Thursday, April 12, 2018

2 Samuel 12

It is quite a surprise sometimes to read. Here is the famous passage of Nathan and David. And David talks to Nathan like he was just 'my sort of guy'. He virtually calls the rich man of the parable an s-o-b. A not very nice epithet. The phrase is not that 'he should surely die' but בן מות, he is a son of death. No translation I have recently looked at says this. They all render it as if David had said מות ימות or the like, such a one deserves death or is worthy of death.

What sort of conversation is this between the king and the prophet? Both the story and David's response are on the subdominant, the rest note.

Music for 2 Samuel 12:4-5 based on the key of Haïk-Vantoura
2 Samuel 12 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיִּשְׁלַ֧ח יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־נָתָ֖ן אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד
וַיָּבֹ֣א אֵלָ֗יו וַיֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ שְׁנֵ֣י אֲנָשִׁ֗ים הָיוּ֙ בְּעִ֣יר אֶחָ֔ת אֶחָ֥ד עָשִׁ֖יר וְאֶחָ֥ד רָֽאשׁ
1 And Yahweh sent Nathan to David,
and he came to him and he said to him, Two persons were in one city, one rich and one in want.
3c 4C 11
29
לְעָשִׁ֗יר הָיָ֛ה צֹ֥אן וּבָקָ֖ר הַרְבֵּ֥ה מְאֹֽד 2 The one who was rich had sheep and oxen, in excessive abundance. 3d 3g 13
וְלָרָ֣שׁ אֵֽין־כֹּ֗ל כִּי֩ אִם־כִּבְשָׂ֨ה אַחַ֤ת קְטַנָּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר קָנָ֔ה וַיְחַיֶּ֕הָ וַתִּגְדַּ֥ל עִמּ֛וֹ וְעִם־בָּנָ֖יו יַחְדָּ֑ו
מִפִּתּ֨וֹ תֹאכַ֜ל וּמִכֹּס֤וֹ תִשְׁתֶּה֙ וּבְחֵיק֣וֹ תִשְׁכָּ֔ב וַתְּהִי־ל֖וֹ כְּבַֽת
3 But for the one who was in want, there was nothing at all. In contrast, one tiny young lamb that he had purchased, and he kept her alive, and she grew with him and with his children as one.
From his fragment, she ate, and from his cup, she imbibed, and in his embrace, she lay down, and she became for him as a daughter.
3d 4C 33
20
וַיָּ֣בֹא הֵלֶךְ֮ לְאִ֣ישׁ הֶֽעָשִׁיר֒ וַיַּחְמֹ֗ל לָקַ֤חַת מִצֹּאנוֹ֙ וּמִבְּקָר֔וֹ לַעֲשׂ֕וֹת לָאֹרֵ֖חַ הַבָּא־ל֑וֹ
וַיִּקַּ֗ח אֶת־כִּבְשַׂת֙ הָאִ֣ישׁ הָרָ֔אשׁ וַֽיַּעֲשֶׂ֔הָ לָאִ֖ישׁ הַבָּ֥א אֵלָֽיו
4 And a traveler came to the rich man and he pitied taking from his own flock or from his own herd to do for his wayfarer that came,
so he took the young lamb of the man in want and did for the man that came to him.
3e 4C 33
22
וַיִּֽחַר־אַ֥ף דָּוִ֛ד בָּאִ֖ישׁ מְאֹ֑ד
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אֶל־נָתָ֔ן חַי־יְהוָ֕ה כִּ֣י בֶן־מָ֔וֶת הָאִ֖ישׁ הָעֹשֶׂ֥ה זֹֽאת
5 And the anger of David burned against the man excessively,
and he said to Nathan, Yahweh lives, but a son of death the man is who does this.
3d 4B 10
20
וְאֶת־הַכִּבְשָׂ֖ה יְשַׁלֵּ֣ם אַרְבַּעְתָּ֑יִם
עֵ֗קֶב אֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשָׂה֙ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה וְעַ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־חָמָֽל
6 And the young lamb he will repay fourfold,
inasmuch as he has done this thing and in that he had no pity.
3e 4C 12
18
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר נָתָ֛ן אֶל־דָּוִ֖ד אַתָּ֣ה הָאִ֑ישׁ
כֹּה־אָמַ֨ר יְהוָ֜ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אָנֹכִ֞י מְשַׁחְתִּ֤יךָֽ לְמֶ֙לֶךְ֙ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָנֹכִ֥י הִצַּלְתִּ֖יךָ מִיַּ֥ד שָׁאֽוּל
7 And said Nathan to David, You are the man.
Thus says Yahweh the God of Israel, I myself anointed you king over Israel, and I myself delivered you from the hand of Saul.
3c 4C 12
37
וָאֶתְּנָ֨ה לְךָ֜ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית אֲדֹנֶ֗יךָ וְאֶת־נְשֵׁ֤י אֲדֹנֶ֙יךָ֙ בְּחֵיקֶ֔ךָ וָאֶתְּנָ֣ה לְךָ֔ אֶת־בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וִֽיהוּדָ֑ה
וְאִ֨ם־מְעָ֔ט וְאֹסִ֥פָה לְּךָ֖ כָּהֵ֥נָּה וְכָהֵֽנָּה
8 And I gave to you the house of your lord, and the wives of your lord into your bosom, and I gave to you the house of Israel and Judah,
and if little, I would have added for you like these and like these.
3e 4C 36
17
מַדּ֜וּעַ בָּזִ֣יתָ ׀ אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת הָרַע֮ בְּעֵינַו֒ אֵ֣ת אוּרִיָּ֤ה הַֽחִתִּי֙ הִכִּ֣יתָ בַחֶ֔רֶב וְאֶ֨ת־אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ לָקַ֥חְתָּ לְּךָ֖ לְאִשָּׁ֑ה
וְאֹת֣וֹ הָרַ֔גְתָּ בְּחֶ֖רֶב בְּנֵ֥י עַמּֽוֹן
9 Why have you despised the word of Yahweh and do evil in his sight? Uriah the Hittite you have struck with the sword, and his wife you have taken as your wife,
And him you have slain with the sword of the children of Ammon.
3e 4C 44
13
0
וְעַתָּ֗ה לֹא־תָס֥וּר חֶ֛רֶב מִבֵּיתְךָ֖ עַד־עוֹלָ֑ם
עֵ֚קֶב כִּ֣י בְזִתָ֔נִי וַתִּקַּ֗ח אֶת־אֵ֙שֶׁת֙ אוּרִיָּ֣ה הַחִתִּ֔י לִהְי֥וֹת לְךָ֖ לְאִשָּֽׁה
10 So now sword will not turn aside from your house for evermore,
inasmuch as you have despised me and took the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be as your wife.
3d 4C 13
26
כֹּ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה הִנְנִי֩ מֵקִ֨ים עָלֶ֤יךָ רָעָה֙ מִבֵּיתֶ֔ךָ וְלָקַחְתִּ֤י אֶת־נָשֶׁ֙יךָ֙ לְעֵינֶ֔יךָ וְנָתַתִּ֖י לְרֵעֶ֑יךָ
וְשָׁכַב֙ עִם־נָשֶׁ֔יךָ לְעֵינֵ֖י הַשֶּׁ֥מֶשׁ הַזֹּֽאת
11 B Thus says Yahweh, Note me well raising up against you evil from your own house. And I will take your wives in your sight and I will give to your friend,
and he will lie with your wives in the sight of this sun.
3e 4C 38
15
כִּ֥י אַתָּ֖ה עָשִׂ֣יתָ בַסָּ֑תֶר
וַאֲנִ֗י אֶעֱשֶׂה֙ אֶת־הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה נֶ֥גֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְנֶ֥גֶד הַשָּֽׁמֶשׁ
12 f Because you, you had acted in secret,
but I, I will do this thing in front of all Israel and before the sun.
3e 4B 9
24
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ אֶל־נָתָ֔ן חָטָ֖אתִי לַֽיהוָ֑ה
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר נָתָ֜ן אֶל־דָּוִ֗ד גַּם־יְהוָ֛ה הֶעֱבִ֥יר חַטָּאתְךָ֖ לֹ֥א תָמֽוּת
13 And David said to Nathan, I have sinned for Yahweh,
and Nathan said to David, Yea, Yahweh, has transferred your sin. You will not die.
3d 4C 13
20
אֶ֗פֶס כִּֽי־נִאֵ֤ץ נִאַ֙צְתָּ֙ אֶת־אֹיְבֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה בַּדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּ֑ה
גַּ֗ם הַבֵּ֛ן הַיִּלּ֥וֹד לְךָ֖ מ֥וֹת יָמֽוּת
14 ~ The end is that the enemies of Yahweh will spurn and blaspheme in this matter,
So even the son born to you, to die he will die.
3d 4C 17
11
וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ נָתָ֖ן אֶל־בֵּית֑וֹ
וַיִּגֹּ֣ף יְהוָ֗ה אֶת־הַיֶּ֜לֶד אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָלְדָ֧ה אֵֽשֶׁת־אוּרִיָּ֛ה לְדָוִ֖ד וַיֵּאָנַֽשׁ
15 And Nathan went to his house.
And Yahweh plagued the newborn which the wife of Uriah gave birth to for David, and it was incurable.
3c 4B 8
25
וַיְבַקֵּ֥שׁ דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים בְּעַ֣ד הַנָּ֑עַר
וַיָּ֤צָם דָּוִד֙ צ֔וֹם וּבָ֥א וְלָ֖ן וְשָׁכַ֥ב אָֽרְצָה
16 And David sought out this God about the lad,
and David fasted a fast, and went in and bode the time, and lay down earthward.
3d 4C 15
15
וַיָּקֻ֜מוּ זִקְנֵ֤י בֵיתוֹ֙ עָלָ֔יו לַהֲקִימ֖וֹ מִן־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וְלֹ֣א אָבָ֔ה וְלֹֽא־בָרָ֥א אִתָּ֖ם לָֽחֶם
17 And the elders of his house arose over him to raise him up from the earth,
and he did not consent and he ingested with them no bread.
3e 4C 18
11
וַיְהִ֛י בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י וַיָּ֣מָת הַיָּ֑לֶד
וַיִּֽרְאוּ֩ עַבְדֵ֨י דָוִ֜ד לְהַגִּ֥יד ל֣וֹ ׀ כִּי־מֵ֣ת הַיֶּ֗לֶד כִּ֤י אָֽמְרוּ֙ הִנֵּה֩ בִהְי֨וֹת הַיֶּ֜לֶד חַ֗י דִּבַּ֤רְנוּ אֵלָיו֙ וְלֹא־שָׁמַ֣ע בְּקוֹלֵ֔נוּ וְאֵ֨יךְ נֹאמַ֥ר אֵלָ֛יו מֵ֥ת הַיֶּ֖לֶד וְעָשָׂ֥ה רָעָֽה
18 And it was on the seventh day and the newborn died.
And the servants of David feared to tell him that the newborn was dead, for they said, Just look when the newborn was living, we spoke to him but he did not hear with our voice. So why would we say to him, The newborn is dead? For he will do himself injury.
3d 4C 13
54
וַיַּ֣רְא דָּוִ֗ד כִּ֤י עֲבָדָיו֙ מִֽתְלַחֲשִׁ֔ים וַיָּ֥בֶן דָּוִ֖ד כִּ֣י מֵ֣ת הַיָּ֑לֶד
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֧ד אֶל־עֲבָדָ֛יו הֲמֵ֥ת הַיֶּ֖לֶד וַיֹּ֥אמְרוּ מֵֽת
19 And David saw that his servants were worried, and David understood that the newborn was dead.
And David said to his servants, Is the newborn dead? And they said, He is dead.
3c 4C 22
18
וַיָּקָם֩ דָּוִ֨ד מֵהָאָ֜רֶץ וַיִּרְחַ֣ץ וַיָּ֗סֶךְ וַיְחַלֵּף֙ שִׂמְלֹתָ֔יו וַיָּבֹ֥א בֵית־יְהוָ֖ה וַיִּשְׁתָּ֑חוּ
וַיָּבֹא֙ אֶל־בֵּית֔וֹ וַיִּשְׁאַ֕ל וַיָּשִׂ֥ימוּ ל֛וֹ לֶ֖חֶם וַיֹּאכַֽל
20 And David arose from the earth, and he washed, and put on makeup, and renewed his habit, and entered the house of Yahweh, and worshiped.
And he entered his own house and asked that they might set bread for him and he ate.
3d 4B 31
19
וַיֹּאמְר֤וּ עֲבָדָיו֙ אֵלָ֔יו מָֽה־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֑יתָה
בַּעֲב֞וּר הַיֶּ֤לֶד חַי֙ צַ֣מְתָּ וַתֵּ֔בְךְּ וְכַֽאֲשֶׁר֙ מֵ֣ת הַיֶּ֔לֶד קַ֖מְתָּ וַתֹּ֥אכַל לָֽחֶם
21 And his servants said to him, What is thing this that you have done?
On behalf of the living newborn, you fasted and wept, and when the newborn was dead, you arose and ate bread.
3e 4C 19
27
וַיֹּ֕אמֶר בְּעוֹד֙ הַיֶּ֣לֶד חַ֔י צַ֖מְתִּי וָֽאֶבְכֶּ֑ה
כִּ֤י אָמַ֙רְתִּי֙ מִ֣י יוֹדֵ֔עַ וְחַנַּ֥נִי יְהוָ֖ה וְחַ֥י הַיָּֽלֶד
22 And he said, While the newborn lived, I fasted and I wept,
for I said, Who knows whether Yahweh will be gracious and let the newborn live?
3e 4C 14
19
וְעַתָּ֣ה ׀ מֵ֗ת לָ֤מָּה זֶּה֙ אֲנִ֣י צָ֔ם הַאוּכַ֥ל לַהֲשִׁיב֖וֹ ע֑וֹד
אֲנִי֙ הֹלֵ֣ךְ אֵלָ֔יו וְה֖וּא לֹֽא־יָשׁ֥וּב אֵלָֽי
23 So now he is dead, why should I do this fasting? Am I able to make him yet return?
I am going to him, but he will not return to me.
3e 4C 18
12
וַיְנַחֵ֣ם דָּוִ֗ד אֵ֚ת בַּת־שֶׁ֣בַע אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֥א אֵלֶ֖יהָ וַיִּשְׁכַּ֣ב עִמָּ֑הּ
וַתֵּ֣לֶד בֵּ֗ן וַתִּקְרָ֤א אֶת־שְׁמוֹ֙ שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה וַיהוָ֖ה אֲהֵבֽוֹ
24 And David comforted Bathsheva his wife, and he came to her and he lay down with her.
And she gave birth to a son, and she called his name Solomon, and Yahweh loved him.
3e 4C 22
18
וַיִּשְׁלַ֗ח בְּיַד֙ נָתָ֣ן הַנָּבִ֔יא וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ יְדִ֣ידְיָ֑הּ
בַּעֲב֖וּר יְהוָֽה
25 And he sent by the hand of Nathan the prophet, and he called his name Beloved-of-Yah,
on behalf of Yahweh.
3e 4B 19
5
וַיִּלָּ֣חֶם יוֹאָ֔ב בְּרַבַּ֖ת בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֑וֹן
וַיִּלְכֹּ֖ד אֶת־עִ֥יר הַמְּלוּכָֽה
26 And Joab fought in Rabbah of the children of Ammon,
and he conquered the city of the kingdom.
3e 4B 13
8
וַיִּשְׁלַ֥ח יוֹאָ֛ב מַלְאָכִ֖ים אֶל־דָּוִ֑ד
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ נִלְחַ֣מְתִּי בְרַבָּ֔ה גַּם־לָכַ֖דְתִּי אֶת־עִ֥יר הַמָּֽיִם
27 And Joab sent messengers to David,
and said, I have fought against Rabbah. Yea, I have conquered the city of the waters.
3d 4B 11
18
וְעַתָּ֗ה אֱסֹף֙ אֶת־יֶ֣תֶר הָעָ֔ם וַחֲנֵ֥ה עַל־הָעִ֖יר וְלָכְדָ֑הּ
פֶּן־אֶלְכֹּ֤ד אֲנִי֙ אֶת־הָעִ֔יר וְנִקְרָ֥א שְׁמִ֖י עָלֶֽיהָ
28 So now, gather the remaining of the people, and encamp against the city and conquer it,
lest I myself conquer the city and my name be called over it.
3e 4C 19
16
וַיֶּאֱסֹ֥ף דָּוִ֛ד אֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֖ם וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ רַבָּ֑תָה
וַיִּלָּ֥חֶם בָּ֖הּ וַֽיִּלְכְּדָֽהּ
29 And David gathered all the people and went towards Rabbah,
and fought against it and conquered it.
3d 4B 16
9
וַיִּקַּ֣ח אֶת־עֲטֶֽרֶת־מַלְכָּם֩ מֵעַ֨ל רֹאשׁ֜וֹ וּמִשְׁקָלָ֨הּ כִּכַּ֤ר זָהָב֙ וְאֶ֣בֶן יְקָרָ֔ה וַתְּהִ֖י עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ דָּוִ֑ד
וּשְׁלַ֥ל הָעִ֛יר הוֹצִ֖יא הַרְבֵּ֥ה מְאֹֽד
30 And he took the crown of their king from his head and it weighed a talent of gold and precious stone, and there it was on the head of David.
And the spoil of the city he brought out in excessive abundance.
3d 4C 33
10
וְאֶת־הָעָ֨ם אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֜הּ הוֹצִ֗יא וַיָּ֣שֶׂם בַּ֠מְּגֵרָה וּבַחֲרִצֵ֨י הַבַּרְזֶ֜ל וּֽבְמַגְזְרֹ֣ת הַבַּרְזֶ֗ל וְהֶעֱבִ֤יר אוֹתָם֙ בַּמַּלְבֵּ֔ן וְכֵ֣ן יַעֲשֶׂ֔ה לְכֹ֖ל עָרֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־עַמּ֑וֹן
וַיָּ֧שָׁב דָּוִ֛ד וְכָל־הָעָ֖ם יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם
31 And the people that were in it he brought out, and he put in saws, and in sharp flails of iron, and in disconnected bits of iron, and made them pass through in the bricks, and so he did to all the cities of the children of Ammon,
and David returned and all the people to Jerusalem.
3c 4C 51
13

The stories of David are altogether quite unpleasant if you actually bother to read them. Notice the frame of the chapter - excessive abundance.