Monday, March 27, 2017

Random measurements of progress

I have an audit mechanism as part of the software I am using, (GX-LEAF). While taking a backup of critical files, I discover that I have made approximately 22,000 changes in the last 11 days, in the word table that I am working with in this translation exercise I am doing. These are gloss adjustments, domain adjustments, and other changes related to the 9 chapters read since mid-month. The 9 chapters comprise roughly 250 verses. Other verses are also affected outside the boundary of these chapters, especially since I have been reviewing the work I did in 2015 (I am currently up to December and two books, the rest of the Song, and Ruth, will be re-posted in April when I am away from my desk and take no work with me on holidays).

There is no possibility that this control could have been done without the computer and all its worldwide capacity. How, I wonder, did the LXX translators in the 2nd and 3rd centuries before the common era control their reading?  How even, do copyists control their work?

And my text is itself marginally unique. Though most of it comes from a single source (, I do add and change words from the DSS if I think it is suitable. (E.g. the missing N verse in Psalm 145.)

So here is a little of what is written at the end of my Tanakh for Deuteronomy
נשלמו חמשה חומשי תורא. תהלה לאל גדול ונורא׃
סכום פסוקי דספר דברים תשע מאות וחמשים וחמשא הנץ סמין׃ וחציו ועשית על פי הדבר אשר יגידו לך׃  ופרשיותיו אחד עשר אסרו חג בעבותים סימן

The five books of Torah were completed. Praise to God, great and fearful.
The verses of Deuteronomy (devarim) are nine hundred and fifty-five.

But I count nine-hundred and fifty-nine verses (though I am not yet finished looking at them all).

What follows next is odd? - הנץ סימן
then it reads: and you will do what they tell you.
and its portions were eleven,
 אסרו חג בעבותים סימן ???

Anyone care to try the questions? or the next bit?

וסדריו עשרים ושבעה יפיה אמונה יגיד צדק סימן׃

Sunday, March 26, 2017

Proverbs 6

This was where I was stuck. And if I think too much, I will be stuck again. One professor told me my words must make sense. But what is the sense it must make?  Why should one not go surety for someone? What makes it a trap? Is the writer counselling narrowness and stinginess, the protection of one's own property? When someone supports another, this is good, not evil, unless the supporter brings on dependency. If you ignore verse 1 and imagine that it is some other disgraceful action that is being considered, then verses 2 and following make some sense.

There are times when the advice is purely male specific. Any attempt to take it out of this context is almost bound to fail. There are times when the female is metaphorical, either for Wisdom, desirable or for harlotry, undesirable for anyone male or female. Parts of this will be problematic to some theologies. Adultery is denied atonement (כפר). Perhaps the writer of verses 35 and 36 has bitter experience that prevents some cover-prices. It could be that jealousy is the subject of these sentences so I have read 'it' instead of 'he' (the aggrieved party). Certainly in the case of personification, I can allow the refusal of atonement to stand. Jealousy simply doesn't get a hearing in the final sentencing.

The term dissension in verse 14 and 19, I could have rendered with a modern commonplace, fake news. Even dissension is a strange gloss for this usually positive word, דין.

Verse 26 has its own character. It is phrased as a tricolon with a cadence after 12 syllables and a second cadence 4 syllables later. So pause in the reading. Harlotry seems OK in the final assize. I think our advisor here is a bit loose. In fact, all in all, I would take this chapter with a grain of salt.

Proverbs 6 Fn Min Max Syll
בְּ֭נִי אִם־עָרַ֣בְתָּ לְרֵעֶ֑ךָ
תָּקַ֖עְתָּ לַזָּ֣ר כַּפֶּֽיךָ
1 g My child, if you give surety for your associate,
you have guaranteed for a stranger your open palm.
3e 4B 10
נוֹקַ֥שְׁתָּ בְאִמְרֵי־פִ֑יךָ
נִ֝לְכַּ֗דְתָּ בְּאִמְרֵי־פִֽיךָ
2 You have laid a trap with the promises of your mouth.
You are caught with the promises of your mouth.
3e 4A 7
עֲשֵׂ֨ה זֹ֥את אֵפ֪וֹא ׀ בְּנִ֡י וְֽהִנָּצֵ֗ל כִּ֘י בָ֤אתָ בְכַף־רֵעֶ֑ךָ
לֵ֥ךְ הִ֝תְרַפֵּ֗ס וּרְהַ֥ב רֵעֶֽיךָ
3 Do this here and now, my child, and deliver yourself, for you come into the palm of your associate.
Go, submit yourself, and make bold to your associate.
3d 4C 19
אַל־תִּתֵּ֣ן שֵׁנָ֣ה לְעֵינֶ֑יךָ
וּ֝תְנוּמָ֗ה לְעַפְעַפֶּֽיךָ
4 Do not give sleep to your eyes,
nor slumber to your eyelids.
3e 4B 9
הִ֭נָּצֵל כִּצְבִ֣י מִיָּ֑ד
וּ֝כְצִפּ֗וֹר מִיַּ֥ד יָקֽוּשׁ פ
5 g Deliver yourself as a gazelle, from the hand,
and as a bird, from the hand of a trapper.
3e 4B 7
לֵֽךְ־אֶל־נְמָלָ֥ה עָצֵ֑ל
רְאֵ֖ה דְרָכֶ֣יהָ וַחֲכָֽם
6 Go toward the ant, sluggard.
See her ways, and be shrewd.
3e 4B 7
אֲשֶׁ֖ר אֵֽין־לָ֥הּ קָצִ֗ין שֹׁטֵ֥ר וּמֹשֵֽׁל 7 Though there is for her no dictator, overseer, or governor, 3e 3g 11
תָּכִ֣ין בַּקַּ֣יִץ לַחְמָ֑הּ
אָגְרָ֥ה בַ֝קָּצִ֗יר מַאֲכָלָֽהּ
8 She prepares in the summer her bread,
and stores at the harvest her food.
3e 4B 6
עַד־מָתַ֖י עָצֵ֥ל ׀ תִּשְׁכָּ֑ב
מָ֝תַ֗י תָּק֥וּם מִשְּׁנָתֶֽךָ
9 How long, sluggard, will you lie down?
When will you arise from your sleep?
3e 4A 7
מְעַ֣ט שֵׁ֭נוֹת מְעַ֣ט תְּנוּמ֑וֹת
מְעַ֓ט ׀ חִבֻּ֖ק יָדַ֣יִם לִשְׁכָּֽב
10 A little sleep, a little slumber,
a little clasping of hands to lie down,
3e 4B 9
וּבָֽא־כִמְהַלֵּ֥ךְ רֵאשֶׁ֑ךָ
וּ֝מַחְסֹֽרְךָ֗ כְּאִ֣ישׁ מָגֵֽן פ
11 so comes, as a traveler, your want,
and your deprivation, as someone shielded.
3e 4B 8
אָדָ֣ם בְּ֭לִיַּעַל אִ֣ישׁ אָ֑וֶן
ה֝וֹלֵ֗ךְ עִקְּשׁ֥וּת פֶּֽה
12 A worthless human, a mischievous person,
walks with a devious mouth.
3e 4B 9
קֹרֵ֣ץ בְּ֭עֵינָו מֹלֵ֣ל בְּרַגְלָ֑ו
מֹ֝רֶ֗ה בְּאֶצְבְּעֹתָֽיו
13 It winks with its eyes, makes a speech with its feet,
instructs with its toes.
3e 4B 10
תַּֽהְפֻּכ֨וֹת ׀ בְּלִבּ֗וֹ חֹרֵ֣שׁ רָ֣ע בְּכָל־עֵ֑ת
מִדְיָנִ֥ים יְשַׁלֵּֽחַ
14 Waywardness in its heart, deaf to evil for all time,
dissension it dispenses.
3e 4B 12
עַל־כֵּ֗ן פִּ֭תְאֹם יָב֣וֹא אֵיד֑וֹ
פֶּ֥תַע יִ֝שָּׁבֵ֗ר וְאֵ֣ין מַרְפֵּֽא פ
15 So, sudden will come his misfortune.
Suddenly he is broken, and there is none to heal.
3e 4B 8
שֶׁשׁ־הֵ֭נָּה שָׂנֵ֣א יְהוָ֑ה
וְ֝שֶׁ֗בַע תּוֹעֲבַ֥ת נַפְשֽׁוֹ
16 Six, behold, Yahweh hates,
and seven an abomination to to him:
3e 4B 7
עֵינַ֣יִם רָ֭מוֹת לְשׁ֣וֹן שָׁ֑קֶר
וְ֝יָדַ֗יִם שֹׁפְכ֥וֹת דָּם־נָקִֽי
17 Eyes exalted, a false tongue,
and hands shedding innocent blood,
3e 4B 8
לֵ֗ב חֹ֭רֵשׁ מַחְשְׁב֣וֹת אָ֑וֶן
רַגְלַ֥יִם מְ֝מַהֲר֗וֹת לָר֥וּץ לָֽרָעָה
18 ~ A deaf heart, devising mischief,
feet swift to race to evil,
3e 4B 8
יָפִ֣יחַ כְּ֭זָבִים עֵ֣ד שָׁ֑קֶר
וּמְשַׁלֵּ֥חַ מְ֝דָנִ֗ים בֵּ֣ין אַחִֽים פ
19 Snorting lies, a false witness,
and sending dissension among kin.
3e 4B 9
נְצֹ֣ר בְּ֭נִי מִצְוַ֣ת אָבִ֑יךָ
וְאַל־תִּ֝טֹּ֗שׁ תּוֹרַ֥ת אִמֶּֽךָ
20 Preserve, my child, your father's commandment,
and not do abandon your mother's instruction.
3e 4B 9
קָשְׁרֵ֣ם עַל־לִבְּךָ֣ תָמִ֑יד
עָ֝נְדֵ֗ם עַל־גַּרְגְּרֹתֶֽךָ
21 Fasten them against your heart continually.
Tie them against your gullet.
3e 4B 7
בְּהִתְהַלֶּכְךָ֨ ׀ תַּנְחֶ֬ה אֹתָ֗ךְ בְּֽ֭שָׁכְבְּךָ תִּשְׁמֹ֣ר עָלֶ֑יךָ
וַ֝הֲקִיצ֗וֹתָ הִ֣יא תְשִׂיחֶֽךָ
22 When you go, she will guide you. When you lie down, she will guard beside you.
And when you awaken, she will ponder you.
3e 4B 18
כִּ֤י נֵ֣ר מִ֭צְוָה וְת֣וֹרָה א֑וֹר
וְדֶ֥רֶךְ חַ֝יִּ֗ים תּוֹכְח֥וֹת מוּסָֽר
23 C For a command is a lamp, and instruction light,
and the way of life, reproof of chastening,
3e 4C 8
לִ֭שְׁמָרְךָ מֵאֵ֣שֶׁת רָ֑ע
מֵֽ֝חֶלְקַ֗ת לָשׁ֥וֹן נָכְרִיָּֽה
24 g To keep you from the woman of evil,
from the flattery of an alien tongue.
3e 4B 7
אַל־תַּחְמֹ֣ד יָ֭פְיָהּ בִּלְבָבֶ֑ךָ
וְאַל־תִּ֝קָּֽחֲךָ֗ בְּעַפְעַפֶּֽיהָ
25 You will not covet her beauty in your heart,
and you will not let her take you with her eyelids.
3e 4B 9
כִּ֤י בְעַד־אִשָּׁ֥ה זוֹנָ֗ה עַֽד־כִּכַּ֫ר לָ֥חֶם
וְאֵ֥שֶׁת אִ֑ישׁ
נֶ֖פֶשׁ יְקָרָ֣ה תָצֽוּד
26 C For concerning a woman of harlotry? up to a talent of bread.
But a man's woman,
a precious self hunts.
3e 4C 12
הֲיַחְתֶּ֤ה אִ֓ישׁ אֵ֬שׁ בְּחֵיק֑וֹ
וּ֝בְגָדָ֗יו לֹ֣א תִשָּׂרַֽפְנָה
27 Can anyone take hold fire in its embrace,
and its garments not be incinerated?
3e 4C 8
אִם־יְהַלֵּ֣ךְ אִ֭ישׁ עַל־הַגֶּחָלִ֑ים
וְ֝רַגְלָ֗יו לֹ֣א תִכָּוֶֽינָה
28 Can anyone walk on the burning coals,
and its feet not be branded?
3e 4B 10
כֵּ֗ן הַ֭בָּא אֶל־אֵ֣שֶׁת רֵעֵ֑הוּ
לֹ֥א יִ֝נָּקֶ֗ה כָּֽל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בָּֽהּ
29 ~ So the one coming to the woman of his associate,
will not be innocent of anything touching her.
3e 4B 9
לֹא־יָב֣וּזוּ לַ֭גַּנָּב כִּ֣י יִגְנ֑וֹב
לְמַלֵּ֥א נַ֝פְשׁ֗וֹ כִּ֣י יִרְעָֽב
30 Not to contempt they would hold a thief,
for it steals to fill itself, for it is hungry.
3e 4B 9
וְ֭נִמְצָא יְשַׁלֵּ֣ם שִׁבְעָתָ֑יִם
אֶת־כָּל־ה֖וֹן בֵּית֣וֹ יִתֵּֽן
31 g But if found, it will repay seven times.
All the value of its house it gives.
3e 4B 10
נֹאֵ֣ף אִשָּׁ֣ה חֲסַר־לֵ֑ב
מַֽשְׁחִ֥ית נַ֝פְשׁ֗וֹ ה֣וּא יַעֲשֶֽׂנָּה
32 Adultery with a woman is lacking in heart.
Destroying himself is he who does this.
3e 4B 7
נֶֽגַע־וְקָל֥וֹן יִמְצָ֑א
וְ֝חֶרְפָּת֗וֹ לֹ֣א תִמָּחֶֽה
33 Contagion and disgrace he finds,
and his reproach will not be wiped out.
3e 4B 7
כִּֽי־קִנְאָ֥ה חֲמַת־גָּ֑בֶר
וְלֹֽא־יַ֝חְמ֗וֹל בְּי֣וֹם נָקָֽם
34 For jealousy is the heat of valour,
and it will not pity in the day of vengeance.
3e 4B 7
לֹא־יִ֭שָּׂא פְּנֵ֣י כָל־כֹּ֑פֶר
וְלֹֽא־יֹ֝אבֶ֗ה כִּ֣י תַרְבֶּה־שֹֽׁחַד פ
35 Nothing will it bear in the face of any cover-price,
and it will fail to consent, when you increase bribes.
3e 4B 7

Exodus 10

I was stuck. And now am unstuck. It is quite easy to get stuck. So many questions arise when reading this foreign story in a foreign tongue and a foreign script that my mind must rest before attempting to deal with them.

Hardening of the heart. KJV uses several quite distinct roots for this one phrase. Here is how I have combed out the differences: A heart may be assured, courageous (resolute), glorified (heavy), or hardened in the sense of intransigent (also the same word as bow as in 'bow and arrow').

אמץ assurance(3), assure(7), assured(21), assures(1), bay(2), more assured(1), one assured(1), sure(1)
חזק courage(7), courageous(38), encourage(5), encouraged himself(1), encouraged(27), give courage(1), given courage(1), made resolute(6), make resolute(4), more courage than(1), resolute(37), resolutely took hold(1), resolutely(4), resolved(3), revamp(7), revamped(2), show himself resolute(1)
כבד glorified(5), glorifies(4), glorify(12), glorious ones(2), glorious things(1), glorious(3), glory(144), heavier(2), heaviness(1), heavy(24), liver(1), made heavy(1), make heavy(1), make yourself heavy(2), making heavy(1), one glorifies(1), pile(1)
קשׁה ... bow(2), bow(35), bows(1), hair-(1), hammered work(8), hammered(1), hard news(1), hard(9), harden(3), hardened(7), hardens(1), hardness(1), intransigence(4), intransigent(7)

A related psychological state: stubborn, סור, but it is not just one English word. In this passage Pharaoh's heart is heavy in the sense of self-glorified in verse 1, but in verses 20 and 27 it is resolute or assured that Moses and Aaron cannot get away from him. They and the people will be kept in their bondage. And Pharaoh has a point. The world for us is captivating.

In oversimplifying the translation, perhaps to make the English easier to read, the translators have not improved understanding. How is one to know how to think about our complex humanity from this canonical example, if one learns from an oversimplified text? It's fine as long as we draw no conclusions about what we think we know in this history and story. But human beings love to draw conclusions (true or false), and then draw others into their circle of influence. The simpler the better. "O what a mess I have inherited. Only I can fix it!" As Pharaoh warns, I too must take care to dethrone myself also. We face evil. In what can we trust? I am glad that I reread Psalm 27 the other day.

Now which plagues are these? We seem to be backing into this story. They are the 8th and the ninth.

Exodus 10 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֔ה בֹּ֖א אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה
כִּֽי־אֲנִ֞י הִכְבַּ֤דְתִּי אֶת־לִבּוֹ֙ וְאֶת־לֵ֣ב עֲבָדָ֔יו לְמַ֗עַן שִׁתִ֛י אֹתֹתַ֥י אֵ֖לֶּה בְּקִרְבּֽוֹ
1 And Yahweh said to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh,
for I have myself made his heart heavy, and the heart of his servants, in order to set these my signs within him,
3d 4C 12
וּלְמַ֡עַן תְּסַפֵּר֩ בְּאָזְנֵ֨י בִנְךָ֜ וּבֶן־בִּנְךָ֗ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֤ר הִתְעַלַּ֙לְתִּי֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם וְאֶת־אֹתֹתַ֖י אֲשֶׁר־שַׂ֣מְתִּי בָ֑ם
וִֽידַעְתֶּ֖ם כִּי־אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
2 And so that you may recount in the ears of your child, and the child of your child, what my practices were in Egypt, and my signs that I set within them,
and you will know that I am Yahweh.
3e 4C 35
וַיָּבֹ֨א מֹשֶׁ֣ה וְאַהֲרֹן֮ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה֒ וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ אֵלָ֗יו כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָֽעִבְרִ֔ים עַד־מָתַ֣י מֵאַ֔נְתָּ לֵעָנֹ֖ת מִפָּנָ֑י
שַׁלַּ֥ח עַמִּ֖י וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי
3 And Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh, and said to him, Thus says Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, How long will you not answer in my presence?
Set my people loose, that they may serve me.
3e 4C 40
כִּ֛י אִם־מָאֵ֥ן אַתָּ֖ה לְשַׁלֵּ֣חַ אֶת־עַמִּ֑י
הִנְנִ֨י מֵבִ֥יא מָחָ֛ר אַרְבֶּ֖ה בִּגְבֻלֶֽךָ
4 d Because, if will not you set my people loose,
note me well, I will bring tomorrow, locust within your border.
3d 4B 13
וְכִסָּה֙ אֶת־עֵ֣ין הָאָ֔רֶץ וְלֹ֥א יוּכַ֖ל לִרְאֹ֣ת אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וְאָכַ֣ל ׀ אֶת־יֶ֣תֶר הַפְּלֵטָ֗ה הַנִּשְׁאֶ֤רֶת לָכֶם֙ מִן־הַבָּרָ֔ד וְאָכַל֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָעֵ֔ץ הַצֹּמֵ֥חַ לָכֶ֖ם מִן־הַשָּׂדֶֽה
5 And it will cover the eye of the land, and no one will be able to see the land,
and it will eat the remaining of what was secured, the residue for you from the hail, and it will eat every tree that grows for you from the field.
3e 4C 18
וּמָלְא֨וּ בָתֶּ֜יךָ וּבָתֵּ֣י כָל־עֲבָדֶיךָ֮ וּבָתֵּ֣י כָל־מִצְרַיִם֒ אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־רָא֤וּ אֲבֹתֶ֙יךָ֙ וַאֲב֣וֹת אֲבֹתֶ֔יךָ מִיּ֗וֹם הֱיוֹתָם֙ עַל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה עַ֖ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה
וַיִּ֥פֶן וַיֵּצֵ֖א מֵעִ֥ם פַּרְעֹֽה
6 And they will fill your houses, and the houses of all your servants, and the houses of all Egypt, such as your fathers nor the fathers of your fathers have not seen from the day they were on the ground to this day.
And he faced about, and he went forth from Pharaoh.
3e 4C 50
וַיֹּאמְרוּ֩ עַבְדֵ֨י פַרְעֹ֜ה אֵלָ֗יו עַד־מָתַי֙ יִהְיֶ֨ה זֶ֥ה לָ֙נוּ֙ לְמוֹקֵ֔שׁ שַׁלַּח֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וְיַֽעַבְד֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֑ם
הֲטֶ֣רֶם תֵּדַ֔ע כִּ֥י אָבְדָ֖ה מִצְרָֽיִם
7 And the servants of Pharaoh said to him, How long will be this be for us a trap? Set loose everyone and let them serve Yahweh their God.
Do you not yet know that Egypt is perished?
3e 4B 38
וַיּוּשַׁ֞ב אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֤ה וְאֶֽת־אַהֲרֹן֙ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֔ה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם לְכ֥וּ עִבְד֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם
מִ֥י וָמִ֖י הַהֹלְכִֽים
8 And Moses and Aaron were made to return to Pharaoh, and he said to them, Go. Serve Yahweh your God.
Who and who, are those who will go?
3e 4C 31
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֔ה בִּנְעָרֵ֥ינוּ וּבִזְקֵנֵ֖ינוּ נֵלֵ֑ךְ
בְּבָנֵ֨ינוּ וּבִבְנוֹתֵ֜נוּ בְּצֹאנֵ֤נוּ וּבִבְקָרֵ֙נוּ֙ נֵלֵ֔ךְ כִּ֥י חַג־יְהוָ֖ה לָֽנוּ
9 And Moses said, With our youths and with our elders we will go.
With our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds, we will go, because the feast of Yahweh is for us.
3e 4C 16
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם יְהִ֨י כֵ֤ן יְהוָה֙ עִמָּכֶ֔ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר אֲשַׁלַּ֥ח אֶתְכֶ֖ם וְאֶֽת־טַפְּכֶ֑ם
רְא֕וּ כִּ֥י רָעָ֖ה נֶ֥גֶד פְּנֵיכֶֽם
10 And he said to them, Let it be so that Yahweh is with you, in that I will set you loose and your little ones.
See that evil is in front of your face.
3d 4C 26
לֹ֣א כֵ֗ן לְכֽוּ־נָ֤א הַגְּבָרִים֙ וְעִבְד֣וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה כִּ֥י אֹתָ֖הּ אַתֶּ֣ם מְבַקְשִׁ֑ים
וַיְגָ֣רֶשׁ אֹתָ֔ם מֵאֵ֖ת פְּנֵ֥י פַרְעֹֽה
11 B (Not so.) Go now, you valiant, and serve Yahweh, for her you are seeking.
And he expelled them from the presence of Pharaoh.
3e 4C 21
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה נְטֵ֨ה יָדְךָ֜ עַל־אֶ֤רֶץ מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ בָּֽאַרְבֶּ֔ה וְיַ֖עַל עַל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם
וְיֹאכַל֙ אֶת־כָּל־עֵ֣שֶׂב הָאָ֔רֶץ אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר הִשְׁאִ֖יר הַבָּרָֽד
12 And Yahweh said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for locust, that they ascend over the land of Egypt,
and eat every herb of the land, all that the hail left as residue.
3d 4C 29
וַיֵּ֨ט מֹשֶׁ֣ה אֶת־מַטֵּהוּ֮ עַל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַיִם֒ וַֽיהוָ֗ה נִהַ֤ג ר֥וּחַ קָדִים֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ כָּל־הַיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא וְכָל־הַלָּ֑יְלָה
הַבֹּ֣קֶר הָיָ֔ה וְר֙וּחַ֙ הַקָּדִ֔ים נָשָׂ֖א אֶת־הָאַרְבֶּֽה
13 And Moses stretched out his rod over the land of Egypt, and Yahweh drove a wind from the east in the land all that day, and all the night long.
There was the morning, and the wind from the east had supplied the locust.
3e 4C 34
וַיַּ֣עַל הָֽאַרְבֶּ֗ה עַ֚ל כָּל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיָּ֕נַח בְּכֹ֖ל גְּב֣וּל מִצְרָ֑יִם
כָּבֵ֣ד מְאֹ֔ד לְ֠פָנָיו לֹא־הָ֨יָה כֵ֤ן אַרְבֶּה֙ כָּמֹ֔הוּ וְאַחֲרָ֖יו לֹ֥א יִֽהְיֶה־כֵּֽן
14 And the locust ascended over all the land of Egypt, and rested within every border of Egypt.
Excessively glorious. Before it there was not such a locust like it, and after it neither will there be such.
3e 4C 22
וַיְכַ֞ס אֶת־עֵ֣ין כָּל־הָאָרֶץ֮ וַתֶּחְשַׁ֣ךְ הָאָרֶץ֒ וַיֹּ֜אכַל אֶת־כָּל־עֵ֣שֶׂב הָאָ֗רֶץ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־פְּרִ֣י הָעֵ֔ץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הוֹתִ֖יר הַבָּרָ֑ד
וְלֹא־נוֹתַ֨ר כָּל־יֶ֧רֶק בָּעֵ֛ץ וּבְעֵ֥שֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם
15 And it covered the eye of all the land, so the land was darkened, and it ate every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the tree, which the hail had left,
and there was not left any foliage in the tree, or in the herbs of the field, in all the land of Egypt.
3c 4B 38
וַיְמַהֵ֣ר פַּרְעֹ֔ה לִקְרֹ֖א לְמֹשֶׁ֣ה וּֽלְאַהֲרֹ֑ן
וַיֹּ֗אמֶר חָטָ֛אתִי לַיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֖ם וְלָכֶֽם
16 And swiftly Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron,
and he said, I have sinned to Yahweh your God, and to you.
3d 4B 14
וְעַתָּ֗ה שָׂ֣א נָ֤א חַטָּאתִי֙ אַ֣ךְ הַפַּ֔עַם וְהַעְתִּ֖ירוּ לַיהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם
וְיָסֵר֙ מֵֽעָלַ֔י רַ֖ק אֶת־הַמָּ֥וֶת הַזֶּֽה
17 So now, bear please, my sin, but this one time, and petition to Yahweh your God,
that he put aside from me solely this death.
3e 4C 22
וַיֵּצֵ֖א מֵעִ֣ם פַּרְעֹ֑ה
וַיֶּעְתַּ֖ר אֶל־יְהוָֽה
18 And he went forth from Pharaoh,
and he petitioned to Yahweh.
3e 4B 7
וַיַּהֲפֹ֨ךְ יְהוָ֤ה רֽוּחַ־יָם֙ חָזָ֣ק מְאֹ֔ד וַיִּשָּׂא֙ אֶת־הָ֣אַרְבֶּ֔ה וַיִּתְקָעֵ֖הוּ יָ֣מָּה סּ֑וּף
לֹ֤א נִשְׁאַר֙ אַרְבֶּ֣ה אֶחָ֔ד בְּכֹ֖ל גְּב֥וּל מִצְרָֽיִם
19 And Yahweh changed the wind from the sea, very resolutely, and lifted up the locust, and sounded them toward the sea of reeds.
He did not leave a residue of one locust within any border of Egypt.
3e 4C 28
וַיְחַזֵּ֥ק יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֑ה
וְלֹ֥א שִׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל פ
20 But Yahweh made the heart of Pharaoh resolute,
and he did not set loose the children of Israel.
3e 4B 9
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה נְטֵ֤ה יָֽדְךָ֙ עַל־הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וִ֥יהִי חֹ֖שֶׁךְ עַל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם
וְיָמֵ֖שׁ חֹֽשֶׁךְ
21 And Yahweh said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the heavens. that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt,
that one may feel darkness.
3e 4C 26
וַיֵּ֥ט מֹשֶׁ֛ה אֶת־יָד֖וֹ עַל־הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם
וַיְהִ֧י חֹֽשֶׁךְ־אֲפֵלָ֛ה בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת יָמִֽים
22 And Moses stretched out his hand over the heavens,
and gloomy darkness happened in all the land of Egypt, three days.
3c 4A 12
לֹֽא־רָא֞וּ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־אָחִ֗יו וְלֹא־קָ֛מוּ אִ֥ישׁ מִתַּחְתָּ֖יו שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֑ים
וּֽלְכָל־בְּנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל הָ֥יָה א֖וֹר בְּמוֹשְׁבֹתָֽם
23 They did not see each his kin, and they did not arise, each from under itself, three days,
but for all the children of Israel, there was light in their settlements.
3c 4B 18
וַיִּקְרָ֨א פַרְעֹ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לְכוּ֙ עִבְד֣וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה רַ֛ק צֹאנְכֶ֥ם וּבְקַרְכֶ֖ם יֻצָּ֑ג
גַּֽם־טַפְּכֶ֖ם יֵלֵ֥ךְ עִמָּכֶֽם
24 And Pharaoh called to Moses and he said, Go. Serve Yahweh but your flocks and your herds be postponed.
Also your little ones will go with you.
3d 4B 26
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֔ה גַּם־אַתָּ֛ה תִּתֵּ֥ן בְּיָדֵ֖נוּ זְבָחִ֣ים וְעֹל֑וֹת
וְעָשִׂ֖ינוּ לַיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ
25 And Moses said, You also will give into our hands sacrifices and burnt offerings,
that we may make to Yahweh our God.
3d 4B 20
וְגַם־מִקְנֵ֜נוּ יֵלֵ֣ךְ עִמָּ֗נוּ לֹ֤א תִשָּׁאֵר֙ פַּרְסָ֔ה כִּ֚י מִמֶּ֣נּוּ נִקַּ֔ח לַעֲבֹ֖ד אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ
וַאֲנַ֣חְנוּ לֹֽא־נֵדַ֗ע מַֽה־נַּעֲבֹד֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה עַד־בֹּאֵ֖נוּ שָֽׁמָּה
26 And moreover, our acquisitions will go with us. Not a hoof will be residue, for from such we must take to serve Yahweh our God,
and we do not know with what we will serve Yahweh, until we come there.
3e 4C 32
וַיְחַזֵּ֥ק יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֑ה
וְלֹ֥א אָבָ֖ה לְשַׁלְּחָֽם
27 But Yahweh made resolute the heart of Pharaoh,
and he did not consent to set them loose.
3e 4B 9
וַיֹּֽאמֶר־ל֥וֹ פַרְעֹ֖ה לֵ֣ךְ מֵעָלָ֑י
הִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֗ אֶל־תֹּ֙סֶף֙ רְא֣וֹת פָּנַ֔י כִּ֗י בְּי֛וֹם רְאֹתְךָ֥ פָנַ֖י תָּמֽוּת
28 And Pharaoh said to him, Go from me.
Keep watch for yourself. Not again you will see my face, for in the day you see my face, you die.
3d 4B 10
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֖ה כֵּ֣ן דִּבַּ֑רְתָּ
לֹא־אֹסִ֥ף ע֖וֹד רְא֥וֹת פָּנֶֽיךָ פ
29 And Moses said, So you have spoken.
Not will I again any more see your face.
3e 4B 9

Saturday, March 25, 2017

Psalm 27

I am working on an arrangement of Psalm 27. I saw a remarkable sign in the Hebrew I had not noticed before. An ornament around verse 13. Three dots above the letters and three below. I have seen such dots but I had not paid much attention to them. And I had not seen them here.

לׅׄוּלֵׅׄ֗אׅׄ It seems it might be like the ... indicating pondering in Latin characters.

If anyone can tell me what I should do when writing for harp or whatever... feel free to volunteer some composition instruction. You can be fairly certain if you are a composer/arranger that I am not.

I must live with these words even longer. There is no obvious form to this poem. Haïk-Vantoura sets this with a sharpened fourth (A#). It is a most peculiar mode to me though I know she could make it work. The accents are quite different in the Letteris edition and the Leningrad Codex.  Verse 2 begins with a leap up a sixth: בִּקְרֹ֤ב but Letteris must have missed this accent (< under the resh). It is quite clear in the Aleppo codex also. This gives two verses: 2 and 5 with extended recitation on C. The other high C's are quite brief, though verse 1 is a significant starter. In verse 1 C is confidence. In verse 2 it is growing alarm. In verse 5, it is utter delight. In verse 6 a brief word painting (bar 47). The C in verse 8 reflects the shape of the C in verse 1. In verse 11, the C serves only to jump the gap between verse 6 and 7. All this needs to be in the impact of the accompaniment somehow.

Note:  The Letteris edition is significantly defective largely because of spurious metegs in a number of places. They are particularly noticeable in this Psalm. Whenever an apparent silluq draws the voice down to the tonic for one syllable, particularly a weak syllable, that accent is suspect. I have not yet observed any accent below the letters that interferes with the natural stress that begins a new reciting note.

This arrangement that follows will change as I complete it...

Psalms 27 Fn Min Max Syll
לְדָוִ֨ד ׀ יְהוָ֤ה ׀ אוֹרִ֣י וְ֭יִשְׁעִי מִמִּ֣י אִירָ֑א
יְהוָ֥ה מָֽעוֹז־חַ֝יַּ֗י מִמִּ֥י אֶפְחָֽד
1 Of David. Yahweh my light and my salvation, whom will I fear?
Yahweh from strength my life, whom will I dread?
3e 4C 14
בִּקְרֹ֤ב עָלַ֨י ׀ מְרֵעִים֮ לֶאֱכֹ֪ל אֶת־בְּשָׂ֫רִ֥י
צָרַ֣י וְאֹיְבַ֣י לִ֑י
הֵ֖מָּה כָשְׁל֣וּ וְנָפָֽלוּ
2 In drawing near to me to injure to eat even my flesh,
my foes and my own enemies,
they, they stumbled and fell.
3d 4C 14
אִם־תַּחֲנֶ֬ה עָלַ֨י ׀ מַחֲנֶה֮ לֹֽא־יִירָ֪א לִ֫בִּ֥י
אִם־תָּק֣וּם עָ֭לַי מִלְחָמָ֑ה
בְּ֝זֹ֗את אֲנִ֣י בוֹטֵֽחַ
3 If an army over me is armed, my heart will not fear.
If war arises over me,
in this I, even I will trust.

3d 4B 13
אַחַ֤ת ׀ שָׁאַ֣לְתִּי מֵֽאֵת־יְהוָה֮ אוֹתָ֪הּ אֲבַ֫קֵּ֥שׁ
שִׁבְתִּ֣י בְּבֵית־יְ֭הוָה כָּל־יְמֵ֣י חַיַּ֑י
לַחֲז֥וֹת בְּנֹֽעַם־יְ֝הוָ֗ה וּלְבַקֵּ֥ר בְּהֵיכָלֽוֹ
4 One thing I have asked from Yahweh. That thing I will seek,
that I may sit in the house of Yahweh all the days of my life,
to gaze on the pleasantness of Yahweh and to reflect in his temple.
3d 4C 14
כִּ֤י יִצְפְּנֵ֨נִי ׀ בְּסֻכֹּה֮ בְּי֪וֹם רָ֫עָ֥ה
יַ֭סְתִּרֵנִי בְּסֵ֣תֶר אָהֳל֑וֹ
בְּ֝צ֗וּר יְרוֹמְמֵֽנִי
5 C For he will treasure me in a booth in a day of evil.
He will hide me in the secret of his tent.
On a rock he will exalt me.
3d 4C 12
וְעַתָּ֨ה יָר֪וּם רֹאשִׁ֡י עַ֤ל אֹֽיְבַ֬י סְֽבִיבוֹתַ֗י וְאֶזְבְּחָ֣ה בְ֭אָהֳלוֹ זִבְחֵ֣י תְרוּעָ֑ה
אָשִׁ֥ירָה וַ֝אֲזַמְּרָ֗ה לַיהוָֽה
6 And now my head will be exalted above my enemies surrounding me, and I will offer in his tent offerings of jubilation.
I will sing and I will sing a psalm to Yahweh.

3d 4C 27
שְׁמַע־יְהוָ֖ה קוֹלִ֥י אֶקְרָ֗א וְחָנֵּ֥נִי וַעֲנֵֽנִי 7 Hear Yahweh my voice. I will call. And be gracious to me and answer me. 3e 3g 16
לְךָ֤ ׀ אָמַ֣ר לִ֭בִּי בַּקְּשׁ֣וּ פָנָ֑י
אֶת־פָּנֶ֖יךָ יְהוָ֣ה אֲבַקֵּֽשׁ
8 He said to you, My heart, seek my face.
Even your face Yahweh I will seek.
3e 4C 10
אַל־תַּסְתֵּ֬ר פָּנֶ֨יךָ ׀ מִמֶּנִּי֮ אַֽל־תַּט־בְּאַ֗ף עַ֫בְדֶּ֥ךָ
עֶזְרָתִ֥י הָיִ֑יתָ
אַֽל־תִּטְּשֵׁ֥נִי וְאַל־תַּֽ֝עַזְבֵ֗נִי אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׁעִֽי
9 Do not hide your face from me. Do not push your servant away in anger. You became my help.
Do not abandon me and do not forsake me, O God of my salvation.
3e 4A 16
כִּי־אָבִ֣י וְאִמִּ֣י עֲזָב֑וּנִי
וַֽיהוָ֣ה יַֽאַסְפֵֽנִי
10 For my father and my mother forsake me,
but Yahweh will gather me.

3e 4B 9
ה֤וֹרֵ֥נִי יְהוָ֗ה דַּ֫רְכֶּ֥ךָ
וּ֭נְחֵנִי בְּאֹ֣רַח מִישׁ֑וֹר
לְ֝מַ֗עַן שׁוֹרְרָֽי
11 C Instruct me Yahweh your way,
and guide me in an upright path,
on account of my watchers.
3e 4C 8
אַֽל־תִּ֭תְּנֵנִי בְּנֶ֣פֶשׁ צָרָ֑י
כִּ֥י קָֽמוּ־בִ֥י עֵֽדֵי־שֶׁ֝֗קֶר וִיפֵ֥חַ חָמָֽס
12 Do not give me to the throat of my foes,
for false witnesses have arisen against me,
and exhaling violence.
3e 4B 9
לׅׄוּלֵׅׄ֗אׅׄ הֶ֭אֱמַנְתִּי לִרְא֥וֹת בְּֽטוּב־יְהוָ֗ה בְּאֶ֣רֶץ חַיִּֽים 13 ~ ...What if I had not believed I would see the goodness of Yahweh in the land of the living? 3e 4B 19
קַוֵּ֗ה אֶל־יְה֫וָ֥ה
חֲ֭זַק וְיַאֲמֵ֣ץ לִבֶּ֑ךָ
וְ֝קַוֵּ֗ה אֶל־יְהוָֽה
14 Wait on Yahweh.
Be courageous and he will assure your heart,
so wait on Yahweh.
3e 4B 5

Thursday, March 23, 2017

Reading project status

My guessing algorithm could be so much better if I applied a few grammatical rules to prevent silly single word guesses, and it will improve when my calculated stem is corrected in the estimated 10% of stems still to be corrected. But here are the results of applying the algorithm with guesses compared to completed chapters.

The books not included above are all 100% complete, except that they are subject to revision and I have done only a cursory check of semantic domains. This month over 125 chapters have been tweaked to some degree. 

The above graph shows which books are less like the language I have done so far. E.g. Isaiah: more single word guesses (blue line higher) than multiple word guesses (green line) means that this book has differing word usage from the sections I have done so far in all books. If the green line is higher than the blue line then there is more shared language. The lines are populated using the completed words, first from the same chapter, then the same book, then from other books.

Deuteronomy, 2 Kings, and Jeremiah stand out as leading the pack. I suspect that they share much phrasing and so have appeared high on my nearly done lists. You can also see that the total of guesses and completed words is over 80% across the board except for Daniel through 1 Chronicles. The average of all guesses and complete is 87%, but this is word by word, not verse by verse. Verse by verse requires the bulk of the thinking time. Forming sensible sentences, conversation or poetry or description is the fun part. Minimizing assumptions and imagining the social relationships is the challenge.

You can see from the table below that words are way ahead of verses. And verses lag chapters. So the 50% mark is somewhat subjective. The 450 chapters remaining are longer than three Psalters because they have a lot more verses (12,832) than three books of Psalms would have (2527 * 3). The verses are also longer than Psalm verses.

The estimated weeks of effort remaining is based on 10 verses per hour, 2 hours per day, 6 days per week, 45 weeks per year. Last night late at night after watching the news (a real waste of time) I did Exodus 19 from 60% to 100%. The time was 2 hours for 22 verses and probably I had 3 or 4 already done - so more or less on target for 10 per hour. Some verses are easier than others. Some are instantaneous, requiring less than a minute. Some puzzle for hours. Some words require a lot of research. And obviously I could consult more of the literature than I do, and I likely will some day...
Books Chapters Verses Chapters 'Done' Verses compl ch Words compl ch weeks rem. by vs % 'done' by ch
1 Torah 187 5843 60 1775 24771 33.9 25% 32.1%
2 Former Prophets 147 4297 37 1081 17085 26.8 19% 25.2%
3 Later Prophets 166 3928 57 1157 18278 23.1 17% 34.3%
4 The 12 67 1050 67 1050 14357 0.0 5% 100.0%
5 Books of Truth 223 4502 201 3857 29777 5.4 19% 90.1%
6 The 5 Scrolls 39 745 39 745 10118 0.0 3% 100.0%
7 Other 100 2791 18 423 6344 19.7 12% 18.0%
929 23156 479 108.9 100%
Status as of  2017-03-23 Chapters Verses Words
Completed 479 10,088 120,730
51.6% 43.6% 39.6%
To do, including in process 450 12,832 145,308
55.4% 47.7%
In process 1.0% 12.7%

This post raises a question I have been thinking about for some time. What phrases are shared by differing books of the Bible and to what extent? So I messed around a bit and made a list of common Hebrew phrases exactly 6 Hebrew words long and shared by multiple chapters or books more than 5 times.

The Numbers results are almost all chapter 7 where there are individual 11 word verses, 1 for each tribe. The algorithm results in some duplicates. Apart from the obvious that a graph of this would require some imaginative work.

כּתּובּיםּ על ספּר דּבּרי הימּיםּ למּלכּי331 Kings, 2 Kings, Esther
כּה אמּר יהוה צבּאותּ אלהי ישׂראל31Jeremiah
הםּ כּתּובּיםּ על ספּר דּבּרי הימּיםּ261 Kings, 2 Kings, Esther
על ספּר דּבּרי הימּיםּ למּלכּי ישׂראל181 Kings, 2 Kings
הלא הםּ כּתּובּיםּ על ספּר דּבּרי161 Kings, 2 Kings
על ספּר דּבּרי הימּיםּ למּלכּי יהודּה151 Kings, 2 Kings
אחדּ בּןּ בּקר איל אחדּ כּבּשׂ12Numbers
אחדּ כּבּשׂ אחדּ בּןּ שׁנּתּו לעלה12Numbers
אחדּ כּסףּ שׁבּעיםּ שׁקל בּשׁקל הקדּשׁ12Numbers
אחתּ שׁלשׁיםּ ומּאה מּשׁקלה מּזרק אחדּ12Numbers
איל אחדּ כּבּשׂ אחדּ בּןּ שׁנּתּו12Numbers
בּןּ בּקר איל אחדּ כּבּשׂ אחדּ12Numbers
בּקר איל אחדּ כּבּשׂ אחדּ בּןּ12Numbers
בּשׁקל הקדּשׁ שׁנּיהםּ מּלאיםּ סלתּ בּלולה12Numbers
דּבּר אל בּנּי ישׂראל ואמּרתּ אלהםּ12Leviticus, Numbers
הקדּשׁ שׁנּיהםּ מּלאיםּ סלתּ בּלולה בּשׁמּןּ12Numbers
ולזבּח השׁלמּיםּ בּקר שׁנּיםּ אילםּ חמּשׁה12Numbers
ומּאה מּשׁקלה מּזרק אחדּ כּסףּ שׁבּעיםּ12Numbers
חמּשׁה כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי שׁנּה חמּשׁה זה12Numbers
כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי שׁנּה חמּשׁה זה קרבּןּ12Numbers
כּסףּ אחתּ שׁלשׁיםּ ומּאה מּשׁקלה מּזרק12Numbers
כּסףּ שׁבּעיםּ שׁקל בּשׁקל הקדּשׁ שׁנּיהםּ12Numbers
כּףּ אחתּ עשׂרה זהבּ מּלאה קטרתּ12Numbers
מּזרק אחדּ כּסףּ שׁבּעיםּ שׁקל בּשׁקל12Numbers
מּשׁקלה מּזרק אחדּ כּסףּ שׁבּעיםּ שׁקל12Numbers
פּר אחדּ בּןּ בּקר איל אחדּ12Numbers
קערתּ כּסףּ אחתּ שׁלשׁיםּ ומּאה מּשׁקלה12Numbers
שׁבּעיםּ שׁקל בּשׁקל הקדּשׁ שׁנּיהםּ מּלאיםּ 12Numbers
שׁלשׁיםּ ומּאה מּשׁקלה מּזרק אחדּ כּסףּ12Numbers
שׁנּיהםּ מּלאיםּ סלתּ בּלולה בּשׁמּןּ למּנּחה12Numbers
שׁקל בּשׁקל הקדּשׁ שׁנּיהםּ מּלאיםּ סלתּ12Numbers
בּןּ נּבּט אשׁר החטיא אתּ ישׂראל111 Kings, 2 Kings
וידּבּר יהוה אל מּשׁה ואל אהרןּ11Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers
יהוה אל מּשׁה ואל אהרןּ לאמּר11Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers
ירבּעםּ בּןּ נּבּט אשׁר החטיא אתּ111 Kings, 2 Kings
קרבּנּו קערתּ כּסףּ אחתּ שׁלשׁיםּ ומּאה11Numbers
אילםּ חמּשׁה עתּדּיםּ חמּשׁה כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי10Numbers
אשׁר היה אל ירמּיהו מּאתּ יהוה10Jeremiah
בּקר שׁנּיםּ אילםּ חמּשׁה עתּדּיםּ חמּשׁה10Numbers
הדּבּר אשׁר היה אל ירמּיהו מּאתּ10Jeremiah
הלוא הםּ כּתּובּיםּ על ספּר דּבּרי101 Kings, 2 Kings, Esther
השׁלמּיםּ בּקר שׁנּיםּ אילםּ חמּשׁה עתּדּיםּ10Numbers
חי אנּי נּאםּ אדּנּי יהוה אםּ10Ezekiel
חמּשׁה עתּדּיםּ חמּשׁה כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי שׁנּה10Numbers
עתּדּיםּ חמּשׁה כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי שׁנּה חמּשׁה10Numbers
שׁנּיםּ אילםּ חמּשׁה עתּדּיםּ חמּשׁה כּבּשׂיםּ 10Numbers
אמּר יהוה צבּאותּ אלהי ישׂראל הנּנּי9Jeremiah
ליהוה כּי טובּ כּי לעולםּ חסדּו91 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Psalms
אשׁר יהוה אלהיךּ נּתּןּ לךּ נּחלה8Deuteronomy
אשׁר עשׂה הלא הםּ כּתּובּיםּ על81 Kings, 2 Kings
ואמּרתּ אליהםּ כּה אמּר אדּנּי יהוה8Ezekiel
כּה אמּר יהוה על שׁלשׁה פּשׁעי8Amos
לכּןּ כּה אמּר אדּנּי יהוה הנּנּי8Ezekiel, Isaiah
עשׂה הלא הםּ כּתּובּיםּ על ספּר81 Kings, 2 Kings
אילםּ שׁנּיםּ כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי שׁנּה ארבּעה7Numbers
הארץ אשׁר יהוה אלהיךּ נּתּןּ לךּ7Deuteronomy
כּי כּה אמּר יהוה צבּאותּ אלהי7Jeremiah
כּכּל אשׁר צוה יהוה אתּ מּשׁה7Exodus, Numbers
לחדּשׁ היה דּבּר יהוה אלי לאמּר7Ezekiel
לכּןּ הנּה ימּיםּ בּאיםּ נּאםּ יהוה7Jeremiah
לכּןּ כּה אמּר אדּנּי יהוה יעןּ7Ezekiel
עםּ אבּתּיו ויקבּר עםּ אבּתּיו בּעיר71 Kings, 2 Chronicles, 2 Kings
שׁנּיםּ כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי שׁנּה ארבּעה עשׂר7Numbers
אבּתּיו ויקבּר עםּ אבּתּיו בּעיר דּודּ61 Kings, 2 Kings
אתּ בּיתּ יהוה ואתּ בּיתּ המּלךּ61 Kings, 2 Chronicles, 2 Kings, Jeremiah
הישׁר בּעינּי יהוה כּכּל אשׁר עשׂה62 Chronicles, 2 Kings
ויעשׂ הישׁר בּעינּי יהוה כּכּל אשׁר62 Chronicles, 2 Kings
צוה יהוה אתּ מּשׁה כּןּ עשׂו6Exodus, Joshua, Numbers

Exodus 19

When is הר a hill and when is it a mountain? (Whenever the reader decides). We have a hill nearby called Mount Tolmie (120 m) and another called Mount Doug (228 m). They are small actually, but bigger than a hillock. הר is indeterminate. Hermon is a mountain (2814 m), but the mount of Olives is 835 m, easily climbed from the Old City (about 700 m) via the garden of Gethsemane.  Mt Sinai is higher so I had better start calling it a mountain! But let's see... The Rockies rise to over 4000 m. Mt Everest to nearly 9000 m. Relative, I guess.

This chapter prepares the ground for the next. Perhaps we could think of it as the drum roll before the main act. There appears again a kind of tug of war between Moses and Yahweh, the agony of a culture preparing the essence of its instruction. Here we have general agreement among the elders concerning what is to be revealed in the next chapter (reading that chapter say as the substance implied in verse 7 below). Here also is the ultimate focus on Yahweh and not on Moses in the process of sanctification and scouring of dress. Yet it is Moses whom the people believe for ever. That statement from Yahweh is a tight loop enfolding the whole instructed body as a knot holds in stitching.

When one considers the difficulty of this problem, it is a wonder that we live at all.

Exodus 19 Fn Min Max Syll
בַּחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֔י לְצֵ֥את בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם
בַּיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה בָּ֖אוּ מִדְבַּ֥ר סִינָֽי
1 In the third month of the coming out of the children of Israel from the land of Egypt,
on this day, they entered the wilderness of Sinai.
3e 4B 19
וַיִּסְע֣וּ מֵרְפִידִ֗ים וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ מִדְבַּ֣ר סִינַ֔י וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר
וַיִּֽחַן־שָׁ֥ם יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל נֶ֥גֶד הָהָֽר
2 And they pulled out from Rephidim, and they entered the wilderness of Sinai, and they encamped in the wilderness,
and there Israel encamped in front of the mountain.
3e 4B 20
וּמֹשֶׁ֥ה עָלָ֖ה אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים
וַיִּקְרָ֨א אֵלָ֤יו יְהוָה֙ מִן־הָהָ֣ר לֵאמֹ֔ר כֹּ֤ה תֹאמַר֙ לְבֵ֣ית יַעֲקֹ֔ב וְתַגֵּ֖יד לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
3 And Moses ascended to God.
And to him Yahweh called from the hill, saying, Thus you say to the house of Jacob, and you make clear to the children of Israel.
3e 4C 10
אַתֶּ֣ם רְאִיתֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשִׂ֖יתִי לְמִצְרָ֑יִם
וָאֶשָּׂ֤א אֶתְכֶם֙ עַל־כַּנְפֵ֣י נְשָׁרִ֔ים וָאָבִ֥א אֶתְכֶ֖ם אֵלָֽי
4 Yourselves, you have seen what I did to the Egyptians,
when I bore you on the wings of an eagle, and I had you come to me.
3e 4C 14
וְעַתָּ֗ה אִם־שָׁמ֤וֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ֙ בְּקֹלִ֔י וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֑י
וִהְיִ֨יתֶם לִ֤י סְגֻלָּה֙ מִכָּל־הָ֣עַמִּ֔ים כִּי־לִ֖י כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ
5 So now if hearing, you hear with my voice, and you keep my covenant,
then you will become for me a treasure trove from all the peoples, for all the land is mine.
3e 4C 20
וְאַתֶּ֧ם תִּהְיוּ־לִ֛י מַמְלֶ֥כֶת כֹּהֲנִ֖ים וְג֣וֹי קָד֑וֹשׁ
אֵ֚לֶּה הַדְּבָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר תְּדַבֵּ֖ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
6 And you will be to me, a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.
These are the words that you will speak to the children of Israel.
3c 4C 17
וַיָּבֹ֣א מֹשֶׁ֔ה וַיִּקְרָ֖א לְזִקְנֵ֣י הָעָ֑ם
וַיָּ֣שֶׂם לִפְנֵיהֶ֗ם אֵ֚ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֖הוּ יְהוָֽה
7 And Moses came and called for the elders of the people,
and set before them all these words which Yahweh had commanded.
3e 4C 13
וַיַּעֲנ֨וּ כָל־הָעָ֤ם יַחְדָּו֙ וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ כֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה נַעֲשֶׂ֑ה
וַיָּ֧שֶׁב מֹשֶׁ֛ה אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֥י הָעָ֖ם אֶל־יְהוָֽה
8 And all the people answered as one, and they said, All that Yahweh has spoken we will do.
And Moses returned the words of the people to Yahweh.
3c 4C 22
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה הִנֵּ֨ה אָנֹכִ֜י בָּ֣א אֵלֶיךָ֮ בְּעַ֣ב הֶֽעָנָן֒ בַּעֲב֞וּר יִשְׁמַ֤ע הָעָם֙ בְּדַבְּרִ֣י עִמָּ֔ךְ וְגַם־בְּךָ֖ יַאֲמִ֣ינוּ לְעוֹלָ֑ם
וַיַּגֵּ֥ד מֹשֶׁ֛ה אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֥י הָעָ֖ם אֶל־יְהוָֽה
9 And Yahweh said to Moses, Behold I come to you in the thick cloud, so that the people will hear when I speak with you, and moreover, in you they will believe forever.
And Moses made clear the words of the people to Yahweh.
3d 4C 45
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֤ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה֙ לֵ֣ךְ אֶל־הָעָ֔ם וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ֥ם הַיּ֖וֹם וּמָחָ֑ר
וְכִבְּס֖וּ שִׂמְלֹתָֽם
10 And Yahweh said to Moses, Go to the people and sanctify them today and tomorrow.
And have them scour their dress.
3e 4C 21
וְהָי֥וּ נְכֹנִ֖ים לַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֑י
כִּ֣י ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֗י יֵרֵ֧ד יְהוָ֛ה לְעֵינֵ֥י כָל־הָעָ֖ם עַל־הַ֥ר סִינָֽי
11 So let them be prepared for the third day,
for on the third day Yahweh will come down in the sight of all the people on mount Sinai.
3c 4B 11
וְהִגְבַּלְתָּ֤ אֶת־הָעָם֙ סָבִ֣יב לֵאמֹ֔ר הִשָּׁמְר֥וּ לָכֶ֛ם עֲל֥וֹת בָּהָ֖ר וּנְגֹ֣עַ בְּקָצֵ֑הוּ
כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בָּהָ֖ר מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת
12 And you will set borders for the people round about, saying, keep yourselves from going up on the hill and from touching its limit.
Anything that touches the hill will be put to death.
3d 4C 27
לֹא־תִגַּ֨ע בּ֜וֹ יָ֗ד כִּֽי־סָק֤וֹל יִסָּקֵל֙ אוֹ־יָרֹ֣ה יִיָּרֶ֔ה אִם־בְּהֵמָ֥ה אִם־אִ֖ישׁ לֹ֣א יִחְיֶ֑ה
בִּמְשֹׁךְ֙ הַיֹּבֵ֔ל הֵ֖מָּה יַעֲל֥וּ בָהָֽר
13 Hand will not touch it, for it will be stoned to death, or shot through, whether beast or person, it will not live.
When the ram's horn is drawn out, they will ascend onto the hill.
3e 4C 23
וַיֵּ֧רֶד מֹשֶׁ֛ה מִן־הָהָ֖ר אֶל־הָעָ֑ם
וַיְקַדֵּשׁ֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וַֽיְכַבְּס֖וּ שִׂמְלֹתָֽם
14 And Moses descended from the hill to the people,
and he sanctified the people, and they scoured their dress.
3c 4A 11
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אֶל־הָעָ֔ם הֱי֥וּ נְכֹנִ֖ים לִשְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֑ים
אַֽל־תִּגְּשׁ֖וּ אֶל־אִשָּֽׁה
15 And he said to the people, Be prepared for three days.
You are not to make overture to a wife.
3e 4B 16
וַיְהִי֩ בַיּ֨וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֜י בִּֽהְיֹ֣ת הַבֹּ֗קֶר וַיְהִי֩ קֹלֹ֨ת וּבְרָקִ֜ים וְעָנָ֤ן כָּבֵד֙ עַל־הָהָ֔ר וְקֹ֥ל שֹׁפָ֖ר חָזָ֣ק מְאֹ֑ד
וַיֶּחֱרַ֥ד כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
16 And it was on the third day when it was the morning, and there were rumblings and lightnings, and the cloud of glory on the hill, and shophar sounded, very resolute,
and all the people were apprehensive that were in the camp.
3e 4C 35
וַיּוֹצֵ֨א מֹשֶׁ֧ה אֶת־הָעָ֛ם לִקְרַ֥את הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים מִן־הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֑ה
וַיִּֽתְיַצְּב֖וּ בְּתַחְתִּ֥ית הָהָֽר
17 And Moses made the people come forth to encounter God from the camp,
and they presented themselves at the lower part of the hill.
3c 4A 19
וְהַ֤ר סִינַי֙ עָשַׁ֣ן כֻּלּ֔וֹ מִ֠פְּנֵי אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָרַ֥ד עָלָ֛יו יְהוָ֖ה בָּאֵ֑שׁ
וַיַּ֤עַל עֲשָׁנוֹ֙ כְּעֶ֣שֶׁן הַכִּבְשָׁ֔ן וַיֶּחֱרַ֥ד כָּל־הָהָ֖ר מְאֹֽד
18 And mount Sinai was smoking, all of it, for the presence that was descending on it, Yahweh, in the fire.
And its smoke ascended as the smoke of a kiln, and the whole hill was very apprehensive.
3d 4C 20
וַיְהִי֙ ק֣וֹל הַשּׁוֹפָ֔ר הוֹלֵ֖ךְ וְחָזֵ֣ק מְאֹ֑ד
מֹשֶׁ֣ה יְדַבֵּ֔ר וְהָאֱלֹהִ֖ים יַעֲנֶ֥נּוּ בְקֽוֹל
19 And the voice of the shophar, walking, and very resolute, Moses spoke, and God answered him with a voice. 3e 4B 13
וַיֵּ֧רֶד יְהוָ֛ה עַל־הַ֥ר סִינַ֖י אֶל־רֹ֣אשׁ הָהָ֑ר
וַיִּקְרָ֨א יְהוָ֧ה לְמֹשֶׁ֛ה אֶל־רֹ֥אשׁ הָהָ֖ר וַיַּ֥עַל מֹשֶֽׁה
20 And Yahweh descended over mount Sinai, to the top of the hill,
and Yahweh called for Moses to the top of the hill, and Moses ascended.
3c 4B 13
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֔ה רֵ֖ד הָעֵ֣ד בָּעָ֑ם
פֶּן־יֶהֶרְס֤וּ אֶל־יְהוָה֙ לִרְא֔וֹת וְנָפַ֥ל מִמֶּ֖נּוּ רָֽב
21 And Yahweh said to Moses, Descend. Witness among the people,
lest they shove through to Yahweh to see, and many fall from him.
3e 4C 13
וְגַ֧ם הַכֹּהֲנִ֛ים הַנִּגָּשִׁ֥ים אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה יִתְקַדָּ֑שׁוּ
פֶּן־יִפְרֹ֥ץ בָּהֶ֖ם יְהוָֽה
22 And moreover the priests who make overture to Yahweh, let them sanctify themselves,
lest Yahweh break out against them.
3c 4A 17
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר מֹשֶׁה֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה לֹא־יוּכַ֣ל הָעָ֔ם לַעֲלֹ֖ת אֶל־הַ֣ר סִינָ֑י
כִּֽי־אַתָּ֞ה הַעֵדֹ֤תָה בָּ֙נוּ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הַגְבֵּ֥ל אֶת־הָהָ֖ר וְקִדַּשְׁתּֽוֹ
23 And Moses said to Yahweh, the people cannot come up to mount Sinai,
because you, you testified among us, saying, Set borders around the mount and sanctify it.
3e 4C 19
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלָ֤יו יְהוָה֙ לֶךְ־רֵ֔ד וְעָלִ֥יתָ אַתָּ֖ה וְאַהֲרֹ֣ן עִמָּ֑ךְ
וְהַכֹּהֲנִ֣ים וְהָעָ֗ם אַל־יֶֽהֶרְס֛וּ לַעֲלֹ֥ת אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה פֶּן־יִפְרָץ־בָּֽם
24 And Yahweh said to him, Go. Descend, and you will ascend, you and Aaron with you,
but the priests and the people are not to shove through to ascend to Yahweh, lest he break out against them.
3d 4C 21
וַיֵּ֥רֶד מֹשֶׁ֖ה אֶל־הָעָ֑ם
וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֲלֵהֶֽם
25 And Moses descended to the people,
and he said to them:
3e 4A 8
Exodus 20 follows the colon.