Saturday, 25 November 2017

Leviticus 19

Mystery and music permeated my thoughts while working on this chapter on the Torah. A good mystery writer will find a way to illustrate verse 11. It is a suitable evocation of the implications of the commandment. All relationships pinned to truth. Such a writer will be equally helped by verse 35. Not to mention verse 2, the ideal of the detective who will not submit to the techniques that betray truth.

Every now and then one comes across a technical term that comes up and one is stumped as to how to interpret the tongue. One such occurs 3 times in verse 19, a principle of not mixing things that are different.  The root is כלא and the ending dual. I have ended up with doubly confined (after removing confine as a gloss from my rendition of the speeches of Yahweh in Job). It is clear that we have paid no attention to this issue today, with clothes, or interbreeding, or with DNA sequencing and splicing. There is perhaps a principle here that I am blind to. Perhaps in the spirit of the circular structure the sense is parallel to verse 17 in some fashion.

In verse 20 I find no scourging שׁוט. The only verb in the glosses for the stem בקר as used in verse 20 that I have is reflect. This is a puzzling usage. I suspect a 17th century bias against women for the scourge of KJV. JB has "the man is to be answerable for infringement of rights." (This is a 20th century rewrite). Compare Psalms 27:4, Proverbs 20:25, 27:19, 2 Kings 16:15, Ezra 5:17 (Aramaic). The common use of the word is for morning or for oxen or herd. What to do with this word?

Here is an answer: The expression ביקורת תהיה in this case is in the sense of "an inquiry will be held". In modern Hebrew, we still use the word לבקר in the sense of "to criticize" and "to oversee" (the state Ombudsman, for example, is known as מבקר המדינה).  

The inquiry in this case is whether the copulation was consensual or not; the compensation and/or fine that must be imposed on the man). The reason why this issue is mentioned here is that their congress is a type of a mixture of two different things that must not be mixed -- a free man and a slave. [Or so say the Jewish commentators.]

Note how morning becomes reflection - time has passed. This example alone teaches us how to reflect on Torah.

Verse 23 - very awkward phrasing. JB has, You will regard its fruit as its foreskin. This probably gets the idea across but it is not the word order or the words. The direct object marker precedes its fruit. And regard is acting as a helping verb to let foreskin itself act as a verb. It is an odd image. Creation is seen as immensely fruitful but the fruitfulness is to be seen as costly, not as automatic or instantly obtained. A bit more discipline than our instant society expects.

Verse 24 - praises may well be a new classification of offerings. Here too the atnach interrupts subject and object, a rare thing. I have left fruit on the rest note.

Verse 28 - very long first half with the rest note on among you. The reminder, a refrain throughout this section, is in this case the brief Ani Adonai A g# e. The longer refrain is in the music below - emphasis on the final syllable - your.
Refrain on several verses in Leviticus 19
The refrain suggests as its completion: the second half of verse 36. This verse I have left in Hebrew word order untouched so it can be sung note by note in Hebrew or English with each note corresponding to the same word in both languages.
Leviticus 19:36 using the key developed by Suzanne Haïk-Vantoura
I do not explicitly set each verse to the music. The extra time would hold me back. I am anxious to get through the reading at least once. But there is much to learn from using the music as an aid to close reading when the text is read in Hebrew or English. Slow is important. Drama also. Shape and the underlying harmonic structure cannot be heard if it is rushed. We await more arrangers with modal imagination to use this deposit of ancient creativity as a stimulus to new music.

Leviticus 19 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 1 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
דַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַ֧ת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל וְאָמַרְתָּ֥ אֲלֵהֶ֖ם קְדֹשִׁ֣ים תִּהְי֑וּ
כִּ֣י קָד֔וֹשׁ אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
2 Speak to all the assembly of the children of Israel and say to them, You will be holy,
because I, Yahweh your God, am holy.
3c 4B 23
אִ֣ישׁ אִמּ֤וֹ וְאָבִיו֙ תִּירָ֔אוּ וְאֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַ֖י תִּשְׁמֹ֑רוּ
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
3 B You each will fear his mother and his father and my Sabbaths you will keep.
I am Yahweh your God.
3e 4C 17
אַל־תִּפְנוּ֙ אֶל־הָ֣אֱלִילִ֔ים וֵֽאלֹהֵי֙ מַסֵּכָ֔ה לֹ֥א תַעֲשׂ֖וּ לָכֶ֑ם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
4 You will not face the good for nothing, and a god of a molten image you will not construct for yourselves.
I am Yahweh your God.
3e 4B 20
וְכִ֧י תִזְבְּח֛וּ זֶ֥בַח שְׁלָמִ֖ים לַיהוָ֑ה
לִֽרְצֹנְכֶ֖ם תִּזְבָּחֻֽהוּ
5 And when you offer a sacrifice of peace offerings to Yahweh,
with your acceptance you will offer it.
3c 4A 12
בְּי֧וֹם זִבְחֲכֶ֛ם יֵאָכֵ֖ל וּמִֽמָּחֳרָ֑ת
וְהַנּוֹתָר֙ עַד־י֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֔י בָּאֵ֖שׁ יִשָּׂרֵֽף
6 On the day of your offering it will be eaten, and on the morrow,
and what remains until the third day, in the fire will be incinerated.
3c 4B 13
וְאִ֛ם הֵאָכֹ֥ל יֵאָכֵ֖ל בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֑י
פִּגּ֥וּל ה֖וּא לֹ֥א יֵרָצֶֽה
7 And if to be eaten it is eaten on the third day,
it is fetid. It will not be accepted.
3d 4B 13
וְאֹֽכְלָיו֙ עֲוֺנ֣וֹ יִשָּׂ֔א כִּֽי־אֶת־קֹ֥דֶשׁ יְהוָ֖ה חִלֵּ֑ל
וְנִכְרְתָ֛ה הַנֶּ֥פֶשׁ הַהִ֖וא מֵעַמֶּֽיהָ
8 And whoever eats it, his iniquity will lift up, because the holiness of Yahweh he has profaned,
That very self will be cut off from his people.
3d 4B 15
וּֽבְקֻצְרְכֶם֙ אֶת־קְצִ֣יר אַרְצְכֶ֔ם לֹ֧א תְכַלֶּ֛ה פְּאַ֥ת שָׂדְךָ֖ לִקְצֹ֑ר
וְלֶ֥קֶט קְצִֽירְךָ֖ לֹ֥א תְלַקֵּֽט
9 And when you reap the harvest of your land, you will not finish the edges of a field to be harvested,
and the gleaning of your harvest, you will not glean.
3c 4B 20
וְכַרְמְךָ֙ לֹ֣א תְעוֹלֵ֔ל וּפֶ֥רֶט כַּרְמְךָ֖ לֹ֣א תְלַקֵּ֑ט
לֶֽעָנִ֤י וְלַגֵּר֙ תַּעֲזֹ֣ב אֹתָ֔ם אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
10 And your vineyard you will not glean grapes from, and the loose grapes of your vineyard, you will not glean.
For the poor and for the guest you will forsake them. I am Yahweh your God.
3e 4C 18
לֹ֖א תִּגְנֹ֑בוּ
וְלֹא־תְכַחֲשׁ֥וּ וְלֹֽא־תְשַׁקְּר֖וּ אִ֥ישׁ בַּעֲמִיתֽוֹ
11 g You will not steal,
and you will not dissimulate, and you will not deal falsely, each with its fellow.
3e 4A 4
וְלֹֽא־תִשָּׁבְע֥וּ בִשְׁמִ֖י לַשָּׁ֑קֶר
וְחִלַּלְתָּ֛ אֶת־שֵׁ֥ם אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
12 And you will not swear by my name falsely,
or profane the name of your God. I am Yahweh.
3d 4A 9
לֹֽא־תַעֲשֹׁ֥ק אֶת־רֵֽעֲךָ֖ וְלֹ֣א תִגְזֹ֑ל
לֹֽא־תָלִ֞ין פְּעֻלַּ֥ת שָׂכִ֛יר אִתְּךָ֖ עַד־בֹּֽקֶר
13 You will not oppress your associate and you will not rob.
The amount due of a contract will not bide with you until morning.
3d 4B 11
לֹא־תְקַלֵּ֣ל חֵרֵ֔שׁ וְלִפְנֵ֣י עִוֵּ֔ר לֹ֥א תִתֵּ֖ן מִכְשֹׁ֑ל
וְיָרֵ֥אתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
14 You will not slight the deaf, and before the blind you will not permit a stumbling-block,
and you will be fearful from your God. I am Yahweh.
3e 4B 16
לֹא־תַעֲשׂ֥וּ עָ֙וֶל֙ בַּמִּשְׁפָּ֔ט לֹא־תִשָּׂ֣א פְנֵי־דָ֔ל וְלֹ֥א תֶהְדַּ֖ר פְּנֵ֣י גָד֑וֹל
בְּצֶ֖דֶק תִּשְׁפֹּ֥ט עֲמִיתֶֽךָ
15 You will not do injustice in the judgment. nor will you be partial before the weak, nor will you give honour before the great.
In righteousness you will judge your fellow.
3e 4B 21
לֹא־תֵלֵ֤ךְ רָכִיל֙ בְּעַמֶּ֔יךָ לֹ֥א תַעֲמֹ֖ד עַל־דַּ֣ם רֵעֶ֑ךָ
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
16 You will not walk as a scandal-monger among your people, nor will you stand against the blood of your associate.
I am Yahweh.
3e 4C 17
לֹֽא־תִשְׂנָ֥א אֶת־אָחִ֖יךָ בִּלְבָבֶ֑ךָ
הוֹכֵ֤חַ תּוֹכִ֙יחַ֙ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶ֔ךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂ֥א עָלָ֖יו חֵֽטְא
17 You will not hate your kin in your heart.
To referee, you will correct your fellow, that you will not bear sin over him.
3e 4C 11
לֹֽא־תִקֹּ֤ם וְלֹֽא־תִטֹּר֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י עַמֶּ֔ךָ וְאָֽהַבְתָּ֥ לְרֵעֲךָ֖ כָּמ֑וֹךָ
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
18 You will not avenge, and you will not hold back with the children of your people, but you will love your associate as yourself.
I am Yahweh.
3e 4C 22
אֶֽת־חֻקֹּתַי֮ תִּשְׁמֹרוּ֒ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ֙ לֹא־תַרְבִּ֣יעַ כִּלְאַ֔יִם שָׂדְךָ֖ לֹא־תִזְרַ֣ע כִּלְאָ֑יִם
וּבֶ֤גֶד כִּלְאַ֙יִם֙ שַֽׁעַטְנֵ֔ז לֹ֥א יַעֲלֶ֖ה עָלֶֽיךָ
19 My statutes you will keep. Your cattle you will not let copulate doubly confined. A field you will not sow doubly confined,
and a garment doubly confined to linen and wool, will not come up over you.
3e 4C 25
וְ֠אִישׁ כִּֽי־יִשְׁכַּ֨ב אֶת־אִשָּׁ֜ה שִׁכְבַת־זֶ֗רַע וְהִ֤וא שִׁפְחָה֙ נֶחֱרֶ֣פֶת לְאִ֔ישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה֙ לֹ֣א נִפְדָּ֔תָה א֥וֹ חֻפְשָׁ֖ה לֹ֣א נִתַּן־לָ֑הּ
בִּקֹּ֧רֶת תִּהְיֶ֛ה לֹ֥א יוּמְת֖וּ כִּי־לֹ֥א חֻפָּֽשָׁה
20 ~ And anyone who lies down with a woman for an emission of seed, and she a female slave espoused to another, and her ransom is not ransomed nor her freedom given to her
This will be reflected on. They will not be put to death for she was not free.
3c 4C 36
וְהֵבִ֤יא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה אֶל־פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד
אֵ֖יל אָשָֽׁם
21 And he will bring his guilt offering to Yahweh to the door of the tent of engagement,
the ram of the guilt offering.
3e 4C 16
וְכִפֶּר֩ עָלָ֨יו הַכֹּהֵ֜ן בְּאֵ֤יל הָֽאָשָׁם֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה עַל־חַטָּאת֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָטָ֑א
וְנִסְלַ֣ח ל֔וֹ מֵחַטָּאת֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָטָֽא
22 And the priest will make a cover-price for him with the ram of the guilt offering in the presence of Yahweh concerning his sin that he sinned,
and his sin that he sinned will be forgiven him.
3e 4C 25
וְכִי־תָבֹ֣אוּ אֶל־הָאָ֗רֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם֙ כָּל־עֵ֣ץ מַאֲכָ֔ל וַעֲרַלְתֶּ֥ם עָרְלָת֖וֹ אֶת־פִּרְי֑וֹ
שָׁלֹ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֗ים יִהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֛ם עֲרֵלִ֖ים לֹ֥א יֵאָכֵֽל
23 And when you come to the land and you have planted every tree for food, then you will see as fore-skinned its foreskin, its fruit.
Three years it will be for you as fore-skinned. It will not be eaten.
3d 4B 25
וּבַשָּׁנָה֙ הָרְבִיעִ֔ת יִהְיֶ֖ה כָּל־פִּרְי֑וֹ
קֹ֥דֶשׁ הִלּוּלִ֖ים לַיהוָֽה
24 And in the fourth year, will be, all its fruit,
holiness, praises to Yahweh.
3e 4A 12
וּבַשָּׁנָ֣ה הַחֲמִישִׁ֗ת תֹּֽאכְלוּ֙ אֶת־פִּרְי֔וֹ לְהוֹסִ֥יף לָכֶ֖ם תְּבוּאָת֑וֹ
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
25 In the fifth year you will eat its fruit, to add repeatedly for you its income.
I am Yahweh your God.
3e 4B 22
לֹ֥א תֹאכְל֖וּ עַל־הַדָּ֑ם
לֹ֥א תְנַחֲשׁ֖וּ וְלֹ֥א תְעוֹנֵֽנוּ
26 f You will not eat over the blood.
You will not use augury or fortunetellers.
3e 4A 6
לֹ֣א תַקִּ֔פוּ פְּאַ֖ת רֹאשְׁכֶ֑ם
וְלֹ֣א תַשְׁחִ֔ית אֵ֖ת פְּאַ֥ת זְקָנֶֽךָ
27 B You will not encompass the edges of your heads,
nor will you impair the edges of your beard.
3e 4B 8
וְשֶׂ֣רֶט לָנֶ֗פֶשׁ לֹ֤א תִתְּנוּ֙ בִּבְשַׂרְכֶ֔ם וּכְתֹ֣בֶת קַֽעֲקַ֔ע לֹ֥א תִתְּנ֖וּ בָּכֶ֑ם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
28 And lacerations for a cadaver you will not permit in your flesh, and writing a tattoo you will not permit among you.
I am Yahweh.
3e 4C 23
אַל־תְּחַלֵּ֥ל אֶֽת־בִּתְּךָ֖ לְהַזְנוֹתָ֑הּ
וְלֹא־תִזְנֶ֣ה הָאָ֔רֶץ וּמָלְאָ֥ה הָאָ֖רֶץ זִמָּֽה
29 Do not profane your daughter to make her a prostitute,
and the land will not prostitute itself and the land be full of schemes.
3e 4B 11
אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַ֣י תִּשְׁמֹ֔רוּ וּמִקְדָּשִׁ֖י תִּירָ֑אוּ
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
30 My Sabbaths you will keep, and my sanctuary you will fear.
I am Yahweh.
3e 4B 14
אַל־תִּפְנ֤וּ אֶל־הָאֹבֹת֙ וְאֶל־הַיִּדְּעֹנִ֔ים אַל־תְּבַקְשׁ֖וּ לְטָמְאָ֣ה בָהֶ֑ם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
31 You will not face the necromancer, and to the wizards you will not seek, to be defiled by them.
I am Yahweh your God.
3e 4C 22
מִפְּנֵ֤י שֵׂיבָה֙ תָּק֔וּם וְהָדַרְתָּ֖ פְּנֵ֣י זָקֵ֑ן
וְיָרֵ֥אתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
32 From the presence of grey hairs, you will arise, and you will honour the presence of an elder,
and you will be fearful from your God. I am Yahweh.
3e 4C 14
וְכִֽי־יָג֧וּר אִתְּךָ֛ גֵּ֖ר בְּאַרְצְכֶ֑ם
לֹ֥א תוֹנ֖וּ אֹתֽוֹ
33 And when a guest resides with you in your land,
you will not suppress him.
3c 4A 10
כְּאֶזְרָ֣ח מִכֶּם֩ יִהְיֶ֨ה לָכֶ֜ם הַגֵּ֣ר ׀ הַגָּ֣ר אִתְּכֶ֗ם וְאָהַבְתָּ֥ לוֹ֙ כָּמ֔וֹךָ כִּֽי־גֵרִ֥ים הֱיִיתֶ֖ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
34 As the native from you, the guest residing with you will be for you, and you will love him as yourself, for guests you were in the land of Egypt.
I am Yahweh your God.
3e 4B 34
לֹא־תַעֲשׂ֥וּ עָ֖וֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּ֑ט
בַּמִּדָּ֕ה בַּמִּשְׁקָ֖ל וּבַמְּשׂוּרָֽה
35 You will not do injustice in the judgment,
by measure, by weight, or by influence.
3e 4A 8
מֹ֧אזְנֵי צֶ֣דֶק אַבְנֵי־צֶ֗דֶק אֵ֥יפַת צֶ֛דֶק וְהִ֥ין צֶ֖דֶק יִהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֑ם
אֲנִי֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵ֥אתִי אֶתְכֶ֖ם מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם
36 c A balance, righteous, stones, righteous, ephah, righteous, and hin, righteous, it will be for you.
I am Yahweh your God who brought out you from the land of Egypt.
3c 4B 19
וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֤ם אֶת־כָּל־חֻקֹּתַי֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפָּטַ֔י וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑ם
אֲנִ֖י יְהוָֽה
37 And you will keep all my statutes and all my judgments, and do them.
I am Yahweh.
3e 4C 20

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