Monday, November 27, 2017

Isaiah 7

I did not plan this passage for the Advent / Christmas season. It just happened that way. I am surprised at what I find. The prophecy is political. There is no 'sign' as such (apart from the names of the children). A young woman is pregnant and gives birth. Ahaz has to wait till a child grows up, but presumably his fear was more immediate. Isaiah seems to be making fun of him. Since Ahaz never seems to have been able to refuse evil and choose the good, he would have had to wait a long time. As much as 65 years before Ephraim is dismayed, חתת. And anyone who has been 65 will know there are plenty of failures in the task of choosing the good and refusing the evil.

Are there enough synonyms in English for all the types of thorn that seem to be needed for the Hebrew stems? Fortunately, one of the stems unique to Isaiah seems to reduce to another. Quite how שׁית comes from שׁנן I am not sure, but I will take the escape route. I see I do have a spare synonym, but I admit a lot more research into the intent of these wild words is required. Not all brambles are equal. My list at present is this. דרדר thistle, חדק prickly shrub, חוח thorn, נעצוץ thorn-bush, קוץ bramble, bristle, שׁמר spike, שׁנן gibe.

The English lemma routine needs quite a bit of shaking down and the categorization of words by domain is very rough in places. You can envisage a very messy finish line for the reading part of this project, lemmata, roots, and stems everywhere...

I have a question outstanding to my coach on עמ לא ... כי לא construction. These conjunctions seem very flexible in their usage. Ahaz has a name that is also the stem for hold fast, or grasp. He should find faithfulness easier than he does (verse 9). The sense of verse 9 per my coach is: The verse uses the two verb permutations to indicate a reciprocal action: If you do not believe [in the covenant between God and Israel], then the covenant promises to David will not be fulfilled with regard to you.

So here is a challenge for the strict reader. How will I reflect the hiphil and niphal here?
Isaiah 7 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְהִ֡י בִּימֵ֣י אָ֠חָז בֶּן־יוֹתָ֨ם בֶּן־עֻזִּיָּ֜הוּ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֗ה עָלָ֣ה רְצִ֣ין מֶֽלֶךְ־אֲ֠רָם וּפֶ֨קַח בֶּן־רְמַלְיָ֤הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה עָלֶ֑יהָ
וְלֹ֥א יָכֹ֖ל לְהִלָּחֵ֥ם עָלֶֽיהָ
1 It was in the days of Ahaz, child of Jotham, child of Uzziah king of Judah, Rezin king of Aram went up, and Peqach child of Remalia, king of Israel, to Jerusalem to make war on her,
but he was not able to fight against her.
3e 4C 51
וַיֻּגַּ֗ד לְבֵ֤ית דָּוִד֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר נָ֥חָֽה אֲרָ֖ם עַל־אֶפְרָ֑יִם
וַיָּ֤נַע לְבָבוֹ֙ וּלְבַ֣ב עַמּ֔וֹ כְּנ֥וֹעַ עֲצֵי־יַ֖עַר מִפְּנֵי־רֽוּחַ
2 And it was made clear to the house of David, saying, Aram has reposed over Ephraim.
And his heart was wavering to and fro and the heart of his people, as the trees of the forest waver to and fro in the face of wind.
3e 4C 17
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָה֮ אֶֽל־יְשַׁעְיָהוּ֒ צֵא־נָא֙ לִקְרַ֣את אָחָ֔ז אַתָּ֕ה וּשְׁאָ֖ר יָשׁ֣וּב בְּנֶ֑ךָ
אֶל־קְצֵ֗ה תְּעָלַת֙ הַבְּרֵכָ֣ה הָעֶלְיוֹנָ֔ה אֶל־מְסִלַּ֖ת שְׂדֵ֥ה כוֹבֵֽס
3 And Yahweh said to Isaiah, Go forth, if you will, to encounter Ahaz, you and The-Residue-Will-Return, your son,
to the limit of the conduit of the blessing pool, the upper part, to the highway of the field of the fuller.
3e 4B 25
וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֵ֠לָיו הִשָּׁמֵ֨ר וְהַשְׁקֵ֜ט אַל־תִּירָ֗א וּלְבָבְךָ֙ אַל־יֵרַ֔ךְ מִשְּׁנֵ֨י זַנְב֧וֹת הָאוּדִ֛ים הָעֲשֵׁנִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה
בָּחֳרִי־אַ֛ף רְצִ֥ין וַאֲרָ֖ם וּבֶן־רְמַלְיָֽהוּ
4 And say to him, Keep watch and be quiet. Do not fear and let not your heart be flustered from these two tails of smoking incendiaries,
burning with anger, Rezin and Aram, and the child of Remalia.
3c 4B 35
יַ֗עַן כִּֽי־יָעַ֥ץ עָלֶ֛יךָ אֲרָ֖ם רָעָ֑ה
אֶפְרַ֥יִם וּבֶן־רְמַלְיָ֖הוּ לֵאמֹֽר
5 ~ Because Aram has evil counsel against you,
Ephraim and the child of Remalia, saying,
3d 4A 11
נַעֲלֶ֤ה בִֽיהוּדָה֙ וּנְקִיצֶ֔נָּה וְנַבְקִעֶ֖נָּה אֵלֵ֑ינוּ
וְנַמְלִ֥יךְ מֶ֙לֶךְ֙ בְּתוֹכָ֔הּ אֵ֖ת בֶּן־טָֽבְאַֽל
6 Let us go up to Judah and make her bristle, and let us split her in two for us,
and let us make a king reign in her midst, the child of Tabeel.
3e 4C 18
כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה
לֹ֥א תָק֖וּם וְלֹ֥א תִֽהְיֶֽה
7 f Thus says my Lord Yahweh,
It will not arise nor will it happen.
3e 4B 8
כִּ֣י רֹ֤אשׁ אֲרָם֙ דַּמֶּ֔שֶׂק וְרֹ֥אשׁ דַּמֶּ֖שֶׂק רְצִ֑ין
וּבְע֗וֹד שִׁשִּׁ֤ים וְחָמֵשׁ֙ שָׁנָ֔ה יֵחַ֥ת אֶפְרַ֖יִם מֵעָֽם
8 B For the head of Aram is Damascus, and the head of Damascus Rezin,
and within sixty five years Ephraim will be dismayed from the people.
3e 4C 14
וְרֹ֤אשׁ אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ שֹׁמְר֔וֹן וְרֹ֥אשׁ שֹׁמְר֖וֹן בֶּן־רְמַלְיָ֑הוּ
אִ֚ם לֹ֣א תַאֲמִ֔ינוּ כִּ֖י לֹ֥א תֵאָמֵֽנוּ
9 And the head of Ephraim is Samaria and the head of Samaria the child of Remalia.
If you will not believe, so you will not be believed.
3e 4C 15
וַיּ֣וֹסֶף יְהוָ֔ה דַּבֵּ֥ר אֶל־אָחָ֖ז לֵאמֹֽר 10 And again Yahweh spoke to Ahaz, saying, 3e 4B 12
שְׁאַל־לְךָ֣ א֔וֹת מֵעִ֖ם יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ
הַעְמֵ֣ק שְׁאָ֔לָה א֖וֹ הַגְבֵּ֥הַּ לְמָֽעְלָה
11 Ask for yourself a sign from Yahweh your God,
make a deep request, or high and lofty above.
3e 4B 13
וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אָחָ֑ז
לֹא־אֶשְׁאַ֥ל וְלֹֽא־אֲנַסֶּ֖ה אֶת־יְהוָֽה
12 But Ahaz said,
I will not ask and I will not tempt Yahweh.
3e 4A 5
וַיֹּ֕אמֶר שִׁמְעוּ־נָ֖א בֵּ֣ית דָּוִ֑ד
הַמְעַ֤ט מִכֶּם֙ הַלְא֣וֹת אֲנָשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י תַלְא֖וּ גַּ֥ם אֶת־אֱלֹהָֽי
13 And he said, Hear, if you will, O house of David.
Is it insignificant to you to fatigue everyone that you must also fatigue God?
3e 4C 8
לָ֠כֵן יִתֵּ֨ן אֲדֹנָ֥י ה֛וּא לָכֶ֖ם א֑וֹת
הִנֵּ֣ה הָעַלְמָ֗ה הָרָה֙ וְיֹלֶ֣דֶת בֵּ֔ן וְקָרָ֥את שְׁמ֖וֹ עִמָּ֥נוּ אֵֽל
14 ~ Therefore my Lord himself will give for you a sign.
Behold, a pregnant young woman will give birth to a son, and you will call his name Is-With-Us-God [Immanu-El].
3d 4B 11
חֶמְאָ֥ה וּדְבַ֖שׁ יֹאכֵ֑ל
לְדַעְתּ֛וֹ מָא֥וֹס בָּרָ֖ע וּבָח֥וֹר בַּטּֽוֹב
15 Clotted cream and honey he will eat,
that he may know to refuse evil and choose good.
3d 4A 6
כִּ֠י בְּטֶ֨רֶם יֵדַ֥ע הַנַּ֛עַר מָאֹ֥ס בָּרָ֖ע וּבָחֹ֣ר בַּטּ֑וֹב
תֵּעָזֵ֤ב הָאֲדָמָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אַתָּ֣ה קָ֔ץ מִפְּנֵ֖י שְׁנֵ֥י מְלָכֶֽיהָ
16 ~ For before the youngster knows to refuse evil and chose good,
the ground will be forsaken where from the presence of two kings you were bristling.
3d 4C 18
יָבִ֨יא יְהוָ֜ה עָלֶ֗יךָ וְעַֽל־עַמְּךָ֮ וְעַל־בֵּ֣ית אָבִיךָ֒ יָמִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־בָ֔אוּ לְמִיּ֥וֹם סוּר־אֶפְרַ֖יִם מֵעַ֣ל יְהוּדָ֑ה
אֵ֖ת מֶ֥לֶךְ אַשּֽׁוּר
17 Yahweh will bring upon you and upon your people and upon the house of your father, days that have not come since the day Ephraim turned aside from Judah,
the king of Ashur.
3e 4B 34
וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יִשְׁרֹ֤ק יְהוָה֙ לַזְּב֔וּב אֲשֶׁ֥ר בִּקְצֵ֖ה יְאֹרֵ֣י מִצְרָ֑יִם
וְלַ֨דְּבוֹרָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּאֶ֥רֶץ אַשּֽׁוּר
18 And it will happen in that day, Yahweh will hiss for the fly that is toward the end of the canals of Egypt,
and for the bee that is in the land of Ashur.
3e 4C 23
וּבָ֨אוּ וְנָח֤וּ כֻלָּם֙ בְּנַחֲלֵ֣י הַבַּתּ֔וֹת וּבִנְקִיקֵ֖י הַסְּלָעִ֑ים
וּבְכֹל֙ הַנַּ֣עֲצוּצִ֔ים וּבְכֹ֖ל הַנַּהֲלֹלִֽים
19 And they will come and will rest, all of them, in the fallow wadis, and in the caverns of the cliffs,
and in all the thorn-bushes and in all the oases.
3e 4C 22
בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֡וּא יְגַלַּ֣ח אֲדֹנָי֩ בְּתַ֨עַר הַשְּׂכִירָ֜ה בְּעֶבְרֵ֤י נָהָר֙ בְּמֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֔וּר אֶת־הָרֹ֖אשׁ וְשַׂ֣עַר הָרַגְלָ֑יִם
וְגַ֥ם אֶת־הַזָּקָ֖ן תִּסְפֶּֽה
20 In that day my Lord will shave with a razor, contracted from beyond a river, against the king of Ashur, the head and the hair of the feet,
and moreover the beard it will snatch.
3e 4C 36
וְהָיָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא
יְחַיֶּה־אִ֛ישׁ עֶגְלַ֥ת בָּקָ֖ר וּשְׁתֵּי־צֹֽאן
21 And it will happen in that day,
a man will keep alive a calf of the herd and two sheep.
3d 4B 7
וְהָיָ֗ה מֵרֹ֛ב עֲשׂ֥וֹת חָלָ֖ב יֹאכַ֣ל חֶמְאָ֑ה
כִּֽי־חֶמְאָ֤ה וּדְבַשׁ֙ יֹאכֵ֔ל כָּל־הַנּוֹתָ֖ר בְּקֶ֥רֶב הָאָֽרֶץ
22 And it will happen for the abundance of the making of milk, he will eat clotted cream,
for clotted cream and honey everyone remaining within the land will eat.
3d 4C 13
וְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא יִֽהְיֶ֣ה כָל־מָק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֧ר יִֽהְיֶה־שָּׁ֛ם אֶ֥לֶף גֶּ֖פֶן בְּאֶ֣לֶף כָּ֑סֶף
לַשָּׁמִ֥יר וְלַשַּׁ֖יִת יִֽהְיֶֽה
23 And it will happen in that day, every place will be that where a thousand vines were at a thousand silver pieces,
to spikes and gibes it will be.
3c 4B 26
בַּחִצִּ֥ים וּבַקֶּ֖שֶׁת יָ֣בוֹא שָׁ֑מָּה
כִּי־שָׁמִ֥יר וָשַׁ֖יִת תִּֽהְיֶ֥ה כָל־הָאָֽרֶץ
24 With arrows and with bows one will come there,
for all the earth will be spike and gibe.
3e 4B 11
וְכֹ֣ל הֶהָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר בַּמַּעְדֵּר֙ יֵעָ֣דֵר֔וּן לֹֽא־תָב֣וֹא שָׁ֔מָּה יִרְאַ֖ת שָׁמִ֣יר וָשָׁ֑יִת
וְהָיָה֙ לְמִשְׁלַ֣ח שׁ֔וֹר וּלְמִרְמַ֖ס שֶֽׂה
25 And all the hills that with a hoe will be hoed, the fear of spike and gibe will not enter there,
and it will be for sending out a bull and for the trampling of a lamb.
3e 4C 25

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