Sunday, September 10, 2017

Numbering the 10 words

Which commandment is which? Bill Morrow in his book, An Introduction to Biblical Law, shows that the 10 words are divided differently in three traditions: Jewish, Roman Catholic/Lutheran and Orthodox/Reformed. This curious difference made me look more closely and I discovered a stray samech in my Hebrew, one of those S's that got attached to a word through some odd manipulation of the data that I did in time past. This ס occurs in the middle of the last commandment and in the middle of a verse, effectively dividing the 10th into 2. I think this is the only time I have seen an S or a P in the middle of a verse. (I am generally ignoring these markers since they do not help me at the moment.) But this does mark a potential difference between Deuteronomy and Exodus.

So here's my working of Deuteronomy and Exodus interleaved. Note the first verse, what Morrow calls the motive clause. Same words but no rest in the Deuteronomic version. The words are addressed to a different generation. Notice the present tense in verse 3:

Not with our ancestors did Yahweh cut this covenant,
that is with us. We are the ones, here, today, all we, the living.

They are not yet in the promised land. The rest (atnach) on God in Exodus (verse 2 below) suggests a source of rest that is available for the long journey ahead - for them then and for us now.

How does one number these commandments? Which comes out which? And does the music help? (The music in pdf form is at the links below)

There are differences in tradition.

Deuteronomy 5:7-22
Exodus 20: 3-17
Fn Min Max Syll
אָֽנֹכִי֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֧ר הוֹצֵאתִ֛יךָ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם מִבֵּ֣֥ית עֲבָדִֽ֑ים 6 I am Yahweh your God who brought you forth from the land of Egypt from the house of servitude. 3c 4B 25
אָֽנֹכִ֖י֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑֔יךָ
אֲשֶׁ֧ר הוֹצֵאתִ֛יךָ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם מִבֵּ֣֥ית עֲבָדִֽ֑ים
2 I am Yahweh your God,
who brought you forth from the land of Egypt, from the house of servitude.
3c 4B 9
16
לֹ֣א יִהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֛֩ אֱלֹהִ֥֨ים אֲחֵרִ֖֜ים עַל פָּנָֽ֗יַ 7 B Not it is for you: other gods over my presence. 3d 4B 15
לֹֽ֣א יִהְיֶֽה־לְךָ֛֩ אֱלֹהִ֥֨ים אֲחֵרִ֖֜ים עַל־פָּנָֽ֗יַ 3 B Not it is for you: other gods over my presence. 3d 4B 15
first commandment Deut 5:7, Ex 7:3, or is it the prior two verses?
לֹֽ֣א תַעֲשֶׂ֥ה לְךָ֥֣ פֶ֣֙סֶל֙ כָּל תְּמוּנָ֔֡ה אֲשֶׁ֤֣ר בַּשָּׁמַ֣֙יִם֙ מִמַּ֔֡עַל וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר֩ בָּאָ֖֨רֶץ מִתָּ֑֜חַת
וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּמַּ֖֣יִם מִתַּ֥֣חַת לָאָֽ֗רֶץ
8 B You will not make for yourself a graven image, any similitude that is in the heavens above or that is in the earth beneath,
or that is in the waters beneath the earth.
3e 4C 29
11
לֹא תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֥֣ה לָהֶ֖ם֮ וְלֹ֣א תָעָבְדֵ֑ם֒
כִּ֣י אָנֹכִ֞י יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֵ֣ל קַנָּ֔א פֹּ֠קֵד עֲוֺ֨ן אָב֧וֹת עַל בָּנִ֛ים וְעַל שִׁלֵּשִׁ֥ים וְעַל רִבֵּעִ֖ים לְשֹׂנְאָֽ֑י
9 You will not worship them and you will not serve them,
for I, Yahweh your God, am a jealous god, visiting the iniquity of forebears on children over three and over four generations to those who hate me.
3c 4C 12
35
וְעֹ֤֥שֶׂה חֶ֖֙סֶד֙ לַֽאֲלָפִ֑֔ים
לְאֹהֲבַ֖י וּלְשֹׁמְרֵ֥י מִצְוֺתָֽי
10 And doing mercy for thousands,
who love me and who keep my commandments.
3e 4C 9
10
לֹֽ֣א תַֽעֲשֶׂ֨ה־לְךָ֥֣ פֶ֣֙סֶל֙ ׀ וְכָל־תְּמוּנָ֡֔ה אֲשֶׁ֤֣ר בַּשָּׁמַ֣֙יִם֙ ׀ מִמַּ֡֔עַל וַֽאֲשֶׁ֥ר֩ בָּאָ֖֨רֶץ מִתַָּ֑֜חַת
וַאֲשֶׁ֥֣ר בַּמַּ֖֣יִם ׀ מִתַּ֥֣חַת לָאָֽ֗רֶץ
4 B You will not make for yourself a graven image or any similitude that is in the heavens above or that is in the earth beneath,
or that is in the waters beneath the earth.
3e 4C 30
11
לֹֽא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶ֥֣ה לָהֶ֖ם֮ וְלֹ֣א תָעָבְדֵ֑ם֒
כִּ֣י אָֽנֹכִ֞י יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֵ֣ל קַנָּ֔א פֹּ֠קֵד עֲוֺ֨ן אָבֹ֧ת עַל־בָּנִ֛ים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁ֥ים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִ֖ים לְשֹׂנְאָֽ֑י
5 You will not worship them and you will not serve them,
for I, Yahweh your God, am a jealous god, visiting the iniquity of forebears on children over three and over four generations to those who hate me.
3c 4C 11
34
וְעֹ֥֤שֶׂה חֶ֖֙סֶד֙ לַאֲלָפִ֑֔ים
לְאֹהֲבַ֖י וּלְשֹׁמְרֵ֥י מִצְוֺתָֽי
6 And doing mercy for thousands,
who love me and who keep my commandments.
3e 4C 9
10
Second commandment - graven images? or is that part of the first?
לֹ֥א תִשָּׂ֛א אֶת שֵֽׁם יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לַשָּׁ֑וְא
כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יְנַקֶּה֙ יְהוָ֔ה אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׂ֥א אֶת שְׁמ֖וֹ לַשָּֽׁוְא
11 f You will not lift up the name of Yahweh your God to vanity,
for Yahweh not will hold innocent who lifts up his name to vanity.
3d 4C 13
17
לֹ֥א תִשָּׂ֛א אֶת־שֵֽׁם־יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לַשָּׁ֑וְא
כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יְנַקֶּה֙ יְהוָ֔ה אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ לַשָּֽׁוְא
7 f You will not lift up the name of Yahweh your God to vanity,
for Yahweh not will hold innocent who lifts up his name to vanity.
3d 4C 13
17
Third commandment - re the name and vanity, if that is considered the second, then the 10th is divided (RC/Lutheran tradition)
שָׁמ֣֛וֹר אֶת י֥וֹם֩ הַשַׁבָּ֖֨ת לְקַדְּשׁ֑֜וֹ
כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוְּךָ֖֣ יְהוָ֥֣ה אֱלֹהֶֽ֗יךָ
12 Keep the day of the Sabbath to sanctify it,
as Yahweh your God is commanding you.
3d 4B 10
11
שֵׁ֤֣שֶׁת יָמִ֣ים֙ תַּֽעֲבֹ֔ד֮ וְעָשִׂ֖֣יתָ כָּֿל מְלַאכְתֶּֽךָ֒ 13 C Six days you will serve and do all your affairs, 3e 4C 18
וְי֙וֹם֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֜֔י שַׁבָּ֖֣ת לַיהוָ֖֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑֗יךָ
לֹ֣א תַעֲשֶׂ֣ה כָל מְלָאכָ֡ה אַתָּ֣ה וּבִנְךָֽ וּבִתֶּ֣ךָ וְעַבְדְּךָֽ וַ֠אֲמָתֶךָ וְשׁוֹרְךָ֨ וַחֲמֹֽרְךָ֜ וְכָל בְּהֶמְתֶּ֗ךָ וְגֵֽרְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ לְמַ֗עַן יָנ֛וּחַ עַבְדְּךָ֥ וַאֲמָתְךָ֖ כָּמֽ֑וֹךָ
14 But the seventh day is the Sabbath of Yahweh your God.
You will not do any trade, you and your son and your daughter and your manservant and your maidservant, and your bull, and your ass, and all your cattle, and the guest that is in your gates, so that your manservant and your maidservant will rest as you do.
3d 4B 13
64
וְזָכַרְתָּ֞֗ כִּ֣י עֶ֤֥בֶד הָיִ֣֙יתָ֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔֗יִם וַיֹּצִ֨אֲךָ֜֩ יְהוָ֤֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֤֙יךָ֙ מִשָּׁ֔ם֙ בְּיָ֤֥ד חֲזָקָ֖ה֙ וּבִזְרֹ֣עַ נְטוּיָ֑֔ה
עַל כֵּ֗ן צִוְּךָ֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת אֶת י֥וֹם הַשַׁבָּֽת
15 And remember that you were a servant in the land of Egypt and Yahweh your God brought you out from there with a courageous hand and by an arm stretched out.
Therefore Yahweh your God is commanding you to undertake the day of the Sabbath.
3e 4C 40
18
זָכ֛וֹר֩ אֶת־י֥֨וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֖֜ת לְקַדְּשֽׁ֗וֹ 8 Remember the day of the Sabbath to sanctify it. 3d 3g 10
שֵׁ֤֣שֶׁת יָמִ֣ים֙ תַּֽעֲבֹ֔ד֮ וְעָשִׂ֖֣יתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּֽךָ֒ 9 C Six days you will serve and do all your affairs, 3e 4C 17
וְי֙וֹם֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔֜י שַׁבָּ֖֣ת ׀ לַיהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑֗יךָ
לֹֽ֣א־תַעֲשֶׂ֣֨ה כָל־מְלָאכָ֡֜ה אַתָּ֣ה ׀ וּבִנְךָֽ֣־וּ֠בִתֶּ֗ךָ עַבְדְּךָ֤֨ וַאֲמָֽתְךָ֜֙ וּבְהֶמְתֶּ֔֗ךָ וְגֵרְךָ֖֙ אֲשֶׁ֥֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶֽ֔יךָ
10 But the seventh day is the Sabbath of Yahweh your God.
You will not do any trade, you and your son and your daughter, your manservant and your maidservant, and your cattle and the guest that is in your gates.
3e 4C 13
35
כִּ֣י שֵֽׁשֶׁת־יָמִים֩ עָשָׂ֨ה יְהוָ֜ה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם וְאֶת־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם֙ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֔ם וַיָּ֖נַח בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֑י
עַל־כֵּ֗ן בֵּרַ֧ךְ יְהוָ֛ה אֶת־י֥וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֖ת וַֽיְקַדְּשֵֽׁהוּ
11 B For six days Yahweh constructed the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them, and he rested on the seventh day.
Therefore Yahweh blessed the Sabbath day and sanctified it.
3c 4B 35
15
fourth commandment - the Sabbath
כַּבֵּ֤ד אֶת אָבִ֙יךָ֙ וְאֶת אִמֶּ֔ךָ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוְּךָ֖ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ
לְמַ֣עַן יַאֲרִיכֻ֣ן יָמֶ֗יךָ וּלְמַ֙עַן֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ עַ֚ל הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽךְ
16 Glorify your father and your mother as is commanding you Yahweh your God so that prolonged are your days and so that it may be good for you over the ground that Yahweh your God is giving to you. 3e 4C 22
32
כַּבֵּ֥ד אֶת־אָבִ֖יךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּ֑ךָ
לְמַ֙עַן֙ יַאֲרִכ֣וּן יָמֶ֔יךָ עַ֚ל הָאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽךְ
12 Glorify your father and your mother,
so that prolonged are your days on the ground that Yahweh your God gives to you.
3e 4C 11
26
fifth - the כבד of father and mother (trad. honour)
לֹ֥֖א תִּֿרְצָֽח 17 f You will not murder. 3e 3g 4
לֹ֥֖א תִּֿרְצָֽ֖ח 13 f You will not murder. 3e 3g 4
sixth - murder
וְלֹ֖֣א תִּֿנְאָֽ֑ף 18 And you will not commit adultery. 3e 4B 5
לֹ֣֖א תִּֿנְאָֽ֑ף 14 B You will not commit adultery. 3e 4B 4
seventh - adultery
וְלֹ֖֣א תִּֿגְנֹֽ֔ב 19 And you will not steal. 3e 4B 5
לֹ֣֖א תִּֿגְנֹֽ֔ב 15 B You will not steal. 3e 4B 4
eighth - steal
וְלֹֽא תַעֲנֶ֥ה בְרֵֽעֲךָ֖ עֵ֥ד שָֽׁוְא 20 And you will not inflict vain witness against your associate. 3e 3g 11
לֹֽא־תַעֲנֶ֥ה בְרֵעֲךָ֖ עֵ֥ד שָֽׁקֶר 16 You will not inflict false witness against your associate. 3e 3g 10
ninth - false witness. If not yet at nine, then the tenth must be split. This is suggested from the different verb in Deuteronomy - but not in Exodus.
וְלֹ֥א תַחְמֹ֖ד אֵ֣שֶׁת רֵעֶ֑ךָ ס
וְלֹ֨א תִתְאַוֶּ֜ה בֵּ֣ית רֵעֶ֗ךָ שָׂדֵ֜הוּ וְעַבְדּ֤וֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ֙ שׁוֹר֣וֹ וַחֲמֹר֔וֹ וְכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְרֵעֶֽךָ
21 And you will not covet the wife of your associate. S
And you will not desire the house of your associate, his field or his manservant or his maidservant, his bull or his ass, or anything that is your associate's.
3e 4C 10
33
לֹ֥א תַחְמֹ֖ד בֵּ֣ית רֵעֶ֑ךָ
לֹֽא־תַחְמֹ֞ד אֵ֣שֶׁת רֵעֶ֗ךָ וְעַבְדּ֤וֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ֙ וְשׁוֹר֣וֹ וַחֲמֹר֔וֹ וְכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְרֵעֶֽךָ
17 f You will not covet the house of your friend,
nor will you covet the wife of your friend or manservant or maidservant or bull or ass or anything that is your friend's.
3e 4C 7
30