Thursday, April 12, 2018

The doubling of death

Nearly at the end of my tether, I am looking at these verses where the stem מות occurs doubled. Questions still in me are - is doubling always for emphasis? If or if not, how does one phrase it or think about it? I want to compare these to the unique בן מות (lit. son of death) in 2 Samuel 12:5 which JB and NIV render worthy of death. [Actually I found 16 more -  surprising I missed them, must not have checked correctly.] And KJV renders will surely die, the same phrase they use for Gen 2:17.

Not all the doubled stems below are doubled in the same phrase. Some like the unique 2 Kings 7:4, are within if-then constructs. Zechariah is a unique form.

13 have the form of Genesis 2:14. Another 23 are like Genesis 26:11, a legal formulation.

The form of the word תמתון in Genesis 3 occurs only one other time, in Isaiah 22:14, a plural for the unity of all, whether the pair or the country. The alternative ending may be from Aramaic influence on spelling. Perhaps it is no more significant than doeth or do in English. (There is a similar form with full spelling in Psalms 82:7.) As far as I can see, the ending for this second person imperfect plural is simply an alternative spelling.

My tether is maximum awkwardness in English glossing! How I wish I could simply accept the assumption that emphasis is the purpose of some of these doubles. One day I will have to find them all again and change them to variations on put to death.

Genesis 2.17מ֥וֹת תָּמֽוּתBut from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you will not eat from it, for in the day of your eating from it, to die you will die.
Genesis 3.4לֹֽא־מ֖וֹת תְּמֻתֽוּןAnd the snake said to the woman,
To die you will die? No.
Genesis 20.7כִּי־מ֣וֹת תָּמ֔וּתSo now, return the wife of the man, for a prophet he is, and he will intercede for you, then you will live. And if it is not in you to restore, know that to die you will die, you and all that are yours.
Genesis 26.11מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽתAnd Abimelek gave all the people command, saying, Who touches this man or his wife will be put to death.
Exodus 19.12מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽתAnd you will set borders for the people round about, saying, keep yourselves from going up on the hill and from touching its limit. Anything that touches the hill will be put to death.
Exodus 21.12וָמֵ֖ת מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽתWho strikes a person who then dies will be put to death.
Exodus 21.12וָמֵ֖ת מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽתWho strikes a person who then dies will be put to death.
Exodus 21.15מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽתAnd who strikes his father or his mother will be put to death.
Exodus 21.16מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת And one who steals someone and sells him, or if he is found in his hand, will be put to death.
Exodus 21.17מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת And who slights his father or his mother will be put to death.
Exodus 22.18מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת Anyone who lies down with a beast will be put to death.
Exodus 31.14מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֔תAnd you will keep the Sabbath, for holy she is to you. Whoever profanes her will be put to death, for all doing trade in her will be cut off, this group from near her peoples.
Exodus 31.15מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽתSix days trade will be done, and on the seventh day is the Sabbath of Sabbaths, holy to Yahweh. All doing trade on the day of the Sabbath will be put to death.
Leviticus 20.2מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֑תAnd to the children of Israel you will say, Any person among the children of Israel or from the guest residing in Israel, who will give from his seed to Moloch will be put to death. The people of the land will crowd him with stone.
Leviticus 20.9מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֑תFor any person that makes light of his father or his mother will be put to death. His father or his mother he slighted. His blood is on himself.
Leviticus 20.10מֽוֹת־יוּמַ֥תAnd anyone that commits adultery with the wife of another, that commits adultery with the wife of his associate, the adulterer and the adulteress will be put to death.
Leviticus 20.11מֽוֹת־יוּמְת֥וּAnd anyone that lies down with the wife of his father, the nakedness of his father he has uncovered. To die they will die, the two of them. Their blood is on them.
Leviticus 20.12מ֥וֹת יוּמְת֖וּAnd anyone that lies down with his daughter-in-law, to die they will die, the two of them. Mayhem they have done. Their blood is on them.
Leviticus 20.13מ֥וֹת יוּמָ֖תוּAnd anyone that lies down with a male as the lying down of a woman, an abomination they have done, the two of them. To die they will die. Their blood is on them.
Leviticus 20.15מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֑ת And anyone that will give his emission into a beast will be put to death, and the beast you will slay.
Leviticus 20.16מ֥וֹת יוּמָ֖תוּAnd a woman who approaches to any beast to copulate with it, you will slay the woman and the beast. To die they will die. Their blood is on them.
Leviticus 20.27 יִדְּעֹנִ֖י מ֣וֹתAnd a man or a woman that has in them necromancy or wizardry, to die they will die. With stone you will crowd them. Their blood is on them.
Leviticus 24.16מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֔תAnd one who drills the name of Yahweh will be put to death. All the assembly will crowd against him. As the guest, as the native, in drilling the name, will be put to death.
Leviticus 24.17מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽתAnd anyone that strikes any human being will be put to death.
Leviticus 27.29מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽתAll that is devoted that is devoted from the human is not ransomed. It will be put to death.
Numbers 6.9וְכִֽי־יָמ֨וּת מֵ֤תBut when one dies a sudden death about it suddenly, and makes unclean the head of its consecration, then it will shave its head on the day of its cleansing. On the seventh day, it will shave it.
Numbers 15.35מ֥וֹת יוּמַ֖תAnd Yahweh said to Moses the person will be put to death. All the assembly are to crowd him with stones outside the camp.
Numbers 26.65מ֥וֹת יָמֻ֖תוּFor Yahweh had said to them, Death they will die in the wilderness,
and there was left of them no person except Caleb child of Jepunah and Joshua child of Nun.
Numbers 35.16 ה֑וּא מ֥וֹתAnd if with an instrument of iron he struck him, and he died, a murderer he is.
The murderer will be put to death.
Numbers 35.17מ֥וֹת יוּמַ֖תAnd if with a stone by hand that he dies by it. He struck him and he died, a murderer he is.
The murderer will be put to death.
Numbers 35.21וַיָּמֹ֔ת מֽוֹת־יוּמַ֥תOr in enmity he struck him with his hand and he died, he who struck will be put to death. A murderer he is.
The one redeeming the blood will put to death the murderer, when he comes across him.
Numbers 35.31לָמ֑וּת כִּי־מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽתAnd you will not take a cover-price for the cadaver of a murderer that is condemned to die,
for he will be put to death.
Deuteronomy 17.6 יוּמַ֣ת הַמֵּ֑ת לֹ֣א יוּמַ֔תAt the mouth of two witnesses or three witnesses the dead will be put to death, Such will not be put to death at the mouth of one.
Judges 13.22מ֣וֹת נָמ֑וּת And Manoax said to his wife, to die we will die,
for God, we have seen.
Judges 16.30הֵמִ֣ית בְּמוֹת֔וֹAnd Sampson said, let me die with the Philistines. And he stretched out in power and the house fell on the chieftains and on all the people that were in it.
And the dead that he had put to death in his death were many more than he had put to death in his life.
Judges 21.5מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽתAnd the children of Israel said, Who did not come up with the congregation from all the sceptres of Israel to Yahweh?
For the great oath was for one who had not come up to Yahweh to Mizpah, saying, He will be put to death.
1 Samuel 14.39מ֣וֹת יָמ֑וּת For Yahweh lives, who has saved Israel. for if it is in Jonathan my son, to die he will die.
But none answered him from all the people.
1 Samuel 14.44כִּֽי־מ֥וֹת תָּמ֖וּתAnd Saul said, Thus God do and so add more,
for to die you will die, Jonathan.
1 Samuel 22.16מ֥וֹת תָּמ֖וּת And the king said, To die you will die, Ahimelech,
you and all the house of your father.
2 Samuel 12.14מ֥וֹת יָמֽוּתThe end is that the enemies of Yahweh will spurn and blaspheme in this matter,
So even the son born to you, to die he will die.
2 Samuel 14.14כִּי־מ֣וֹת נָמ֔וּתFor to die we will die, and are as water wrung out earthward that will not be gathered,
and God will not lift up a cadaver, but he devises devices, lest one being banished, be banished from him.
1 Kings 2.37 מ֣וֹת תָּמ֑וּתAnd it will happen on the day you go out and cross the wadi Kidron, knowing, you will know that to die you will die. Your blood will be on your head.
1 Kings 2.42מ֣וֹת תָּמ֑וּתAnd the king sent for and called Shimei and said to him, Did I not make you swear by Yahweh and witness in you saying, In the day you go out and go whatever the opportunity knowing you will know that to die you will die, and you said me. The thing is good I have heard?
2 Kings 1.4מ֣וֹת תָּמ֑וּתAnd therefore thus says Yahweh, From the couch that you have ascended to, there you will not be coming down from it, for it is your deathbed. And Elijah walked away.
2 Kings 1.6 כִּֽי־מ֥וֹת תָּמֽוּתAnd they said to him, Someone came up and encountered us and he said to us, Go. Return to the king that sent you and speak to him, Thus says Yahweh, Is there no God in Israel that you are sending to search out Baalzebub, the God of Eqron? Therefore from the couch that you have ascended to, there you will not be coming down from it, for it is your deathbed.
2 Kings 1.16כִּֽי־מ֥וֹת תָּמֽוּתAnd he spoke to him. Thus says Yahweh, Because you sent messengers to search out from Baalzebub, the God of Eqron, (is there no God in Israel to search out to speak to him?), therefore from the couch that you have ascended to, there you will be not coming down from it, for it is your deathbed.
2 Kings 7.4וְאִם־יְמִיתֻ֖נוּ וָמָֽתְנוּIf we say, We will enter the city and the famine is in the city then we will die there, and if we sit here then we will die,
so now come, and let us fall to the army of Aram. If they let us live, we will live, and if they put us to death, then we will die.
2 Kings 8.10כִּֽי־מ֥וֹת יָמֽוּתAnd Elisha said to him, Go. Say to him, To live, you will live, but Yahweh has showed me that to die, he will die.
Jeremiah 15.2לַמָּ֤וֶת לַמָּ֙וֶת֙And it will be that when they say to you, How, please, will we go forth?
And you say to them, Thus says Yahweh, Whoever is for death, to death, and whoever is for the sword, to the sword, and whoever is for famine, to famine, and whoever is for captivity, to captivity.
Jeremiah 26.8 מ֥וֹת תָּמֽוּתAnd it happened that Jeremiah finished speaking all that Yahweh commanded to speak to all the people. And the priests and the prophets and all the people arrested him, saying, To die, you will die.
Jeremiah 26.19הֶהָמֵ֣ת הֱ֠מִתֻהוּTo death? Did Hezekiah king of Judah and all Judah put him to death? Did he not fear Yahweh and entreated before Yahweh and did Yahweh sigh at the evil that he designated for them? So we would do great evil to ourselves.
Jeremiah 38.15הָמֵ֣ת תְּמִיתֵ֑נִיAnd Jeremiah said to Zedekiah, If I make clear to you, will you not put me to death? And if I advise you, you will not hear me.
Jeremiah 43.11 לַמָּ֣וֶת לַמָּ֗וֶתAnd when he comes he will strike the land of Egypt: whoever is for death to death, and whoever is for captivity to captivity, and whoever is for the sword to the sword.
Ezekiel 3.18מ֣וֹת תָּמ֔וּת When I say to the wicked one, To die you will die, and you do not admonish it, nor speak to admonish the wicked one from its wicked way that it may live, it, the wicked one, in its iniquity, it will die, and its blood from your hand I will demand.
Ezekiel 18.13 מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֔תAt interest it gives, and to excess it takes, so to live? It will not live. All these abominations it does. It will be put to death. Its blood on itself will be.
Ezekiel 18.32בְּמ֣וֹת הַמֵּ֔תFor I do not delight in the death of one who dies, an oracle of my Lord Yahweh, so you may turn and live.
Ezekiel 28.8וָמַ֛תָּה מְמוֹתֵ֥יTo destruction they will bring you down,
and you will die the deaths of the profane in the heart of the seas.
Ezekiel 33.8מ֣וֹת תָּמ֔וּתWhen I say to a wicked one, O wicked one, to die you will die, and you do not speak to admonish the wicked one from its way, it, the wicked one, in its iniquity, will die, and its blood from your hand I will demand.
Ezekiel 33.14מ֣וֹת תָּמ֑וּתAnd when I say to the wicked one, To die you will die, and it turns from its sin, and does judgment and justice,
Zechariah 11.9הַמֵּתָ֣ה תָמ֗וּתThen I said, I will not tend you. Who dies, let it die, and who is concealed, let it be concealed, and the residue, let each woman eat the flesh of her associate.
Ruth 1.17תָּמ֙וּתִי֙ אָמ֔וּתWhere you die I die, and there I will be entombed. Thus Yahweh do to me and add more, for only death will separate me and you.
Qohelet 9.5שֶׁיָּמֻ֑תוּ וְהַמֵּתִ֞יםFor the living have a clue that they will die, but of the dead, they have no clue whatever, and there is no wage for them any more, for their remembrance is forgotten.