Prepositions are even more strange. It is nearly impossible to assign even a primary mapping to some of them. The overlap in usage is not obvious in any glossary (e.g. like BDB). One day I will demonstrate this from my database.
Some nouns are a problem too: like נפשׁ soul - remember that word that I never use. In verse 11 it appears twice. KJV has life for the first instance and soul for the second. JB and REB have life in both instances. I find that a confusion with חיה to live. There is confusion certainly. NIV has creature and one's life. So I am not the only one who does not understand early medical anthropology. Now here is the problem - most people take it for granted that nothing vaporous survives death. That's what death is. Destruction. What then is the נפשׁ in this context? Or is a what question simply the wrong type of question? The problem is related to our perception of time. We must concern ourselves with now, not then. That is why I sometimes use integrity for נפשׁ. The whole of us, isolated and together, from conception to demise, kept together, linked, related, known, in our blood. Reminds me of Ezekiel 16:6. This is not to solve the problem, but to highlight the issue of justice and responsibility in the moment. Just what do we put our trust in? Will it prove dependable?
I am doing this work over a long time. Here are my counts for that difficult word so far.
נפשׁ -hold(1), (Gen 36:6 וְאֶת־כָּל־נַפְשׁ֣וֹת בֵּיתוֹ֒) being - being(1), being(181), beings(8), cadaver(10), group(9), groups together(1), integrity(36), now being(1), now(1), o being(10), own(3), regrouped(1), self(30), self-(1), selves(2), such selves(1), throat(14), untranslated(4), very self(21), very selves(3), and frequently it is just glossed as a pronoun, me, you, us, etc. And pronouns are strange...
I am not entirely happy with any gloss. Being runs the risk of being confused with a helping verb (היה)! Self is perhaps marginally better but is also confused with normal use in pronouns and reflexive verbs. Cadaver fits in a few places as does throat. Group is an important addition, for the נפשׁ is sometimes clearly corporate and not individual. E.g. Esau's household. Am I myself without my neighbour? Is either of us truly, integrally us without the outcast? without the refugee? I might note that we are all of one blood. (Acts 17:26 - good move there, Luke/Paul.)
נפשׁ occurs 9 times from verses 10 to 16.
|וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר||1||And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,||3e||3g||10|
|דַּבֵּ֨ר אֶֽל־אַהֲרֹ֜ן וְאֶל־בָּנָ֗יו וְאֶל֙ כָּל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵיהֶ֑ם |
זֶ֣ה הַדָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה לֵאמֹֽר
|2||Speak to Aaron and to his children and to all the children of Israel and say to them, |
this is the thing which Yahweh commanded, saying,
|אִ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִשְׁחַ֜ט שׁ֥וֹר אוֹ־כֶ֛שֶׂב אוֹ־עֵ֖ז בַּֽמַּחֲנֶ֑ה |
א֚וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִשְׁחַ֔ט מִח֖וּץ לַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
|3||f||Any person from the house of Israel, who butchers a bull or a young lamb or a she-goat in the camp, |
or who butchers outside the camp,
|וְאֶל־פֶּ֜תַח אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵד֮ לֹ֣א הֱבִיאוֹ֒ לְהַקְרִ֤יב קָרְבָּן֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י מִשְׁכַּ֣ן יְהוָ֑ה |
דָּ֣ם יֵחָשֵׁ֞ב לָאִ֤ישׁ הַהוּא֙ דָּ֣ם שָׁפָ֔ךְ וְנִכְרַ֛ת הָאִ֥ישׁ הַה֖וּא מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמּֽוֹ
|4||And to the door of the tent of engagement he does not bring it, to bring near an oblation for Yahweh, before the dwelling-place of Yahweh, |
blood will be reckoned to that person. Blood he has shed, and you will cut off that person from near his people,
|לְמַעַן֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָבִ֜יאוּ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֶֽת־זִבְחֵיהֶם֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֵ֣ם זֹבְחִים֮ עַל־פְּנֵ֣י הַשָּׂדֶה֒ וֶֽהֱבִיאֻ֣ם לַֽיהוָ֗ה אֶל־פֶּ֛תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵ֑ן |
וְזָ֨בְח֜וּ זִבְחֵ֧י שְׁלָמִ֛ים לַֽיהוָ֖ה אוֹתָֽם
|5||In order that the children of Israel will bring their offerings that they offer on the surface of the field, and that they bring them to Yahweh to the door of the tent of engagement to the priest, |
and they sacrifice the offerings of peace offerings to Yahweh with them.
|וְזָרַ֨ק הַכֹּהֵ֤ן אֶת־הַדָּם֙ עַל־מִזְבַּ֣ח יְהוָ֔ה פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד |
וְהִקְטִ֣יר הַחֵ֔לֶב לְרֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַיהוָֽה
|6||And the priest will dash the blood on the altar of Yahweh, the door of the tent of engagement, |
and will make the gross fat burn with smoke for a restful fragrance for Yahweh.
|וְלֹא־יִזְבְּח֥וּ עוֹד֙ אֶת־זִבְחֵיהֶ֔ם לַשְּׂעִירִ֕ם אֲשֶׁ֛ר הֵ֥ם זֹנִ֖ים אַחֲרֵיהֶ֑ם |
חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֛ם תִּֽהְיֶה־זֹּ֥את לָהֶ֖ם לְדֹרֹתָֽם
|7||And they will no offer longer their offerings to hairy goats that they play the harlot after them, |
A statute everlasting, this is for them for their generations.
|וַאֲלֵהֶ֣ם תֹּאמַ֔ר אִ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּמִן־הַגֵּ֖ר אֲשֶׁר־יָג֣וּר בְּתוֹכָ֑ם |
אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲלֶ֥ה עֹלָ֖ה אוֹ־זָֽבַח
|8||To them you will say, Any person from the house of Israel or from the guest that resides among you, |
who offers a burnt offering or sacrifice,
|וְאֶל־פֶּ֜תַח אֹ֤הֶל מוֹעֵד֙ לֹ֣א יְבִיאֶ֔נּוּ לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת אֹת֖וֹ לַיהוָ֑ה |
וְנִכְרַ֛ת הָאִ֥ישׁ הַה֖וּא מֵעַמָּֽיו
|9||And to the door of the tent of engagement does not bring it to do it for Yahweh, |
this person will be cut off from its people.
|וְאִ֨ישׁ אִ֜ישׁ מִבֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וּמִן־הַגֵּר֙ הַגָּ֣ר בְּתוֹכָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֹאכַ֖ל כָּל־דָּ֑ם |
וְנָתַתִּ֣י פָנַ֗י בַּנֶּ֙פֶשׁ֙ הָאֹכֶ֣לֶת אֶת־הַדָּ֔ם וְהִכְרַתִּ֥י אֹתָ֖הּ מִקֶּ֥רֶב עַמָּֽהּ
|10||And any person from the house of Israel or from the guest residing among you that eats any of the blood, |
I will position my face against the very self that eats the blood, and I will cut her off from within her people.
|כִּ֣י נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר֮ בַּדָּ֣ם הִוא֒ וַאֲנִ֞י נְתַתִּ֤יו לָכֶם֙ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ לְכַפֵּ֖ר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶ֑ם |
כִּֽי־הַדָּ֥ם ה֖וּא בַּנֶּ֥פֶשׁ יְכַפֵּֽר
|11||B||For the integrity of the flesh, it is in the blood, and I, I have given it to you on the altar, a cover-price for yourselves, |
for the blood, this is the cover-price for integrity.
|עַל־כֵּ֤ן אָמַ֙רְתִּי֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כָּל־נֶ֥פֶשׁ מִכֶּ֖ם לֹא־תֹ֣אכַל דָּ֑ם |
וְהַגֵּ֛ר הַגָּ֥ר בְּתוֹכְכֶ֖ם לֹא־יֹ֥אכַל דָּֽם
|12||Therefore I said to the children of Israel, Every one from you, you will not eat blood, and the guest residing in your midst will not eat blood.||3d||4C||18|
|וְאִ֨ישׁ אִ֜ישׁ מִבְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וּמִן־הַגֵּר֙ הַגָּ֣ר בְּתוֹכָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָצ֜וּד צֵ֥יד חַיָּ֛ה אוֹ־ע֖וֹף אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵאָכֵ֑ל |
וְשָׁפַךְ֙ אֶת־דָּמ֔וֹ וְכִסָּ֖הוּ בֶּעָפָֽר
|13||And each person among the children of Israel or from the guest residing among them who hunts game, animal or fowl, that he eats, |
will pour out its blood and will cover it with dust.
|כִּֽי־נֶ֣פֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂ֗ר דָּמ֣וֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ֮ הוּא֒ וָֽאֹמַר֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל דַּ֥ם כָּל־בָּשָׂ֖ר לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֑לוּ |
כִּ֣י נֶ֤פֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר֙ דָּמ֣וֹ הִ֔וא כָּל־אֹכְלָ֖יו יִכָּרֵֽת
|14||For the integrity of all flesh is its blood. In its integrity this is. So I said to the children of Israel, The blood of all flesh you will not eat, |
for the integrity of all flesh, this is its blood. All eating it will be cut off.
|וְכָל־נֶ֗פֶשׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תֹּאכַ֤ל נְבֵלָה֙ וּטְרֵפָ֔ה בָּאֶזְרָ֖ח וּבַגֵּ֑ר |
וְכִבֶּ֨ס בְּגָדָ֜יו וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֛יִם וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעֶ֖רֶב וְטָהֵֽר
|15||And any of you that eat a corpse, or what was torn, native or guest, |
will scour his garments and will wash in water and be unclean till evening, and he will be clean.
|וְאִם֙ לֹ֣א יְכַבֵּ֔ס וּבְשָׂר֖וֹ לֹ֣א יִרְחָ֑ץ |
|16||And if he will not scour or his flesh he will not wash, |
then he will bear his iniquity.