Thursday, March 23, 2017

Exodus 19

When is הר a hill and when is it a mountain? (Whenever the reader decides). We have a hill nearby called Mount Tolmie (120 m) and another called Mount Doug (228 m). They are small actually, but bigger than a hillock. הר is indeterminate. Hermon is a mountain (2814 m), but the mount of Olives is 835 m, easily climbed from the Old City (about 700 m) via the garden of Gethsemane.  Mt Sinai is higher so I had better start calling it a mountain! But let's see... The Rockies rise to over 4000 m. Mt Everest to nearly 9000 m. Relative, I guess.

This chapter prepares the ground for the next. Perhaps we could think of it as the drum roll before the main act. There appears again a kind of tug of war between Moses and Yahweh, the agony of a culture preparing the essence of its instruction. Here we have general agreement among the elders concerning what is to be revealed in the next chapter (reading that chapter say as the substance implied in verse 7 below). Here also is the ultimate focus on Yahweh and not on Moses in the process of sanctification and scouring of dress. Yet it is Moses whom the people believe for ever. That statement from Yahweh is a tight loop enfolding the whole instructed body as a knot holds in stitching.

When one considers the difficulty of this problem, it is a wonder that we live at all.

Exodus 19 Fn Min Max Syll
בַּחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֔י לְצֵ֥את בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם
בַּיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה בָּ֖אוּ מִדְבַּ֥ר סִינָֽי
1 In the third month of the coming out of the children of Israel from the land of Egypt,
on this day, they entered the wilderness of Sinai.
3e 4B 19
10
וַיִּסְע֣וּ מֵרְפִידִ֗ים וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ מִדְבַּ֣ר סִינַ֔י וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בַּמִּדְבָּ֑ר
וַיִּֽחַן־שָׁ֥ם יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל נֶ֥גֶד הָהָֽר
2 And they pulled out from Rephidim, and they entered the wilderness of Sinai, and they encamped in the wilderness,
and there Israel encamped in front of the mountain.
3e 4B 20
11
וּמֹשֶׁ֥ה עָלָ֖ה אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים
וַיִּקְרָ֨א אֵלָ֤יו יְהוָה֙ מִן־הָהָ֣ר לֵאמֹ֔ר כֹּ֤ה תֹאמַר֙ לְבֵ֣ית יַעֲקֹ֔ב וְתַגֵּ֖יד לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
3 And Moses ascended to God.
And to him Yahweh called from the hill, saying, Thus you say to the house of Jacob, and you make clear to the children of Israel.
3e 4C 10
28
אַתֶּ֣ם רְאִיתֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשִׂ֖יתִי לְמִצְרָ֑יִם
וָאֶשָּׂ֤א אֶתְכֶם֙ עַל־כַּנְפֵ֣י נְשָׁרִ֔ים וָאָבִ֥א אֶתְכֶ֖ם אֵלָֽי
4 Yourselves, you have seen what I did to the Egyptians,
when I bore you on the wings of an eagle, and I had you come to me.
3e 4C 14
18
וְעַתָּ֗ה אִם־שָׁמ֤וֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ֙ בְּקֹלִ֔י וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֑י
וִהְיִ֨יתֶם לִ֤י סְגֻלָּה֙ מִכָּל־הָ֣עַמִּ֔ים כִּי־לִ֖י כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ
5 So now if to hear, you hear with my voice, and you keep my covenant,
then you will become for me a treasure trove from all the peoples, for all the land is mine.
3e 4C 20
18
וְאַתֶּ֧ם תִּהְיוּ־לִ֛י מַמְלֶ֥כֶת כֹּהֲנִ֖ים וְג֣וֹי קָד֑וֹשׁ
אֵ֚לֶּה הַדְּבָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר תְּדַבֵּ֖ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
6 And you will be to me, a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.
These are the words that you will speak to the children of Israel.
3c 4C 17
16
וַיָּבֹ֣א מֹשֶׁ֔ה וַיִּקְרָ֖א לְזִקְנֵ֣י הָעָ֑ם
וַיָּ֣שֶׂם לִפְנֵיהֶ֗ם אֵ֚ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֖הוּ יְהוָֽה
7 And Moses came and called for the elders of the people,
and set before them all these words which Yahweh had commanded.
3e 4C 13
21
וַיַּעֲנ֨וּ כָל־הָעָ֤ם יַחְדָּו֙ וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ כֹּ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה נַעֲשֶׂ֑ה
וַיָּ֧שֶׁב מֹשֶׁ֛ה אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֥י הָעָ֖ם אֶל־יְהוָֽה
8 And all the people answered as one, and they said, All that Yahweh has spoken we will do.
And Moses returned the words of the people to Yahweh.
3c 4C 22
13
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה הִנֵּ֨ה אָנֹכִ֜י בָּ֣א אֵלֶיךָ֮ בְּעַ֣ב הֶֽעָנָן֒ בַּעֲב֞וּר יִשְׁמַ֤ע הָעָם֙ בְּדַבְּרִ֣י עִמָּ֔ךְ וְגַם־בְּךָ֖ יַאֲמִ֣ינוּ לְעוֹלָ֑ם
וַיַּגֵּ֥ד מֹשֶׁ֛ה אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֥י הָעָ֖ם אֶל־יְהוָֽה
9 And Yahweh said to Moses, Behold I come to you in the thick cloud, so that the people will hear when I speak with you, and moreover, in you they will believe forever.
And Moses made clear the words of the people to Yahweh.
3d 4C 45
13
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֤ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה֙ לֵ֣ךְ אֶל־הָעָ֔ם וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ֥ם הַיּ֖וֹם וּמָחָ֑ר
וְכִבְּס֖וּ שִׂמְלֹתָֽם
10 And Yahweh said to Moses, Go to the people and sanctify them today and tomorrow.
And have them scour their dress.
3e 4C 21
6
וְהָי֥וּ נְכֹנִ֖ים לַיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֑י
כִּ֣י ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֗י יֵרֵ֧ד יְהוָ֛ה לְעֵינֵ֥י כָל־הָעָ֖ם עַל־הַ֥ר סִינָֽי
11 So let them be prepared for the third day,
for on the third day Yahweh will come down in the sight of all the people on mount Sinai.
3c 4B 11
20
וְהִגְבַּלְתָּ֤ אֶת־הָעָם֙ סָבִ֣יב לֵאמֹ֔ר הִשָּׁמְר֥וּ לָכֶ֛ם עֲל֥וֹת בָּהָ֖ר וּנְגֹ֣עַ בְּקָצֵ֑הוּ
כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בָּהָ֖ר מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת
12 And you will set borders for the people round about, saying, keep yourselves from going up on the hill and from touching its limit.
Anything that touches the hill will be put to death.
3d 4C 27
10
לֹא־תִגַּ֨ע בּ֜וֹ יָ֗ד כִּֽי־סָק֤וֹל יִסָּקֵל֙ אוֹ־יָרֹ֣ה יִיָּרֶ֔ה אִם־בְּהֵמָ֥ה אִם־אִ֖ישׁ לֹ֣א יִחְיֶ֑ה
בִּמְשֹׁךְ֙ הַיֹּבֵ֔ל הֵ֖מָּה יַעֲל֥וּ בָהָֽר
13 Hand will not touch it, for it will be stoned to death, or shot through, whether beast or person, it will not live.
When the ram's horn is drawn out, they will ascend onto the hill.
3e 4C 23
12
וַיֵּ֧רֶד מֹשֶׁ֛ה מִן־הָהָ֖ר אֶל־הָעָ֑ם
וַיְקַדֵּשׁ֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וַֽיְכַבְּס֖וּ שִׂמְלֹתָֽם
14 And Moses descended from the hill to the people,
and he sanctified the people, and they scoured their dress.
3c 4A 11
12
וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אֶל־הָעָ֔ם הֱי֥וּ נְכֹנִ֖ים לִשְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֑ים
אַֽל־תִּגְּשׁ֖וּ אֶל־אִשָּֽׁה
15 And he said to the people, Be prepared for three days.
You are not to make overture to a wife.
3e 4B 16
6
וַיְהִי֩ בַיּ֨וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֜י בִּֽהְיֹ֣ת הַבֹּ֗קֶר וַיְהִי֩ קֹלֹ֨ת וּבְרָקִ֜ים וְעָנָ֤ן כָּבֵד֙ עַל־הָהָ֔ר וְקֹ֥ל שֹׁפָ֖ר חָזָ֣ק מְאֹ֑ד
וַיֶּחֱרַ֥ד כָּל־הָעָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
16 And it was on the third day when it was the morning, and there were rumblings and lightnings, and the cloud of glory on the hill, and shophar sounded, very resolute,
and all the people were apprehensive that were in the camp.
3e 4C 35
13
וַיּוֹצֵ֨א מֹשֶׁ֧ה אֶת־הָעָ֛ם לִקְרַ֥את הָֽאֱלֹהִ֖ים מִן־הַֽמַּחֲנֶ֑ה
וַיִּֽתְיַצְּב֖וּ בְּתַחְתִּ֥ית הָהָֽר
17 And Moses made the people come forth to encounter God from the camp,
and they presented themselves at the lower part of the hill.
3c 4A 19
9
וְהַ֤ר סִינַי֙ עָשַׁ֣ן כֻּלּ֔וֹ מִ֠פְּנֵי אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָרַ֥ד עָלָ֛יו יְהוָ֖ה בָּאֵ֑שׁ
וַיַּ֤עַל עֲשָׁנוֹ֙ כְּעֶ֣שֶׁן הַכִּבְשָׁ֔ן וַיֶּחֱרַ֥ד כָּל־הָהָ֖ר מְאֹֽד
18 And mount Sinai was smoking, all of it, for the presence that was descending on it, Yahweh, in the fire.
And its smoke ascended as the smoke of a kiln, and the whole hill was very apprehensive.
3d 4C 20
21
וַיְהִי֙ ק֣וֹל הַשּׁוֹפָ֔ר הוֹלֵ֖ךְ וְחָזֵ֣ק מְאֹ֑ד
מֹשֶׁ֣ה יְדַבֵּ֔ר וְהָאֱלֹהִ֖ים יַעֲנֶ֥נּוּ בְקֽוֹל
19 And the voice of the shophar, walking, and very resolute, Moses spoke, and God answered him with a voice. 3e 4B 13
16
וַיֵּ֧רֶד יְהוָ֛ה עַל־הַ֥ר סִינַ֖י אֶל־רֹ֣אשׁ הָהָ֑ר
וַיִּקְרָ֨א יְהוָ֧ה לְמֹשֶׁ֛ה אֶל־רֹ֥אשׁ הָהָ֖ר וַיַּ֥עַל מֹשֶֽׁה
20 And Yahweh descended over mount Sinai, to the top of the hill,
and Yahweh called for Moses to the top of the hill, and Moses ascended.
3c 4B 13
17
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֔ה רֵ֖ד הָעֵ֣ד בָּעָ֑ם
פֶּן־יֶהֶרְס֤וּ אֶל־יְהוָה֙ לִרְא֔וֹת וְנָפַ֥ל מִמֶּ֖נּוּ רָֽב
21 And Yahweh said to Moses, Descend. Witness among the people,
lest they shove through to Yahweh to see, and many fall from him.
3e 4C 13
16
וְגַ֧ם הַכֹּהֲנִ֛ים הַנִּגָּשִׁ֥ים אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה יִתְקַדָּ֑שׁוּ
פֶּן־יִפְרֹ֥ץ בָּהֶ֖ם יְהוָֽה
22 And moreover the priests who make overture to Yahweh, let them sanctify themselves,
lest Yahweh break out against them.
3c 4A 17
7
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר מֹשֶׁה֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה לֹא־יוּכַ֣ל הָעָ֔ם לַעֲלֹ֖ת אֶל־הַ֣ר סִינָ֑י
כִּֽי־אַתָּ֞ה הַעֵדֹ֤תָה בָּ֙נוּ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הַגְבֵּ֥ל אֶת־הָהָ֖ר וְקִדַּשְׁתּֽוֹ
23 And Moses said to Yahweh, the people cannot come up to mount Sinai,
because you, you testified among us, saying, Set borders around the mount and sanctify it.
3e 4C 19
19
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר אֵלָ֤יו יְהוָה֙ לֶךְ־רֵ֔ד וְעָלִ֥יתָ אַתָּ֖ה וְאַהֲרֹ֣ן עִמָּ֑ךְ
וְהַכֹּהֲנִ֣ים וְהָעָ֗ם אַל־יֶֽהֶרְס֛וּ לַעֲלֹ֥ת אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה פֶּן־יִפְרָץ־בָּֽם
24 And Yahweh said to him, Go. Descend, and you will ascend, you and Aaron with you,
but the priests and the people are not to shove through to ascend to Yahweh, lest he break out against them.
3d 4C 21
22
וַיֵּ֥רֶד מֹשֶׁ֖ה אֶל־הָעָ֑ם
וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֲלֵהֶֽם
25 And Moses descended to the people,
and he said to them:
3e 4A 8
6
Exodus 20 follows the colon.

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