Go down Moses.
way down in Egypt land
Tell old Pharaoh
Let my people go
But the word is not go, but send. Hebrew שׁלח, itself quite flexible. If I let this stem be included with the 'go' stems, I am letting myself in for confusion. Send already has odd word usage. Hebrew uses it without an object. English does not. But the traditional translations sometimes do. So KJV has
And Pharaoh sent, שׁלח and, behold, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead.
But the same word שׁלח is used for the request from Moses.
Let my people go.
At the moment, I use these English glosses with שׁלח.
dismiss, dispense, extend, hand over, invite, javelin, parting gift, put, reach out, send out, send, set loose, shoot (poetic in the Song).
Do I want to add go to this list when I already have to use go/went for several other stems related to human movement? (Two of these stems דרך, גלל are only for acrostics so they don't count against my rules. Several also are distinguished with the addition of a preposition, e.g. go up, go out, go off, go by, go beyond ... so they don't count as rule-breakers either.)
My decision reduced to these three compromises so far with my rules.
בוא maybe 6% of my uses so far are go/went often with the preposition in/into
הלך roughly 50% split between go/went and walk.
רפה desist(5), done(2), let go(8), timid(3)
I was surprised to see רפה e.g. Psalm 38, as a decidedly different take on 'letting go'. Do not let go what your hands have made. So getting Pharaoh to let go may be OK, since what God has should not belong to Pharaoh. But I don't think I will take this option. There are intimate aspects of let go in its other uses that I am considering. E.g. God says to Moses
let go/desist/go רפה from me, and I will exterminate them...
So if I am going to use let go for רפה I will not use it for שׁלח. By the way, the sense is not set free. That I have used for פצה, but quite apart from that, freedom is not the issue here. It is to be sent out so that one is able to serve Yahweh. Well, well - maybe send out will work just fine!
And send occurs also in other contexts in this passage. Particularly verse 14
For at time this I will send all my plagues to your heart ...
Strange to start at plagues 5 to 7 of 10 but that's where the data led me.
|וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֔ה בֹּ֖א אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה |
וְדִבַּרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֗יו כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָֽעִבְרִ֔ים שַׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־עַמִּ֖י וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי
|1||And Yahweh said to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh, |
and speak to him, Thus says Yahweh the God of the Hebrews, send my people out that they may serve me.
|כִּ֛י אִם־מָאֵ֥ן אַתָּ֖ה לְשַׁלֵּ֑חַ |
וְעוֹדְךָ֖ מַחֲזִ֥יק בָּֽם
|2||d||Because if you will not send, |
and still you are resolute against them,
|הִנֵּ֨ה יַד־יְהוָ֜ה הוֹיָ֗ה בְּמִקְנְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה בַּסּוּסִ֤ים בַּֽחֲמֹרִים֙ בַּגְּמַלִּ֔ים בַּבָּקָ֖ר וּבַצֹּ֑אן |
דֶּ֖בֶר כָּבֵ֥ד מְאֹֽד
|3||Behold the hand of Yahweh is against your livestock that is in the field, against the horses, against the asses, against the camels, against the oxen, and against the sheep, |
an excessively heavy pestilence.
|וְהִפְלָ֣ה יְהוָ֔ה בֵּ֚ין מִקְנֵ֣ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּבֵ֖ין מִקְנֵ֣ה מִצְרָ֑יִם |
וְלֹ֥א יָמ֛וּת מִכָּל־לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל דָּבָֽר
|4||And Yahweh will distinguish between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, |
and not a thing will die from all that is of the children of Israel.
|וַיָּ֥שֶׂם יְהוָ֖ה מוֹעֵ֣ד לֵאמֹ֑ר |
מָחָ֗ר יַעֲשֶׂ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֖ה בָּאָֽרֶץ
|5||And Yahweh set up an appointed time, saying, |
Tomorrow Yahweh will do this thing in the land.
|וַיַּ֨עַשׂ יְהוָ֜ה אֶת־הַדָּבָ֤ר הַזֶּה֙ מִֽמָּחֳרָ֔ת וַיָּ֕מָת כֹּ֖ל מִקְנֵ֣ה מִצְרָ֑יִם |
וּמִמִּקְנֵ֥ה בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֹא־מֵ֥ת אֶחָֽד
|6||And Yahweh did this thing on the morrow, and all the livestock of Egypt died, |
but from the livestock of the children of Israel not one died.
|וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֗ה לֹא־מֵ֛ת מִמִּקְנֵ֥ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עַד־אֶחָ֑ד |
וַיִּכְבַּד֙ לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְלֹ֥א שִׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־הָעָֽם פ
|7||And Pharaoh sent and behold, not even one died from the livestock of Israel, |
and heavy was the heart of Pharaoh, and he did not send the people out.
|וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָה֮ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֣ה וְאֶֽל־אַהֲרֹן֒ קְח֤וּ לָכֶם֙ מְלֹ֣א חָפְנֵיכֶ֔ם פִּ֖יחַ כִּבְשָׁ֑ן |
וּזְרָק֥וֹ מֹשֶׁ֛ה הַשָּׁמַ֖יְמָה לְעֵינֵ֥י פַרְעֹֽה
|8||And Yahweh said to Moses and to Aaron, Take for yourselves, both your hands full of soot from a kiln, |
and let Moses pepper it towards the heavens in the sight of Pharaoh.
|וְהָיָ֣ה לְאָבָ֔ק עַ֖ל כָּל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם |
וְהָיָ֨ה עַל־הָאָדָ֜ם וְעַל־הַבְּהֵמָ֗ה לִשְׁחִ֥ין פֹּרֵ֛חַ אֲבַעְבֻּעֹ֖ת בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם
|9||And it will become powder over all the land of Egypt, |
and there will be over the human and over the beast a flourishing ulcer, boils in all the land of Egypt.
|וַיִּקְח֞וּ אֶת־פִּ֣יחַ הַכִּבְשָׁ֗ן וַיַּֽעַמְדוּ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֔ה וַיִּזְרֹ֥ק אֹת֛וֹ מֹשֶׁ֖ה הַשָּׁמָ֑יְמָה |
וַיְהִ֗י שְׁחִין֙ אֲבַעְבֻּעֹ֔ת פֹּרֵ֕חַ בָּאָדָ֖ם וּבַבְּהֵמָֽה
|10||And they took soot from a kiln, and they stood before Pharaoh, and Moses peppered it towards the heavens, |
and there was an ulcer, boils flourishing among the human and among the cattle.
|וְלֹֽא־יָכְל֣וּ הַֽחַרְטֻמִּ֗ים לַעֲמֹ֛ד לִפְנֵ֥י מֹשֶׁ֖ה מִפְּנֵ֣י הַשְּׁחִ֑ין |
כִּֽי־הָיָ֣ה הַשְּׁחִ֔ין בַּֽחֲרְטֻמִּ֖ם וּבְכָל־מִצְרָֽיִם
|11||And the magicians were not able to stand before Moses from the presence of the ulcer, |
for the ulcer was on the magicians and in all Egypt.
|וַיְחַזֵּ֤ק יְהוָה֙ אֶת־לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְלֹ֥א שָׁמַ֖ע אֲלֵהֶ֑ם |
כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶֽׁה
|12||And Yahweh made the heart of Pharaoh resolute and he did not pay heed to them, |
as Yahweh had spoken to Moses.
|וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֔ה הַשְׁכֵּ֣ם בַּבֹּ֔קֶר וְהִתְיַצֵּ֖ב לִפְנֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֑ה |
וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֗יו כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָֽעִבְרִ֔ים שַׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־עַמִּ֖י וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי
|13||And Yahweh said to Moses, Rise early in the morning and be present before Pharaoh, |
and say to him, Thus says Yahweh the God of the Hebrews, Send my people out that they may serve me.
|כִּ֣י ׀ בַּפַּ֣עַם הַזֹּ֗את אֲנִ֨י שֹׁלֵ֜חַ אֶת־כָּל־מַגֵּפֹתַי֙ אֶֽל־לִבְּךָ֔ וּבַעֲבָדֶ֖יךָ וּבְעַמֶּ֑ךָ |
בַּעֲב֣וּר תֵּדַ֔ע כִּ֛י אֵ֥ין כָּמֹ֖נִי בְּכָל־הָאָֽרֶץ
|14||B||For at this time I will send all my plagues to your heart and on your servants and on your people, |
so that you will know that there is none like me in all the earth.
|כִּ֤י עַתָּה֙ שָׁלַ֣חְתִּי אֶת־יָדִ֔י וָאַ֥ךְ אוֹתְךָ֛ וְאֶֽת־עַמְּךָ֖ בַּדָּ֑בֶר |
|15||C||For now I will extend my hand and I will strike you and your people with pestilence, |
and you will be concealed from the earth.
|וְאוּלָ֗ם בַּעֲב֥וּר זֹאת֙ הֶעֱמַדְתִּ֔יךָ בַּעֲב֖וּר הַרְאֹתְךָ֣ אֶת־כֹּחִ֑י |
וּלְמַ֛עַן סַפֵּ֥ר שְׁמִ֖י בְּכָל־הָאָֽרֶץ
|16||And as if for this, I have had you stand, so that I may show in you my power, |
and that my name may be recounted in all the earth.
|עוֹדְךָ֖ מִסְתּוֹלֵ֣ל בְּעַמִּ֑י |
|17||Yet you extol yourself against my people, |
without sending them out.
|הִנְנִ֤י מַמְטִיר֙ כָּעֵ֣ת מָחָ֔ר בָּרָ֖ד כָּבֵ֣ד מְאֹ֑ד |
אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹא־הָיָ֤ה כָמֹ֙הוּ֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם לְמִן־הַיּ֥וֹם הִוָּסְדָ֖ה וְעַד־עָֽתָּה
|18||Note me well, I will make it rain as at this time tomorrow, very heavy hail, |
that there was not its like in Egypt from the day of her foundation and till now.
|וְעַתָּ֗ה שְׁלַ֤ח הָעֵז֙ אֶֽת־מִקְנְךָ֔ וְאֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְךָ֖ בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה |
כָּל־הָאָדָ֨ם וְהַבְּהֵמָ֜ה אֲשֶֽׁר־יִמָּצֵ֣א בַשָּׂדֶ֗ה וְלֹ֤א יֵֽאָסֵף֙ הַבַּ֔יְתָה וְיָרַ֧ד עֲלֵהֶ֛ם הַבָּרָ֖ד וָמֵֽתוּ
|19||So now send for the she-goats with the livestock, and all that is yours in the field. Every human and the cattle that are found in the field and not gathered towards the house, |
if the hail descends upon them, then they will die.
|הַיָּרֵא֙ אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה מֵֽעַבְדֵ֖י פַּרְעֹ֑ה |
הֵנִ֛יס אֶת־עֲבָדָ֥יו וְאֶת־מִקְנֵ֖הוּ אֶל־הַבָּתִּֽים
|20||Those who feared the word of Yahweh of the servants of Pharaoh, |
made their servants and their livestock withdraw to the houses.
|וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־שָׂ֛ם לִבּ֖וֹ אֶל־דְּבַ֣ר יְהוָ֑ה |
וַֽיַּעֲזֹ֛ב אֶת־עֲבָדָ֥יו וְאֶת־מִקְנֵ֖הוּ בַּשָּׂדֶֽה
|21||But who did not set their heart to the word of Yahweh, |
forsook their servants and their livestock in the field.
|וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה נְטֵ֤ה אֶת־יָֽדְךָ֙ עַל־הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וִיהִ֥י בָרָ֖ד בְּכָל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם |
עַל־הָאָדָ֣ם וְעַל־הַבְּהֵמָ֗ה וְעַ֛ל כָּל־עֵ֥שֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם
|22||And Yahweh said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the heavens that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, |
over the human and over the beast and over all herbs of the field in the land of Egypt.
|וַיֵּ֨ט מֹשֶׁ֣ה אֶת־מַטֵּהוּ֮ עַל־הַשָּׁמַיִם֒ וַֽיהוָ֗ה נָתַ֤ן קֹלֹת֙ וּבָרָ֔ד וַתִּ֥הֲלַךְ אֵ֖שׁ אָ֑רְצָה |
וַיַּמְטֵ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה בָּרָ֖ד עַל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם
|23||And Moses stretched out his rod over the heavens, and Yahweh gave rumbling and hail and fire traveled earthward, |
and Yahweh rained hail over the land of Egypt.
|וַיְהִ֣י בָרָ֔ד וְאֵ֕שׁ מִתְלַקַּ֖חַת בְּת֣וֹךְ הַבָּרָ֑ד |
כָּבֵ֣ד מְאֹ֔ד אֲ֠שֶׁר לֹֽא־הָיָ֤ה כָמֹ֙הוּ֙ בְּכָל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם מֵאָ֖ז הָיְתָ֥ה לְגֽוֹי
|24||And there was hail and fire received in the midst of the hail, |
very heavy, that there was not its like in all the land of Egypt ever since it became a nation.
|וַיַּ֨ךְ הַבָּרָ֜ד בְּכָל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֗יִם אֵ֚ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּשָּׂדֶ֔ה מֵאָדָ֖ם וְעַד־בְּהֵמָ֑ה |
וְאֵ֨ת כָּל־עֵ֤שֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה֙ הִכָּ֣ה הַבָּרָ֔ד וְאֶת־כָּל־עֵ֥ץ הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה שִׁבֵּֽר
|25||And the hail struck in all the land of Egypt. All that were in the field from human and to beast, |
and all herbs of the field, the hail struck and broke all the trees of the field.
|רַ֚ק בְּאֶ֣רֶץ גֹּ֔שֶׁן אֲשֶׁר־שָׁ֖ם בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל |
לֹ֥א הָיָ֖ה בָּרָֽד
|26||C||Solely in the land Goshen, where were the children of Israel, |
there was no hail.
|וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח פַּרְעֹ֗ה וַיִּקְרָא֙ לְמֹשֶׁ֣ה וּֽלְאַהֲרֹ֔ן וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֖ם חָטָ֣אתִי הַפָּ֑עַם |
יְהוָה֙ הַצַּדִּ֔יק וַאֲנִ֥י וְעַמִּ֖י הָרְשָׁעִֽים
|27||And Pharaoh sent and called for Moses and for Aaron and he said to them, I have sinned this time. |
Yahweh is the righteous one and I and my people are the wicked.
|הַעְתִּ֙ירוּ֙ אֶל־יְהוָ֔ה וְרַ֕ב מִֽהְיֹ֛ת קֹלֹ֥ת אֱלֹהִ֖ים וּבָרָ֑ד |
וַאֲשַׁלְּחָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א תֹסִפ֖וּן לַעֲמֹֽד
|28||Petition to Yahweh, for there has been abundance of the rumbling of God and hail, |
and I will send you out and you will not repeatedly be standing here.
|וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ מֹשֶׁ֔ה כְּצֵאתִי֙ אֶת־הָעִ֔יר אֶפְרֹ֥שׂ אֶת־כַּפַּ֖י אֶל־יְהוָ֑ה |
הַקֹּל֣וֹת יֶחְדָּל֗וּן וְהַבָּרָד֙ לֹ֣א יִֽהְיֶה־ע֔וֹד לְמַ֣עַן תֵּדַ֔ע כִּ֥י לַיהוָ֖ה הָאָֽרֶץ
|29||And Moses said to him, As I go forth from the city, I will spread my palm to Yahweh. |
The rumblings will be set aside and there will not be any more hail, so that you may know that the earth is Yahweh's.
|וְאַתָּ֖ה וַעֲבָדֶ֑יךָ |
יָדַ֕עְתִּי כִּ֚י טֶ֣רֶם תִּֽירְא֔וּן מִפְּנֵ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהִֽים
|30||But you and your servants, |
I know that not yet you will fear before Yahweh God.
|וְהַפִּשְׁתָּ֥ה וְהַשְּׂעֹרָ֖ה נֻכָּ֑תָה |
כִּ֤י הַשְּׂעֹרָה֙ אָבִ֔יב וְהַפִּשְׁתָּ֖ה גִּבְעֹֽל
|31||(And the flax and the barley were struck, |
for the barley was green shoots and the flax in flower.
|וְהַחִטָּ֥ה וְהַכֻּסֶּ֖מֶת לֹ֣א נֻכּ֑וּ |
כִּ֥י אֲפִילֹ֖ת הֵֽנָּה
|32||But the wheat and the spelt were not struck, |
for they were unripe.)
|וַיֵּצֵ֨א מֹשֶׁ֜ה מֵעִ֤ם פַּרְעֹה֙ אֶת־הָעִ֔יר וַיִּפְרֹ֥שׂ כַּפָּ֖יו אֶל־יְהוָ֑ה |
וַֽיַּחְדְּל֤וּ הַקֹּלוֹת֙ וְהַבָּרָ֔ד וּמָטָ֖ר לֹא־נִתַּ֥ךְ אָֽרְצָה
|33||So Moses went out from Pharaoh, from the city, and spread his palms to Yahweh, |
and the rumblings and the hail were set aside and the rain was not poured forth earthward.
|וַיַּ֣רְא פַּרְעֹ֗ה כִּֽי־חָדַ֨ל הַמָּטָ֧ר וְהַבָּרָ֛ד וְהַקֹּלֹ֖ת וַיֹּ֣סֶף לַחֲטֹ֑א |
וַיַּכְבֵּ֥ד לִבּ֖וֹ ה֥וּא וַעֲבָדָֽיו
|34||And Pharaoh saw that set aside were the rain and the hail and the rumblings, and again he sinned, |
and heavy was their heart, he and his servants.
|וַֽיֶּחֱזַק֙ לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֔ה וְלֹ֥א שִׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל |
כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה בְּיַד־מֹשֶֽׁה פ
|35||And the heart of Pharaoh was resolute and he did not send out the children of Israel , |
as Yahweh had spoken by the hand of Moses.