרָשִֽׁים
6 And Solomon had forty thousand corrals of horses for his chariots,
and twelve thousand cavalry.
3d 4B 18
9
וְכִלְכְּלוּ֩ הַנִּצָּבִ֨ים הָאֵ֜לֶּה אֶת־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֗ה וְאֵ֧ת כָּל־הַקָּרֵ֛ב אֶל־שֻׁלְחַ֥ן הַמֶּֽלֶךְ־שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה אִ֣ישׁ חָדְשׁ֑וֹ
לֹ֥א יְעַדְּר֖וּ דָּבָֽר
7 These monitors nourished the king Solomon and all approaching to the table of king Solomon, each his month,
lagging in no matter.
3c 4B 36
6
וְהַשְּׂעֹרִ֣ים וְהַתֶּ֔בֶן לַסּוּסִ֖ים וְלָרָ֑כֶשׁ
יָבִ֗אוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִֽהְיֶה־שָּׁ֔ם אִ֖ישׁ כְּמִשְׁפָּטֽוֹ
8 And barley and straw for the horses and for the steeds,
they brought to the place where each was, according to his judgment.
3e 4B 15
17
וַיִּתֵּן֩ אֱלֹהִ֨ים חָכְמָ֧ה לִשְׁלֹמֹ֛ה וּתְבוּנָ֖ה הַרְבֵּ֣ה מְאֹ֑ד
וְרֹ֣חַב לֵ֔ב כַּח֕וֹל אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־שְׂפַ֥ת הַיָּֽם
9 And God gave shrewdness to Solomon, and very abundant acumen,
and breadth of heart, as the sand that is by the bank of the sea.
3c 4B 18
13
וַתֵּ֙רֶב֙ חָכְמַ֣ת שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה מֵֽחָכְמַ֖ת כָּל־בְּנֵי־קֶ֑דֶם
וּמִכֹּ֖ל חָכְמַ֥ת מִצְרָֽיִם
10 And the shrewdness of Solomon exceeded the shrewdness of all the children of antiquity,
and all the shrewdness of Egypt.
3e 4B 15
8
וַיֶּחְכַּם֮ מִכָּל־הָֽאָדָם֒ מֵאֵיתָ֣ן הָאֶזְרָחִ֗י וְהֵימָ֧ן וְכַלְכֹּ֛ל וְדַרְדַּ֖ע בְּנֵ֣י מָח֑וֹל
וַיְהִֽי־שְׁמ֥וֹ בְכָֽל־הַגּוֹיִ֖ם סָבִֽיב
11 For he was wiser than any human, whether Ethan the Ezrahite, or Heyman, or Kalkol, or Darda, the children of Maxul,
and his reputation was among all the nations surrounding.
3c 4B 28
11
וַיְדַבֵּ֕ר שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֖ים מָשָׁ֑ל
וַיְהִ֥י שִׁיר֖וֹ חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה וָאָֽלֶף
12 And he spoke three thousand proverbs,
and his songs were a thousand and five.
3e 4A 11
10
וַיְדַבֵּר֮ עַל־הָֽעֵצִים֒ מִן־הָאֶ֙רֶז֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּלְּבָנ֔וֹן וְעַד֙ הָאֵז֔וֹב אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֹצֵ֖א בַּקִּ֑יר
וַיְדַבֵּר֙ עַל־הַבְּהֵמָ֣ה וְעַל־הָע֔וֹף וְעַל־הָרֶ֖מֶשׂ וְעַל־הַדָּגִֽים
13 And he spoke concerning the wood from the cedar that was in Lebanon, and to the hyssop that goes out from a house wall,
and he spoke on the beast and on the fowl and on the creeper and on the fish.
3e 4B 27
21
וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ מִכָּל־הָ֣עַמִּ֔ים לִשְׁמֹ֕עַ אֵ֖ת חָכְמַ֣ת שְׁלֹמֹ֑ה
מֵאֵת֙ כָּל־מַלְכֵ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר שָׁמְע֖וּ אֶת־חָכְמָתֽוֹ
14 And they came from all the peoples to hear the shrewdness of Solomon,
from the kings of the earth who had heard of his shrewdness.
3e 4B 17
16
וַ֠יִּשְׁלַח חִירָ֨ם מֶֽלֶךְ־צ֤וֹר אֶת־עֲבָדָיו֙ אֶל־שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה כִּ֣י שָׁמַ֔ע כִּ֥י אֹת֛וֹ מָשְׁח֥וּ לְמֶ֖לֶךְ תַּ֣חַת אָבִ֑יהוּ
כִּ֣י אֹהֵ֗ב הָיָ֥ה חִירָ֛ם לְדָוִ֖ד כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים
15 ~ And Hiram the king of Tyre sent his servants to Solomon for he had heard that they had anointed him king instead of his father,
for Hiram loved David throughout his days.
3d 4C 32
14
וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה אֶל־חִירָ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר 16 And Solomon sent to Hiram, saying, 3e 4B 11
אַתָּ֨ה יָדַ֜עְתָּ אֶת־דָּוִ֣ד אָבִ֗י כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יָכֹל֙ לִבְנ֣וֹת בַּ֗יִת לְשֵׁם֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֔יו מִפְּנֵ֥י הַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר סְבָבֻ֑הוּ
עַ֤ד תֵּת־יְהוָה֙ אֹתָ֔ם תַּ֖חַת כַּפּ֥וֹת רַגְלָֽי
17 Yourself you know that David my father was not able to build a house to the name of Yahweh his God, in the face of the battle that was surrounding him,
until Yahweh consigned them under the soles of my feet.
3e 4C 37
12
וְעַתָּ֕ה הֵנִ֨יחַ יְהוָ֧ה אֱלֹהַ֛י לִ֖י מִסָּבִ֑יב
אֵ֣ין שָׂטָ֔ן וְאֵ֖ין פֶּ֥גַע רָֽע
18 And now Yahweh my God has given rest to me all around.
There is no accuser and there is no compelling evil.
3c 4B 15
8
וְהִנְנִ֣י אֹמֵ֔ר לִבְנ֣וֹת בַּ֔יִת לְשֵׁ֖ם יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֑י
כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ דִּבֶּ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה אֶל־דָּוִ֤ד אָבִי֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר בִּנְךָ֗ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֶתֵּ֤ן תַּחְתֶּ֙יךָ֙ עַל־כִּסְאֶ֔ךָ הֽוּא־יִבְנֶ֥ה הַבַּ֖יִת לִשְׁמִֽי
19 So behold me, promising to build a house to the name of Yahweh my God.
It is as Yahweh spoke to David my father, saying, Your son, that I will permit instead of you on your throne, he himself will build the house for my name.
3e 4C 16
35
וְעַתָּ֡ה צַוֵּה֩ וְיִכְרְתוּ־לִ֨י אֲרָזִ֜ים מִן־הַלְּבָנ֗וֹן וַֽעֲבָדַי֙ יִהְי֣וּ עִם־עֲבָדֶ֔יךָ וּשְׂכַ֤ר עֲבָדֶ֙יךָ֙ אֶתֵּ֣ן לְךָ֔ כְּכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֹּאמֵ֑ר
כִּ֣י ׀ אַתָּ֣ה יָדַ֗עְתָּ כִּ֣י אֵ֥ין בָּ֛נוּ אִ֛ישׁ יֹדֵ֥עַ לִכְרָת־עֵצִ֖ים כַּצִּדֹנִֽים
20 And now command that they cut for me cedar from Lebanon, and my servants will be with your servants, and wage for your servants I will give you according to all that you say,
for you you know that there is no builder that knows how to cut lumber like the Sidonians.
3d 4C 44
22
וַיְהִ֞י כִּשְׁמֹ֧עַ חִירָ֛ם אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֥י שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה וַיִּשְׂמַ֣ח מְאֹ֑ד
וַיֹּ֗אמֶר בָּר֤וּךְ יְהוָה֙ הַיּ֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתַ֤ן לְדָוִד֙ בֵּ֣ן חָכָ֔ם עַל־הָעָ֥ם הָרָ֖ב הַזֶּֽה
21 And it happened when Hiram heard the words of Solomon, he was very glad,
and he said, Blessed is Yahweh today that he has given to David a wise son over this abundant people.
3c 4C 18
26
וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח חִירָם֙ אֶל־שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה לֵאמֹ֔ר שָׁמַ֕עְתִּי אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־שָׁלַ֖חְתָּ אֵלָ֑י
אֲנִ֤י אֶֽעֱשֶׂה֙ אֶת־כָּל־חֶפְצְךָ֔ בַּעֲצֵ֥י אֲרָזִ֖ים וּבַעֲצֵ֥י בְרוֹשִֽׁים
22 And Hiram sent to Solomon, saying, I have heard what you sent me.
I myself will deal with all your delight in cedar trees and in fir trees.
3e 4C 22
23
עֲ֠בָדַי יֹרִ֨דוּ מִן־הַלְּבָנ֜וֹן יָ֗מָּה וַ֠אֲנִי אֲשִׂימֵ֨ם דֹּבְר֤וֹת בַּיָּם֙ עַֽד־הַמָּק֞וֹם אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁלַ֥ח אֵלַ֛י וְנִפַּצְתִּ֥ים שָׁ֖ם וְאַתָּ֣ה תִשָּׂ֑א
וְאַתָּה֙ תַּעֲשֶׂ֣ה אֶת־חֶפְצִ֔י לָתֵ֖ת לֶ֥חֶם בֵּיתִֽי
23 ~ My servants will come down from Lebanon to the sea, and I will have them towed by sea to the place where you send me, and I will have them disembarked there,
and you will assume liability and you will undertake my delight to give bread for my house.
3d 4C 42
15
וַיְהִ֨י חִיר֜וֹם נֹתֵ֣ן לִשְׁלֹמֹ֗ה עֲצֵ֧י אֲרָזִ֛ים וַעֲצֵ֥י בְרוֹשִׁ֖ים כָּל־חֶפְצֽוֹ 24 So it was that Hiram gave Solomon cedar trees and fir trees, all his delight. 3c 4B 23
וּשְׁלֹמֹה֩ נָתַ֨ן לְחִירָ֜ם עֶשְׂרִים֩ אֶ֨לֶף כֹּ֤ר חִטִּים֙ מַכֹּ֣לֶת לְבֵית֔וֹ וְעֶשְׂרִ֥ים כֹּ֖ר שֶׁ֣מֶן כָּתִ֑ית
כֹּֽה־יִתֵּ֧ן שְׁלֹמֹ֛ה לְחִירָ֖ם שָׁנָ֥ה בְשָׁנָֽה
25 And Solomon gave to Hiram twenty thousand cor of wheat for food for his household, and twenty cor of beaten oil.
Thus Solomon gave to Hiram year in year out.
3c 4C 29
14
וַיהוָ֗ה נָתַ֤ן חָכְמָה֙ לִשְׁלֹמֹ֔ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּר־ל֑וֹ
וַיְהִ֣י שָׁלֹ֗ם בֵּ֤ין חִירָם֙ וּבֵ֣ין שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה וַיִּכְרְת֥וּ בְרִ֖ית שְׁנֵיהֶֽם
26 And Yahweh gave shrewdness to Solomon as he spoke to him,
and there was peace between Hiram and Solomon, and they cut a covenant, the two of them.
3e 4C 15
21
וַיַּ֨עַל הַמֶּ֧לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֛ה מַ֖ס מִכָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיְהִ֣י הַמַּ֔ס שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף אִֽישׁ
27 And the king Solomon got up enforced service from all Israel,
and it was enforced service of thirty thousand men.
3c 4B 15
10
וַיִּשְׁלָחֵ֣ם לְבָנ֗וֹנָה עֲשֶׂ֨רֶת אֲלָפִ֤ים בַּחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ חֲלִיפ֔וֹת חֹ֚דֶשׁ יִהְי֣וּ בַלְּבָנ֔וֹן שְׁנַ֥יִם חֳדָשִׁ֖ים בְּבֵית֑וֹ
וַאֲדֹנִירָ֖ם עַל־הַמַּֽס
28 And he sent them to Lebanon, ten thousand a month as renewal. A month they were in Lebanon and two months in his house,
and Adoniram was over the enforced service.
3e 4C 35
8
וַיְהִ֧י לִשְׁלֹמֹ֛ה שִׁבְעִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף נֹשֵׂ֣א סַבָּ֑ל
וּשְׁמֹנִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף חֹצֵ֥ב בָּהָֽר
29 And Solomon had seventy thousand to bear burdens,
and eighty thousand to hew in the hill,
3c 4B 13
9
לְ֠בַד מִשָּׂרֵ֨י הַנִּצָּבִ֤ים לִשְׁלֹמֹה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הַמְּלָאכָ֔ה שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֖ים וּשְׁלֹ֣שׁ מֵא֑וֹת
הָרֹדִ֣ים בָּעָ֔ם הָעֹשִׂ֖ים בַּמְּלָאכָֽה
30 ~ Besides the chiefs of the monitors for Solomon that were over the lines of work, three thousand three hundred,
the rulers over the people who constructed in the lines of work.
3e 4C 28
11
וַיְצַ֣ו הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ וַיַּסִּעוּ֩ אֲבָנִ֨ים גְּדֹל֜וֹת אֲבָנִ֧ים יְקָר֛וֹת לְיַסֵּ֥ד הַבָּ֖יִת אַבְנֵ֥י גָזִֽית 31 And the king commanded and they pulled out great stones, precious stones for the foundation of the house, gems of cut-stone. 3c 4B 31
וַֽיִּפְסְל֞וּ בֹּנֵ֧י שְׁלֹמֹ֛ה וּבֹנֵ֥י חִיר֖וֹם וְהַגִּבְלִ֑ים
וַיָּכִ֛ינוּ הָעֵצִ֥ים וְהָאֲבָנִ֖ים לִבְנ֥וֹת הַבָּֽיִת
32 And the builders of Solomon and the builders of Hiram sculpted and the Gebalites.
So they prepared the timber and the stones to build the house.
3c 4A 18
17