Wednesday, June 7, 2017

Leviticus 16

This has been among the most difficult of chapters for me to deal with. And the decisions made here have had a ripple effect to several previous chapters. This word כפר (kpr cover) has a richness that my English has trouble with. I could have used cover-offering and mercy-cover. since this would give me the full sounds-like aspect of כפר, כפרת. Still, the image of price arises from the Psalms and from 1 Samuel 12:3 where it could be rendered bribe. And sacrifice is costly, so the image implied in cover-price is suitable. I note that JPS has ark-cover in Exodus for mercy seat. [I have decided to follow that lead.] Here is the translator's problem-set in a word. Is ark-cover a bit too prosaic? We are talking about the blood of the offerings, and I am influenced by the letter to the Hebrews. The blood of bulls and kids is insufficient to the task of cleansing the creation, and the earthlings. The imagery in the cult and in the Holy is quite sufficient, but the image itself is mystery.

The naming of the offerings is a non-trivial exercise. I listed them some time ago. Here we have another rite to name. The kids are not a new offering, but a type of sin offering. JB is right, atonement is a whole set of different offerings, named after the word kpr, cover. It's primary function is to cleanse the sanctuary. Interesting that the scapegoat kid is called the living one. Could one say that the kid carries off sin so that its impact might lessen? How should we apply such power without abusing the same?

Leviticus 16 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְדַבֵּ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֔ה אַחֲרֵ֣י מ֔וֹת שְׁנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י אַהֲרֹ֑ן
בְּקָרְבָתָ֥ם לִפְנֵי־יְהוָ֖ה וַיָּמֻֽתוּ
1 And Yahweh spoke to Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron,
when they made oblation in the presence of Yahweh and they died.
3e 4C 19
13
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה דַּבֵּר֮ אֶל־אַהֲרֹ֣ן אָחִיךָ֒ וְאַל־יָבֹ֤א בְכָל־עֵת֙ אֶל־הַקֹּ֔דֶשׁ מִבֵּ֖ית לַפָּרֹ֑כֶת
אֶל־פְּנֵ֨י הַכַּפֹּ֜רֶת אֲשֶׁ֤ר עַל־הָאָרֹן֙ וְלֹ֣א יָמ֔וּת כִּ֚י בֶּֽעָנָ֔ן אֵרָאֶ֖ה עַל־הַכַּפֹּֽרֶת
2 And Yahweh said to Moses, Speak to Aaron, your brother, that he not enter at any time into the sanctuary of the house of the veil,
to face the ark-cover that is above the ark, and he will not die. For in a cloud, I appear above the ark-cover.
3e 4C 34
29
בְּזֹ֛את יָבֹ֥א אַהֲרֹ֖ן אֶל־הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ
בְּפַ֧ר בֶּן־בָּקָ֛ר לְחַטָּ֖את וְאַ֥יִל לְעֹלָֽה
3 In this, Aaron will enter into the sanctuary,
with a young bull of the herd for a sin offering, and a ram for a burnt offering.
3c 4A 11
14
כְּתֹֽנֶת־בַּ֨ד קֹ֜דֶשׁ יִלְבָּ֗שׁ וּמִֽכְנְסֵי־בַד֮ יִהְי֣וּ עַל־בְּשָׂרוֹ֒ וּבְאַבְנֵ֥ט בַּד֙ יַחְגֹּ֔ר וּבְמִצְנֶ֥פֶת בַּ֖ד יִצְנֹ֑ף
בִּגְדֵי־קֹ֣דֶשׁ הֵ֔ם וְרָחַ֥ץ בַּמַּ֛יִם אֶת־בְּשָׂר֖וֹ וּלְבֵשָֽׁם
4 A coat of holy linen he will be clothed with, and breeches of linen will be on his flesh, and with a waistband of linen he will be attired, and with a turban of linen as his head-dress.
Garments of holiness they are, so he will wash in water his flesh, and put on the clothing.
3d 4B 32
16
וּמֵאֵ֗ת עֲדַת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יִקַּ֛ח שְׁנֵֽי־שְׂעִירֵ֥י עִזִּ֖ים לְחַטָּ֑את
וְאַ֥יִל אֶחָ֖ד לְעֹלָֽה
5 And from the assembly of the children of Israel, he will take two kids of the she-goats for a sin offering,
and one ram for a burnt offering.
3d 4B 22
8
וְהִקְרִ֧יב אַהֲרֹ֛ן אֶת־פַּ֥ר הַחַטָּ֖את אֲשֶׁר־ל֑וֹ
וְכִפֶּ֥ר בַּעֲד֖וֹ וּבְעַ֥ד בֵּיתֽוֹ
6 And Aaron will make oblation of the young bull of the sin offering that is for himself,
and he will make a cover-price for himself and for his house.
3c 4A 14
10
וְלָקַ֖ח אֶת־שְׁנֵ֣י הַשְּׂעִירִ֑ם
וְהֶעֱמִ֤יד אֹתָם֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה פֶּ֖תַח אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵֽד
7 And he will take the two kids,
and install them in the presence of Yahweh, the door of the tent of engagement.
3e 4C 9
16
וְנָתַ֧ן אַהֲרֹ֛ן עַל־שְׁנֵ֥י הַשְּׂעִירִ֖ם גּוֹרָל֑וֹת
גּוֹרָ֤ל אֶחָד֙ לַיהוָ֔ה וְגוֹרָ֥ל אֶחָ֖ד לַעֲזָאזֵֽל
8 And Aaron will assign lots over both the kids,
the lot of one for Yahweh, and the lot of the other to be the scapegoat.
3c 4C 15
15
וְהִקְרִ֤יב אַהֲרֹן֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂעִ֔יר אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָלָ֥ה עָלָ֛יו הַגּוֹרָ֖ל לַיהוָ֑ה
וְעָשָׂ֖הוּ חַטָּֽאת
9 And Aaron will bring near the kid on which the lot came up for Yahweh,
and he will make it the sin offering.
3d 4C 21
6
וְהַשָּׂעִ֗יר אֲשֶׁר֩ עָלָ֨ה עָלָ֤יו הַגּוֹרָל֙ לַעֲזָאזֵ֔ל יָֽעֳמַד־חַ֛י לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה לְכַפֵּ֣ר עָלָ֑יו
לְשַׁלַּ֥ח אֹת֛וֹ לַעֲזָאזֵ֖ל הַמִּדְבָּֽרָה
10 And the kid for which the lot came up to be the scapegoat, will stand alive in the presence of Yahweh, a cover-price over him,
to send him out as the scapegoat towards the wilderness.
3d 4C 30
13
וְהִקְרִ֨יב אַהֲרֹ֜ן אֶת־פַּ֤ר הַֽחַטָּאת֙ אֲשֶׁר־ל֔וֹ וְכִפֶּ֥ר בַּֽעֲד֖וֹ וּבְעַ֣ד בֵּית֑וֹ
וְשָׁחַ֛ט אֶת־פַּ֥ר הַֽחַטָּ֖את אֲשֶׁר־לֽוֹ
11 And Aaron will bring near the young bull of the sin offering that is for himself, and he will make a cover-price for himself and for his house,
and he will butcher the young bull of the sin offering that is for himself.
3d 4C 24
11
וְלָקַ֣ח מְלֹֽא־הַ֠מַּחְתָּה גַּֽחֲלֵי־אֵ֞שׁ מֵעַ֤ל הַמִּזְבֵּ֙חַ֙ מִלִּפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וּמְלֹ֣א חָפְנָ֔יו קְטֹ֥רֶת סַמִּ֖ים דַּקָּ֑ה
וְהֵבִ֖יא מִבֵּ֥ית לַפָּרֹֽכֶת
12 And he will take the censer full of coals of fire from the altar from the presence of Yahweh, and his fists full of incense of sweet spices, finely ground,
then he will enter the house of the veil.
3e 4C 33
9
וְנָתַ֧ן אֶֽת־הַקְּטֹ֛רֶת עַל־הָאֵ֖שׁ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
וְכִסָּ֣ה ׀ עֲנַ֣ן הַקְּטֹ֗רֶת אֶת־הַכַּפֹּ֛רֶת אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הָעֵד֖וּת וְלֹ֥א יָמֽוּת
13 And he will assign the incense onto the fire in the presence of Yahweh,
and the cloud of incense will cover the ark-cover that is above the testimony, and he will not die.
3c 4B 14
23
וְלָקַח֙ מִדַּ֣ם הַפָּ֔ר וְהִזָּ֧ה בְאֶצְבָּע֛וֹ עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הַכַּפֹּ֖רֶת קֵ֑דְמָה
וְלִפְנֵ֣י הַכַּפֹּ֗רֶת יַזֶּ֧ה שֶֽׁבַע־פְּעָמִ֛ים מִן־הַדָּ֖ם בְּאֶצְבָּעֽוֹ
14 And he will take of the blood of the young bull, and spatter with his finger on the face of the ark-cover eastward,
and on the face of the ark-cover he will spatter seven times from the blood with his finger.
3c 4B 23
21
וְשָׁחַ֞ט אֶת־שְׂעִ֤יר הַֽחַטָּאת֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לָעָ֔ם וְהֵבִיא֙ אֶת־דָּמ֔וֹ אֶל־מִבֵּ֖ית לַפָּרֹ֑כֶת
וְעָשָׂ֣ה אֶת־דָּמ֗וֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשָׂה֙ לְדַ֣ם הַפָּ֔ר וְהִזָּ֥ה אֹת֛וֹ עַל־הַכַּפֹּ֖רֶת וְלִפְנֵ֥י הַכַּפֹּֽרֶת
15 And he will butcher the kid of the sin offering that is for the people, and he will bring its blood to the house of the veil.
And he will do with its blood as he did for the blood of the young bull, and spatter it above the ark-cover, and on the face of the ark-cover
3d 4C 26
32
וְכִפֶּ֣ר עַל־הַקֹּ֗דֶשׁ מִטֻּמְאֹת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּמִפִּשְׁעֵיהֶ֖ם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָ֑ם
וְכֵ֤ן יַעֲשֶׂה֙ לְאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֔ד הַשֹּׁכֵ֣ן אִתָּ֔ם בְּת֖וֹךְ טֻמְאֹתָֽם
16 And he will make a cover-price for the sanctuary from the defilement of the children of Israel, and from their transgressions, for all their sin,.
And so he will do for the tent of engagement, the dwelling-place with them in the midst of their defilement.
3e 4C 25
20
וְכָל־אָדָ֞ם לֹא־יִהְיֶ֣ה ׀ בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֗ד בְּבֹא֛וֹ לְכַפֵּ֥ר בַּקֹּ֖דֶשׁ עַד־צֵאת֑וֹ
וְכִפֶּ֤ר בַּעֲדוֹ֙ וּבְעַ֣ד בֵּית֔וֹ וּבְעַ֖ד כָּל־קְהַ֥ל יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
17 And no human will be in the tent of engagement when he enters to make a cover-price, into the sanctuary, until he emerges,
and has made the cover-price concerning himself, and concerning his house, and concerning all the congregation of Israel.
3d 4C 23
18
וְיָצָ֗א אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֛חַ אֲשֶׁ֥ר לִפְנֵֽי־יְהוָ֖ה וְכִפֶּ֣ר עָלָ֑יו
וְלָקַ֞ח מִדַּ֤ם הַפָּר֙ וּמִדַּ֣ם הַשָּׂעִ֔יר וְנָתַ֛ן עַל־קַרְנ֥וֹת הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ סָבִֽיב
18 And he will come forth to the altar that is before Yahweh, and make a cover-price for it,
so he will take from the blood of the young bull, and from the blood of the kid, and he will show the gift over the horns of the altar round about.
3d 4C 20
25
וְהִזָּ֨ה עָלָ֧יו מִן־הַדָּ֛ם בְּאֶצְבָּע֖וֹ שֶׁ֣בַע פְּעָמִ֑ים
וְטִהֲר֣וֹ וְקִדְּשׁ֔וֹ מִטֻּמְאֹ֖ת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
19 And he will spatter above it from the blood with his finger seven times,
and cleanse it and sanctify it from the defilement of the children of Israel.
3c 4B 17
15
וְכִלָּה֙ מִכַּפֵּ֣ר אֶת־הַקֹּ֔דֶשׁ וְאֶת־אֹ֥הֶל מוֹעֵ֖ד וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּ֑חַ
וְהִקְרִ֖יב אֶת־הַשָּׂעִ֥יר הֶחָֽי
20 And having finished making a cover-price for the sanctuary, and the tent of engagement, and the altar,
he will bring near the kid, the living one.
3e 4B 22
9
וְסָמַ֨ךְ אַהֲרֹ֜ן אֶת־שְׁתֵּ֣י יָדָ֗יו עַ֨ל רֹ֣אשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר֮ הַחַי֒ וְהִתְוַדָּ֣ה עָלָ֗יו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹת֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאֶת־כָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיהֶ֖ם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָ֑ם
וְנָתַ֤ן אֹתָם֙ עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ הַשָּׂעִ֔יר וְשִׁלַּ֛ח בְּיַד־אִ֥ישׁ עִתִּ֖י הַמִּדְבָּֽרָה
21 And Aaron will support his two hands over the head of the kid, the living one, and confess over it all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, for all their sin,
and he will assign them to the head of the kid, and dismiss, by the hand of a timely representative, towards the wilderness.
3d 4C 45
22
וְנָשָׂ֨א הַשָּׂעִ֥יר עָלָ֛יו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹתָ֖ם אֶל־אֶ֣רֶץ גְּזֵרָ֑ה
וְשִׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־הַשָּׂעִ֖יר בַּמִּדְבָּֽר
22 So the kid will bear upon itself all their iniquities to a land adjudicated,
and he will send out the kid in the wilderness.
3d 4B 20
10
וּבָ֤א אַהֲרֹן֙ אֶל־אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֔ד וּפָשַׁט֙ אֶת־בִּגְדֵ֣י הַבָּ֔ד אֲשֶׁ֥ר לָבַ֖שׁ בְּבֹא֣וֹ אֶל־הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ
וְהִנִּיחָ֖ם שָֽׁם
23 And Aaron will enter into the tent of engagement, and strip off the garments of the linen that he put on when he came into the sanctuary,
and leave them there.
3e 4C 28
5
וְרָחַ֨ץ אֶת־בְּשָׂר֤וֹ בַמַּ֙יִם֙ בְּמָק֣וֹם קָד֔וֹשׁ וְלָבַ֖שׁ אֶת־בְּגָדָ֑יו
וְיָצָ֗א וְעָשָׂ֤ה אֶת־עֹֽלָתוֹ֙ וְאֶת־עֹלַ֣ת הָעָ֔ם וְכִפֶּ֥ר בַּעֲד֖וֹ וּבְעַ֥ד הָעָֽם
24 And he will wash his flesh in water in the holy place, and put on his garments, and he will come forth,
and he will make his burnt offering and the burnt offerings of the people, and he will make a cover-price for himself and for the people.
3e 4C 21
26
וְאֵ֛ת חֵ֥לֶב הַֽחַטָּ֖את יַקְטִ֥יר הַמִּזְבֵּֽחָה 25 And the gross fat of the sin offering he will make smoke toward the altar. 3d 3g 13
וְהַֽמְשַׁלֵּ֤חַ אֶת־הַשָּׂעִיר֙ לַֽעֲזָאזֵ֔ל יְכַבֵּ֣ס בְּגָדָ֔יו וְרָחַ֥ץ אֶת־בְּשָׂר֖וֹ בַּמָּ֑יִם
וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵ֖ן יָב֥וֹא אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
26 And the one who sent out the kid to be the scapegoat will scour his garments and will wash his flesh in water,
and after such, he will come into the camp.
3e 4C 29
12
וְאֵת֩ פַּ֨ר הַֽחַטָּ֜את וְאֵ֣ת ׀ שְׂעִ֣יר הַֽחַטָּ֗את אֲשֶׁ֨ר הוּבָ֤א אֶת־דָּמָם֙ לְכַפֵּ֣ר בַּקֹּ֔דֶשׁ יוֹצִ֖יא אֶל־מִח֣וּץ לַֽמַּחֲנֶ֑ה
וְשָׂרְפ֣וּ בָאֵ֔שׁ אֶת־עֹרֹתָ֥ם וְאֶת־בְּשָׂרָ֖ם וְאֶת־פִּרְשָֽׁם
27 And the young bull of the sin offering, and the kid of the sin offering, whose blood was brought in to make a cover-price in the sanctuary, will be brought forth outside the camp,
and they will incinerate in fire their skins and their flesh and their manure.
3e 4C 35
18
וְהַשֹּׂרֵ֣ף אֹתָ֔ם יְכַבֵּ֣ס בְּגָדָ֔יו וְרָחַ֥ץ אֶת־בְּשָׂר֖וֹ בַּמָּ֑יִם
וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵ֖ן יָב֥וֹא אֶל־הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
28 And the one who incinerates them will scour his garments and will wash his flesh in water,
and after such he will come into the camp.
3e 4B 22
12
וְהָיְתָ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם לְחֻקַּ֣ת עוֹלָ֑ם
בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַ֠שְּׁבִיעִי בֶּֽעָשׂ֨וֹר לַחֹ֜דֶשׁ תְּעַנּ֣וּ אֶת־נַפְשֹֽׁתֵיכֶ֗ם וְכָל־מְלָאכָה֙ לֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֔וּ הָֽאֶזְרָ֔ח וְהַגֵּ֖ר הַגָּ֥ר בְּתוֹכְכֶֽם
29 And it will be for you for a statute forever.
In the seventh month, on the tenth of the month, you will afflict yourselves, and any line of work you will not do, the native born, or the guest residing in your midst.
3e 4B 10
40
כִּֽי־בַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֛ה יְכַפֵּ֥ר עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם לְטַהֵ֣ר אֶתְכֶ֑ם
מִכֹּל֙ חַטֹּ֣אתֵיכֶ֔ם לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה תִּטְהָֽרוּ
30 For on this day a cover-price is over you, to cleanse you.
From all your sins, in the presence of Yahweh, you will be clean.
3d 4B 15
13
שַׁבַּ֨ת שַׁבָּת֥וֹן הִיא֙ לָכֶ֔ם וְעִנִּיתֶ֖ם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶ֑ם
חֻקַּ֖ת עוֹלָֽם
31 A Sabbath of Sabbaths she is for you, and you will afflict yourselves,
a statute forever.
3e 4A 17
4
וְכִפֶּ֨ר הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֲשֶׁר־יִמְשַׁ֣ח אֹת֗וֹ וַאֲשֶׁ֤ר יְמַלֵּא֙ אֶת־יָד֔וֹ לְכַהֵ֖ן תַּ֣חַת אָבִ֑יו
וְלָבַ֛שׁ אֶת־בִּגְדֵ֥י הַבָּ֖ד בִּגְדֵ֥י הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ
32 And the priest will make a cover-price, him whom he will anoint and whose hand he will fill to be priest instead of his father,
and he will put on the garments of linen, the garments of the sanctuary.
3d 4C 28
13
וְכִפֶּר֙ אֶת־מִקְדַּ֣שׁ הַקֹּ֔דֶשׁ וְאֶת־אֹ֧הֶל מוֹעֵ֛ד וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ יְכַפֵּ֑ר
וְעַ֧ל הַכֹּהֲנִ֛ים וְעַל־כָּל־עַ֥ם הַקָּהָ֖ל יְכַפֵּֽר
33 And he will make a cover-price for the holy sanctuary. And for the tent of engagement the altar, he will make a cover-price.
And over the priests and over all the people of the congregation, he will make a cover-price.
3c 4B 24
16
וְהָֽיְתָה־זֹּ֨את לָכֶ֜ם לְחֻקַּ֣ת עוֹלָ֗ם לְכַפֵּ֞ר עַל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִכָּל־חַטֹּאתָ֔ם אַחַ֖ת בַּשָּׁנָ֑ה
וַיַּ֕עַשׂ כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־מֹשֶֽׁה
34 And this will be for you for a statute forever, to make a cover-price over the children of Israel from all their sin once per year.
And he did as Yahweh commanded Moses.
3d 4C 30
13