Thursday, September 21, 2017

Offering types again

Just reading the sections in Morrow's book An Introduction to Biblical Law on Sacrifice and gift offerings. I note a helpful simplification of the ideas of offering based on mode of consumption (page 140): unipolar, everything goes to God, bipolar, shared between God and the priests, and tripolar (share also with the laity).

Also I note that the five types listed under these three polarities do not cover the 13 different words associated with offering that I have seen so far. And another comment of his (p 157) on Isaiah 53:10 pointed out to me an additional offering word אשׁם, guilt offering. So 14 verbs so far and some simplifications that do not cover all of them. Also the gift (a very general bipolar offering) מנחה, is often rendered as cereal or grain offering. Glossing is not equivalent to understanding, nor is hierarchic analysis equivalent to understanding. I think understanding is a long way off and a long way away. To what extent can I base my analysis on words? And to what extent must it be based on cult actions and their history?

I am for the most part stuck with words since the data I have is not organized to allow automated historical analysis. This could be done to show what is said and what is not said, but it is another lifetime's project. Such a project Bill Morrow has undertaken. His book is very valuable and very clear, as he is in person as a teacher. He classifies 5 of the 13 words by polarity:

unipolar: burnt offering, עלה,
bipolar: guilt / reparation, אשׁם, sin / purification, חטא, cereal / gift, מנחה,
tripolar: well-being / communion / peace, שׁלם.

Note that the multiple glosses represent various translations (ouch - translation makes the process more difficult). Which polarity does each of these words belong to? This question requires some reading.
Words indicating different classes of offerings. (updated)
Almost all these stems are also used in other contexts
אשׁ fiery(3), fire(283), offering fire(29), offerings fire(8), through fire(2)
אשׁם bear guilt(7), bore guilt(1), declare guilty(1), declared guilty(5), guilt offering(3), guilt(1), guilty(1), offend(3), offended(1), offense(2), offenses(1), untranslated(1)
זבח altar(285), altars(31), make offering(1), o altar(1), offer(34), offered(22), offering(55), offerings(31), offers(4), sacrifice(31), sacrificed(6), sacrifices(10), sacrificing(1), zebah(1)
חטא about sinners(1), cause sin(1), heavy sins(1), how sinful(1), made sin offering(2), made sin(23), make sin offering(2), make sin(3), mid sin(1), offered sin(1), sin offering(81), sin offerings(1), sin(143), sinful(1), sinned(72), sinner(6), sinners(12), sinning(1), sins(52), use sin(1)
כליל whole offering(4)
כפר ark-cover(26), cover(12), cover-offerings(2), cover-price(23), cover-prices(4), covered(4), covering(1), crocks(2), cub(3), cubs - young lions(1), cubs'(1), cubs(3), frost(2), henna(2), lion cub's(2), lion cub(1), lion cubs(1), made cover-price(3), make cover-offering(3), make cover-price(26), making cover-price(1), over-covering(1), young lion(5), young lions(6)
מנחה gift(119), gifts(25)
נדב freewill offering(8), freewill offerings(5), made willing(1), nadab(10), now freewill offerings(1), prince's(1), prince(4), princes(12), while nadab(1), willing acts(1), willing(9), willingly offered(1), willingly(2)
נוף brandish(1), brandished(1), elevate(13), elevated(6), elevation(2), made wave offering(1), sprinkled(2), wave offering(18), waved(1)
נסך before molten metal(2), libation(30), libations(31), molten image(4), molten images(4), molten metal(7), offer libation(1), offered libation(2), spill out(8), spilled out(5), spilling out(1)
עלה ascend(53), ascendance(3), ascendancy(4), ascendant(5), ascended(59), ascending(5), ascends(14), ascent(3), bring(19), brings(3), brought(60), burnt offering(144), burnt offerings(47), came(42), climb(3), come(28), comes(3), coming(2), conduit(4), get(3), go(52), goes(1), going(4), gone(1), grew(1), leaf(5), leaves(1), made ascend(1), made come(1), made go(1), make ascend(3), make ascendant(1), making ascend(3), offer(20), offered(16), offering(2), offers(2), rose upward(1), such come(3), trim(2), trimmed(2), trims(2), upper(2), upward(54), used go(1), went(36)
קרב approach more(1), approach(33), approached(15), approaches(3), approaching(2), bring near such(1), bring near(59), bring together(1), bringing near(3), brings near(1), brought near(17), came near(10), cheek jowl(3), close combat(17), closer(1), come near(8), draw near(2), drawing near(1), draws near(2), entrails(21), far concerned(1), inner(1), made oblation(2), make oblation(1), near(47), near-term(1), nearby(1), nearness(3), oblation(59), oblations(1), quick(1), quite near(4), such bring(1)
רום ,the high ground(1), ... exalted(1), bred(1), contribute(8), contributed(1), contributes(2), contribution(37), contributions(3), contributors(1), exalt(21), exaltation(10), exalted(40), exalting(5), exalts(3), high ground(27), high(32), higher(1), lift high(8), lifted high(9), lifting high(2), lifts high(1), looked after(1), made contribute(1), mightily high(1), places prominence(1), prominence(3), quite full exalted(1), ram(4), ready(1), receiving contributions(1), recover(1), rumah(2), stamp(1), tall(3), taller(1)
שׁלם peace(1), desserts(1), entire(2), full payment(2), good shape(1), made peace(1), made whole(3), make full payment(1), make peace(2), make whole(4), makes peace(1), paid(2), pay(20), payback(1), payment(1), payoff(1), peace offerings(41), peace(134), remains whole(1), repaid(4), repay(19), repaying(2), repayment(3), repays(3), salem(1), untranslated(1), whole(5), wholeness(8)